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U.S. Geological Survey
Artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings
Sacramento, California
April 2-4, 2002

George R. Aiken and Eve L. Kuniansky, editors

U.S. Geological Survey
Open-File Report 02-89
April, 2002

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The Office of Groundwater sponsored an interdisciplinary National Artificial Recharge Workshop April 2-4, 2002 in Sacramento, California.   Artificial Recharge includes: recharge enhancement structures or infiltration enhancement; aquifer storage and recovery; or any injection of surface water into aquifers.  The broad purposes of the workshop were to assess what we know about the major issues and identify promising future scientific directions for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in artificial recharge.  The agenda for the meeting included the following sessions with invited speakers and panelests: 

  •   Artificial Recharge Systems - Current Use, Challenges and Limitations
  •   Flow-System Analysis, Geologic Controls, Hydraulics, and Optimization
  •   Organic Geochemical Interactions
  •   Inorganic Geochemical Interactions
  •   Microbiology
  •   Artificial Recharge Systems - Information Needs to Expand Opportunities

A poster session was held in order to provide a less formal environment for discussions with USGS scientists involved in artificial recharge related investigations.

The workshop was an excellent opportunity for scientists and managers within the USGS who are interested in artificial recharge to exchange information, hear from some of the prominent people working in the field, present their findings at the poster session, and help to develop the future directions of the USGS.

This proceedings volume is a compilation of papers from invited speakers and abstracts from participants of the poster session.   The proceedings volume serves as a useful reference for attendees of the workshop and for those unable to attend.

The following people served on the organizing committee for the workshop: George Aiken, Bill Alley, Ronnie Best, Devin Galloway, Carl Goodwin, Ron Harvey, Rick Healy, Brian Katz, Ken Kipp, Eve Kuniansky, Eric Reichard, Tom Reilly, and Bruce Wardlaw. 

The abstracts of USGS authors were reviewed and approved for publication by the U.S. Geological Survey.  Articles submitted by University researchers and other Agencies did not go through the USGS review process, and therefore may not adhere to USGS editorial requirements or stratigraphic nomenclature.  The use of trade names in any article does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.


Tuesday, April 2, 2002

7:00 AM


8:00 AM

Artificial Recharge Systems - Current Use, Challenges and Limitations(Chair - William Alley)


Workshop introductory remarks (15 minutes) - Michael Shulters (District Chief, Sacramento, CA)


Goals of the workshop (15 minutes) - William Alley (Chief, Office of Groundwater, Reston, VA)


Keynote Presentation (30 minutes) - Recharge and Water Management in California - Jonas Minton (Deputy Director, California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA)


Keynote Presentation (30 minutes) - Ronald Gastelum (President and CEO of Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA)

9:30 AM


10:00 AM

Artificial Recharge Systems - Current Use, Challenges and Limitations (continued)


Keynote Presentation  (30 minutes) - Current use, challenges, and limitations of alternative recharge techniques: Indirect water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater - Fred Rapach (Policy/Program Coordinator, Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department, Palm Beach County, FL)

10:30 AM

Flow-system analysis, geologic controls, hydraulics, and optimization (Chair - Rick Healy)


A historical overview of the role of the USGS in flow-system analysis of artificial recharge projects (30 minutes) - Ed Weeks (USGS, Denver, CO)


The role of unsaturated flow in artificial recharge projects (30 minutes) - Alan Flint (USGS, Sacramento, CA)

11:30 AM


1:00 PM

Flow-system analysis, geologic controls, hydraulics, and optimization (continued)


The role of saturated flow in artificial recharge projects  (30 minutes) - Steven Phillips (USGS, Sacramento, CA)


Modeling tools available for saturated and unsaturated flow-system analysis of artificial recharge projects (30 minutes)
Cliff Voss (USGS, Reston, VA)

2:00 PM

Organic geochemical interactions (Chair - Brian Bergamaschi)


Introduction: Organic matter in ground water (30 minutes) - George Aiken (USGS, Boulder, CO)


Processes controlling attenuation of dissolved organic matter in the subsurface  (30 minutes) - Jerry Leenheer (USGS, Denver, CO)

3:00 PM


3:20 PM

Organic geochemical interactions (continued)


The fate of disinfectant byproducts in the subsurface (30 minutes) - Colleen Rostad (USGS, Denver, CO)


The role of organic matter in the evolution of ground-water geochemistry (30 minutes) - Isabelle Cozzarelli (USGS, Reston, VA)


Long-term fate of micropollutants in the subsurface (30 minutes) - Larry Barber (USGS, Denver, CO)

4:50 PM

Panel Discussion on the 'Flow System Analysis Session' and the 'Organic Geochemical Interactions Session' (40 min) - Eric Reichard, Ed Weeks, and others

5:30 PM

End for the day

Wednesday April 3, 2002

8:00 AM

Inorganic Geochemical interactions (Chair - Carl Goodwin)


Geochemical approaches for artificial recharge projects (30 minutes) - David Parkhurst (USGS, Lakewood, CO)


Fate and transport of water-quality indicators in the central ground-water basin of Los Angeles County during 40 years of wastewater recharge (30 minutes) - Roy Schroeder (USGS, San Diego, CA)


Mobilization of arsenic and other trace elements during aquifer storage and recovery(30 minutes) - Jon Arthur (Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL)

9:30 AM


9:45 AM

Inorganic Geochemical interactions (continued)


Using chemical and isotopic tracers to assess hydraulic connections between shallow and deep aquifers in areas intended for aquifer storage and recovery (30 minutes) - John Izbicki (USGS, San Diego, CA)


Scientific uncertainties regarding regional-scale feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)  (30 minutes) - Carl R. Goodwin (USGS, Tallahassee, FL)


Panel Discussion (40 min) - David Parkhurst, Jon Arthur, Carl Goodwin, and Brian Katz

11:25 AM


1:00 PM

Microbiology (Chair - Tom Byl)


Clogging  -- "Why do bacteria colonize aquifer surfaces? Geochemical and nutrient controls of bacterial colonization of grain or rock surfaces"  (30 minutes) - Jennifer Roberts Rogers (University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS)


Fate & transport -- "Fate & transport of bacterial, viruses, and protozoan pathogens during ASR operations - What are the microorganisms that we need to worry about and why?"  (30 minutes) - David Metge (USGS, Boulder, CO)


Pathogen detection -- "Who's who at the zoo - Identifying and counting the microbial 'bad guys' of ASR"  (30 minutes) - Dale Griffin (USGS, St. Petersburg, FL)

2:30 PM


2:45 PM

Microbiology (continued)


Microbial degradation of organics -- "Microbial strategies for degradation of organic contaminants in karst - How do they do it and what would change as a result of ASR operations?"  (30 minutes) - Tom Byl (USGS, Nashville, TN)


Microbial transformations of metals and metalloids -- "Bacteria that mettle with metals: How do they affect mobility and toxicity of metals and metalloids and how might this be affected by ASR operations?"  (30 minutes) - Ron Oremland (USGS, Menlo Park, CA)


Panel Discussion 4 to 5 members (40 min)

4:25 PM

POSTER SESSION (Chair - Eve Kuniansky)

6:30 PM

End for the day

Thursday, April 4, 2002

8:30 AM

Artificial recharge systems - Information needs to expand opportunities (Chair - William Alley)


Keynote Presentation (30 minutes) - Carl Hauge (Chief Hydrogeologist, California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA)


Keynote Presentation (30 minutes) - TBD


Keynote Presentation (30 minutes) - Planning for the Future of New York City's Water Supply System Using Artificial Recharge in the Coastal Plain Aquifers - Donald K. Cohen (Senior Hydrogeologist, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., Jackson Heights, NY)

10:00 AM


10:30 AM

Artificial recharge systems - Information needs to expand opportunities (continued)


Synthesis of workshop - Priority research needs {5-10 minutes synthesis resulting from each major session and discussion} (60 minutes)

  • Flow-system analysis, geologic controls, hydraulics, and optimization - Thomas Reilly
  • Organic geochemical interactions - George Aiken
  • Inorganic geochemical interactions - Brian Katz
  • Microbiology - Ron Harvey
  • Artificial recharge systems - Ronnie Best
  • Poster session - Eve Kuniansky
  • Discussion

11:30 AM

Closure - William Alley

In George R. Aiken and Eve L. Kuniansky, editors, 2002, U.S. Geological Survey Artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, April 2-4, 2002: USGS Open-File Report 02-89

The use of firm, trade, and brand names in this report is for identification purposes only and does not consitute endorsement by the U.S. Government.

For additonal information write to:

Regional Hydrologist
Southeast Regional Office
3850 Holcomb Bridge Road
Suite 160
Norcross, GA 30092

Copies of this report can be purchased from:

U.S. Geological Survey
Branch of Information Services
Denver Federal Center
Box 25286
Denver, CO 80225-0286

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