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USGS Water Resources Applications Software: OTIS

Additional OTIS Related Information

This page contains a set of links to various online resources. These resources include publications related to transient storage, stream tracer applications, and the development of OTIS.

Note: For additional publications, see the "Applications" section of this Web Site and the "References" section of the OTIS documentation. Access to journal articles may be restricted to site visitors with personal or institutional subscriptions to the specific journals. Access to PDF files (Adobe Reader Icon) requires Adobe Reader or an alternate PDF viewer.

Reading lists: Transient Storage & Tracer Techniques

The following reading lists are provided courtesy of Ken Bencala:

Transient Storage Reader 1
Essential references for starting an application of the transient storage concept

Transient Storage Reader 2
A comprehensive reading list on the transient storage concept and related hyporheic zone processes

Analytic solutions to transient storage models
A comprehensive reading list on analytical solutions for transport equations with transient storage

Standard Methods for Stream Tracer Injection Studies
A list of publications of USGS standard methods for stream tracer injection studies

Bromide Stream Tracer Reference List
A reference list for the use of bromide as a stream tracer

Lithium Stream Tracer Reference List
A reference list for the use of lithium as a stream tracer

Rhodamine WT Reader
Readings on the reactivity and transport characteristics of the Rhodamine WT tracer

Mining-Related Stream Transport Simulation Reader
Applications of OTEQ, OTIS, and Transient Storage for Metals, Cations, and Acidic Streams

Applications of the Transient Storage Model that pre-date OTIS

Bencala, K.E., 1983,
Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-rifle stream with kinetic mass transfer model for sorption: Water Resources Research, v. 19, no. 3, p. 732-738, doi:10.1029/WR019i003p00732

Bencala, K.E., and Walters, R.A., 1983,
Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-rifle stream: a transient storage model: Water Resource Research, v. 19, no. 3, p. 718-724, doi:10.1029/WR019i003p00718

Bencala, K.E., 1984,
Interactions of solutes and streambed sediment - Part 2. A dynamic analysis of coupled hydrologic and chemical processes that determine solute transport: Water Resources Research, v. 20, p. 1804-1814, doi:10.1029/WR020i012p01804

Bencala, K.E., 1985,
Performance of sodium as a transport tracer - experimental and simulation analysis: Selected papers in the Hydrologic Sciences, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2270, p. 83-89.

Bencala, K.E., McKnight, D.M., and Zellweger, G.W., 1990,
Characterization of transport in an acidic and metal-rich mountain stream based on a lithium tracer injection and simulations of transient storage: Water Resources Research, v. 26, p. 989-1000, doi:10.1029/WR026i005p00989

Broshears, R.E., Bencala, K.E., Kimball, B.A., and McKnight, D.M., 1993,
Tracer-dilution experiments and solute-transport simulations for a mountain stream, Saint Kevin Gulch, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigation Report, 92-4081, 18 p.

Parameter Estimation via Nonlinear Regression (OTIS-P)

OTIS-P uses the nonlinear regression routines from STARPAC to obtain parameter estimates. Wagner and Gorelick (1986) present an early application of this approach.

Donaldson, J.R. and Tryon, P.V., 1990,
User's guide to STARPAC the standards time series and regression package: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Internal Report NBSIR 86-3448

Wagner, B.J., and Gorelick, S.M., 1986,
A statistical methodology for estimating transport parameters - Theory and applications to one-dimensional advective-dispersive systems: Water Resources Research, v. 22, no. 8, p. 1303-1315, doi:10.1029/WR022i008p01303

Derivations, Equations, and Numerical Methods underlying the OTIS Solute Transport Model

The original OTIS documentation (Runkel and Broshears, 1991) included four appendices that described the equations underlying the model. These appendices have been updated to reflect the contents of the current documentation and are provided below. Additional information on the solution of the equations is provided by Runkel and Chapra (1993, 1994).

Appendix A:
Governing Differential Equations

Appendix B:
Finite Differences

Appendix C:
Crank-Nicolson Matrix Coefficients

Appendix D:
Steady State Matrix Coefficients

Runkel, R.L. and R.E. Broshears, 1991,
One dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS): A solute transport model for small streams: Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems, Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Technical Report 91-01, 85 p.

Runkel, R.L. and Chapra, S.C., 1993,
An efficient numerical solution of the transient storage equations for solute transport in small streams: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 1, p. 211-215, doi:10.1029/92WR02217

Runkel, R.L. and Chapra, S.C., 1994,
Reply to "Comment on An efficient numerical solution of the transient storage equations for solute transport in small streams by Dawes and Short": Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 10, p. 2863-2865, doi:10.1029/94WR00986

Median Traveltime & Nutrient Uptake

Runkel (2002) describes Fmed, a metric to quantify transient storage; Runkel (2007) describes an approach to quantify nutrient uptake.

Runkel, R.L., 2002,
A new metric for determining the importance of transient storage: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v. 21, no. 4, p. 529-543

Runkel, R.L., 2007,
Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, v. 5, p. 50-62
Abstract | PDF

The Advection-Dispersion Equation

Runkel, R.L. and Bencala, K.E., 1995,
Chapter 5: Transport of reacting solutes in rivers and streams, in Singh, V.P., ed., Environmental Hydrology: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 137-164

Runkel, R.L., 1996,
Solution to the advection-dispersion equation: Continuous Load of Finite Duration: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 122, no. 9, p. 830-832, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1996)122:9(830)


Runkel, R.L., 1995,
Simulation models for conservative and nonconservative solute transport in streams, in Osterkamp, W.R., ed., Effects of scale on interpretation and management of sediment and water quality -- proceedings of the 1995 meeting of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Boulder, Colorado, July 3-14, 1995: IAHS publication no. 226, p 153-159

Runkel, R.L., Bencala, K.E., and Kimball B.A., 1999,
Modeling solute transport and geochemistry in streams and rivers using OTIS and OTEQ, Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A.

Runkel R.L., McKnight, D.M., and Rajaram, H., 2003,
Modeling hyporheic zone processes: Advances in Water Resources, v. 26, no. 9, p. 901-905, doi:10.1016/S0309-1708(03)00079-4

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