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Summary of selected computer programs produced by the U.S. Geological Survey for simulation of ground-water flow and quality - 1994

U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1104

by C.A. Appel and T.E. Reilly



  • Two-dimensional finite difference (Trescott, Pinder, and Larson, 1976)
    • Direct matrix-solver using D4 node ordering (Larson, 1978)
    • Conjugate-gradient matrix solver (Manteuffel, Grove, and Konikow, 1983)
    • Approximate surface-water interaction (Ozbilgin and Dickerman, 1984)
    • Head-dependent flux procedure along model boundary (Hutchinson, Johnson, and Gerhart, 1981)
  • Two-dimensional finite element, steady state (Kuniansky, 1990)
  • Two-dimensional finite element Galerkin (including river accounting procedure) (Dunlap, Lindgren, and Carr, 1984)
  • Two-dimensional finite element (kinematic equation representing river flows) (Glover, 1988)
  • Two-dimensional finite element (including transient leakage effects) (Cooley, 1992; Torak, 1993a, b)
  • Cylindrical coordinates (Finite-element Galerkin) (Reilly, 1984)
    • Pre- and post-processor (Pucci and Pope, 1987)
  • Axisymmetric finite difference (well bore/aquifer) (Rutledge, 1991)
  • Two-aquifer system (Finite-element Galerkin) (Mallory, 1979)
  • Quasi-three dimensional aquifer system (Finite difference) (Weeks, 1978)
  • Three-dimensional finite difference (Bredehoeft, 1992)
  • Three-dimensional finite difference (Trescott, l975; Trescott and Larson, 1976)
    • Include head-dependent sources/sinks (Torak, 1982)
    • Include conversion from confined to unconfined flow, recharge to any layer, and other modifications (Helgesen, Larson, and Razem, 1982)
    • Include transient leakage in confining layers and added program to compute sensitivity of parameter changes (Torak and Whiteman, 1982)
    • Include transient leakage from confining layers, change method of handling confining-bed and aquifer pinchouts, reduce computer memory needed (Leahy, 1982)
    • Approximate land subsidence induced by pumping (Meyer and Carr, 1979)
  • Three-dimensional finite difference (include transient leakage from confining layers, "cube" input capability) (Posson and others, 1980)
    • Improve treatment of boundaries, revise code to run on CRAY-1 computer (Hearne, 1982)
  • Three-dimensional finite-difference (McDonald and Harbaugh, l988)
    • Preconditioned conjugate gradient matrix solvers (Kuiper, 1987)
    • Statistical processor (Scott, 1990)
    • Read and write geographical information system (GIS) files (Orzol and McGrath, 1992)
    • Calculation of water budgets (Harbaugh, 1990)
    • Aquifer compaction (Leake and Prudic, 1991)
    • River routing and accounting (Miller, 1988)
    • Handling narrow canyons and faults and layer pinchouts (Hansen, 1993)
    • Stream-aquifer relations (Prudic, 1989)
    • Calculation of pathlines (Pollock, 1989, 1990)
    • PCG2 -- Preconditioned conjugate-gradient matrix solver 2 (Hill, 1990)
    • Parameter estimation (Hill, 1992)
    • Generalized finite-difference formulation (Harbaugh, 1992)
    • Cylindrical flow to a well (Reilly and Harbaugh, 1993b)
    • Alternative of different interblock transmissivity conceptualizations (Goode and Appel, 1992)
    • Simulate horizontal-flow barriers (Hsieh and Freckleton, 1993)
    • Rewetting dry cells (McDonald, and others, 1992)
    • Simulate transient leakage from confining units (Leake, Leahy, and Navoy, in press)
  • Two-dimensional--parameter estimation (Cooley and Naff, 1990)
  • Coupled ground-water and surface-water flow (Swain and Wexler, 1993)
    • Flexibility in representing surface water system (Swain, 1993)
  • Soil moisture accounting program coupled to a two-dimensional unconfined-confined aquifer system (Reed, Bedinger, and Terry, 1976)

Flow--Variably saturated:

  • Two-dimensional (Lappala, Healy, and Weeks, 1987)
    • Simulation of trickle irrigation (Healy, 1987)
  • Two-dimensional diffusion (Ishii, Healy, and Striegl, 1989)

Solute transport--Saturated:

  • One-dimensional finite-difference method (equilibrium-controlled sorption and irreversible-rate reaction) (Grove and Stollenwerk, 1984)
  • Two-dimensional method of characteristics (advective transport, dispersion, and decay and equilibrium-controlled sorption or ion exchange) Konikow and Bredehoeft, 1978; Goode and Konikow, 1989)
    • Front tracking (advective transport only) (Garabedian and Konikow, 1983)
    • Two constituent solute transport, including density-dependent flow (Stanford and Konikow, 1985)
  • Two-dimensional finite-element Galerkin method (advective transport, dispersion, sorption, ion exchange, equilibrium chemistry) (Lewis, Voss, and Rubin, 1986)
  • Dual porosity flow and transport (nonreactive advective transport and dispersion in fractures, diffusion between fractures and rock) (Glover, 1987)

Solute transport--Variably saturated:

  • Two-dimensional (Healy, 1990)

Solute and heat transport--Saturated:

  • INTERCOMP -- Three-dimensional finite-difference method (INTERCOMP, 1976)
    • Include water table, recharge, equilibrium controlled adsorption and
      irreversible-rate reaction (INTERA, 1979)
  • Three-dimensional finite-difference method (Kipp, l987)

Flow--Saturated freshwater/saltwater:

  • Two-dimensional areal (Sharp interface) (Mercer, Larson, and Faust, 1980)
  • AQUIFEM-SALT -- Two-dimensional areal (Sharp interface) (Voss, 1984b)
  • Three-dimensional (Sharp interface) (Guswa and LeBlanc, 1985)
  • Three-dimensional (Sharp interface) (Sapik, 1988)
  • Three-dimensional (Sharp interface) (Essaid, 1990)
  • Three-dimensional (Variable density) (Weiss, 1982)
  • Three-dimensional (Variable density) (Kuiper, 1985)
  • Three-dimensional (Variable density and multiaquifer wells) (Kontis and Mandle, 1988)

Heat transport:

  • Two-dimensional single-and two-phase (Faust and Mercer, 1977)
  • Two-dimensional single phase (liquid) (Mercer and Pinder, 1975)
  • Three-dimensional (single phase-liquid) (Reed, 1985)
  • Three-dimensional (multiphase) (Hayba and Ingebritsen, 1994)

Solute or heat transport--Saturated and unsaturated:

  • Two-dimensional finite-element Galerkin method (fluid-density dependent advective transport, dispersion, equilibrium controlled adsorption, zero-order production or decay) (Voss, 1984a)

Aquifer management:

  • Two-dimensional saturated flow (Lefkoff and Gorelick, 1987)
  • Three-dimensional saturated flow (Puig and Rolon-Collazo, 1996)

Chemical mass balance:

  • Mass balance and electron conservation (Any elements, specified phases) (Parkhurst, Plummer, and Thorstenson, 1982)
  • Characterization of natural waters (Bodine and Jones, 1986)
  • Mass balance reaction models satisfying specified constraints (Plummer, Prestemon, and Parkhurst, 1991)

Aqueous speciation:

  • Speciation of major and some minor elements in 0-100 °C temperature range (Truesdell and Jones, 1973, 1974)
    • FORTRAN IV version (Plummer, Jones, and Truesdell, 1976; revised, 1984)
    • Expands thermodynamic data base and adds trace elements (Ball, Nordstrom, and Jenne, 1980)
    • Adds uranium (Ball, Jenne, and Cantrell, 1981)
    • Expanded personal computer, FORTRAN version of WATEQ4F (Ball and Nordstrom, 1991)

Chemical mass transfer:

  • System CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-CO2-H2SO4-HCl-H2O (Plummer, Parkhurst, and Kosiur, 1975)
  • PHREEQE -- Mineral and water/gas interactions at low temperatures (Subject to thermodynamic constraints--any elements, specified phases) (Parkhurst, Thorstenson, and Plummer, 1980; revised, 1990)
    • Interactive program for forming data input (Fleming and Plummer, 1983)
    • Incorporate Pitzer's equations for brines (Plummer and others, 1988)
  • Speciation of major and many minor elements with mineral and water interactions in 0-350 °C temperature range (Kharaka and Barnes, 1973)
    • SOLIMNEQ.88 -- Updated program (Kharaka and others, 1988)
    • SOLINPUT -- Processor to create and modify input (DeBraal and Kharaka, 1989)
  • Nonideal solid-solution aqueous-solution reactions (Glynn, 1991a)

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