Water Resources Applications Software

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Summary of HSPF

       hspf - Hydrological Simulation Program--Fortran

       HSPF simulates for extended periods of time the hydrologic, and
       associated water quality, processes on pervious and impervious land
       surfaces and in streams and well-mixed impoundments.

       HSPF uses continuous rainfall and other meteorologic records to
       compute streamflow hydrographs and pollutographs.  HSPF simulates
       interception soil moisture, surface runoff, interflow, base flow,
       snowpack depth and water content, snowmelt, evapotranspiration,
       ground-water recharge, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand
       (BOD), temperature, pesticides, conservatives, fecal coliforms,
       sediment detachment and transport, sediment routing by particle
       size, channel routing, reservoir routing, constituent routing, pH,
       ammonia, nitrite-nitrate, organic nitrogen, orthophosphate, organic
       phosphorus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton.  Program can simulate
       one or many pervious or impervious unit areas discharging to one or
       many river reaches or reservoirs.  Frequency-duration analysis can
       be done for any time series.  Any time step from 1 minute to 1 day
       that divides equally into 1 day can be used.  Any period from a few
       minutes to hundreds of years may be simulated.  HSPF is generally
       used to assess the effects of land-use change, reservoir operations,
       point or nonpoint source treatment alternatives, flow diversions,
       etc.  Programs, available separately, support data preprocessing and
       postprocessing for statistical and graphical analysis of data saved
       to the Watershed Data Management (WDM) file.

       The model contains hundreds of process algorithms developed from
       theory, laboratory experiments, and empirical relations from
       instrumented watersheds.

       The model was developed in the early 1960's as the Stanford
       Watershed Model.  In the 1970's, water-quality processes were added.
       Development of a Fortran version incorporating several related
       models using software engineering design and development concepts
       was funded by the Athens, Ga., Research Lab of EPA in the late
       1970's.  In the 1980's, preprocessing and postprocessing software,
       algorithm enhancements, and use of the USGS WDM system were
       developed jointly by the USGS and EPA.  The current release is
       Version 11.  An interactive version (see HSPEXP) was developed by
       the USGS in the 1990's.

       Meteorologic records of precipitation and estimates of potential
       evapotranspiration are required for watershed simulation.  Air
       temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind, and solar radiation are
       required for snowmelt.  Air temperature, wind, solar radiation,
       humidity, cloud cover, tillage practices, point sources, and (or)
       pesticide applications may be required for water-quality simulation.
       Physical measurements and related parameters are required to
       describe the land area, channels, and reservoirs.

       Output is either printed tables at any time step, a flat file, or
       the WDM file.  The postprocessing software uses data from the WDM
       file.  Hundreds of computed time series may be selected for the
       output files.

       HSPF is written in Fortran 77 with the following extension: use of
       include files.  The HSPF, HSPNODSS, WDM, ADWDM, and UTIL libraries
       from LIB are required to recompile. For more information, see System
       Requirements in LIB.

       There have been hundreds of applications of HSPF all over the world.
       The largest application is the 62,000 square mile tributary area to
       the Chesapeake Bay.  The smallest application has been experimental
       plots of a few acres near Watkinsville, Ga.  The most significant
       applications within the USGS have been in the Seattle area, Chicago
       area, Patuxent River, Md., Truckee-Carson Basins, Nev., and
       watersheds in Pennsylvania.

       Bicknell, B.R., Imhoff, J.C., Kittle, J.L., Jr., Donigian, A.S.,
          Jr., and Johanson, R.C., 1997, Hydrological Simulation
          Program--Fortran:  User's manual for version 11: U.S.
          Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research
          Laboratory, Athens, Ga., EPA/600/R-97/080, 755 p.

       Flynn, K.M., Hummel, P.R., Lumb, A.M., and Kittle, J.L., Jr., 1995,
          User's manual for ANNIE, version 2, a computer program for
          interactive hydrologic data management:  U.S. Geological Survey
          Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4085, 211 p.

       Dinicola, R.S., 1990, Characterization and simulation of rainfall-
          runoff relations for headwater basins in western King and
          Snohomish Counties, Washington:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-
          Resources Investigations Report 89-4052, 52 p.

       Donigian, A.S., Jr., Imhoff, J.C., Bicknell, Brian, Kittle, J.L.,
          Jr., 1984, Application guide for Hydrological Simulation
          Program--Fortran (HSPF): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
          Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, Ga., EPA-600/3-84-065,
          177 p.

       Johanson, R.C., Imhoff, J.D., and Davis, H.H., Jr., 1980, Users
          manual for hydrological simulation program - Fortran (HSPF):
          Environmental Research Laboratory, EPA-600/9-80-015, Athens, Ga.,
          April 1980.
       Watershed Systems Modeling I (SW2008TC), offered annually at the
       USGS National Training Center.

       Watershed Systems Modeling II (SW3018TC), offered upon request at
       the USGS National Training Center.

       River Basin Water-Quality Modeling (ID2146TC), offered annually at
       the USGS National Training Center.

       Occasionally, EPA, Aqua Terra Consultants, and Hydrocomp, Inc.,
       offer training courses.

       Operation and Distribution:
          U.S. Geological Survey
          Hydrologic Analysis Software Support Program
          437 National Center
          Reston, VA 20192

       Official versions of U.S. Geological Survey water-resources analysis
       software are available for electronic retrieval via the World Wide
       Web (WWW) at:


       and via anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) from:

         (path: /pub/software).

       The WWW page and anonymous FTP directory from which the HSPF
       software can be retrieved are, respectively:


       annie(1) - Program to list, table, plot data in a WDM file
       dr3m(1) - Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model
                 --version II
       dr3m-qual - Multi-event urban runoff quality model
       hspexp(1) - Expert system for calibration of HSPF
       iowdm(1) - Program to store time-series data in a WDM file
       prms(1) - Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

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