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Reconnaissance of 17ß -Estradiol, 11-Ketotestosterone, Vitellogenin, and Gonad Histopathology in Common Carp of United States Streams: Potential for Contaminant-Induced Endocrine Disruption

By Steven L. Goodbred, Robert J. Gilliom, Timothy S. Gross, Nancy P. Denslow, Wade L. Bryant, and Trenton R. Schoeb

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-627


ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS DISCUSSION SUMMARY
REFERENCES

APPENDIX A. Characteristics and Biomarker Values of Individual Male Adult Carp
APPENDIX B. Characteristics and Biomarker Values of Individual Female Adult Carp

FIGURES

  1. Map showing locations of sites sampled in relation to National Water Quality Assessment study units and regions used for data analysis
  2. Photomicrographs (7) showing state of sexual maturation in female and male adult carp
  3. Photomicrograph of male adult carp gonad showing evidence of hermaphroditism

    4-6. Graphs showing:

  4. Significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants for male adult carp
  5. Significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants for female adult carp
  6. Correlations of the 17ß-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone (E2/11-KT) ratio with dissolved pesticide concentrations for male and female adult carp

TABLES

  1. Study sites and basin land-use characteristics
  2. Characteristics of female and male adult carp sampled
  3. Organochlorine pesticides analyzed in fish tissue samples
  4. PAHs, phenols, and phthalates analyzed in bed sediment samples
  5. Dissolved pesticides analyzed in water samples
  6. Summary of sex steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels in blood plasma of male and female adult carp
  7. Contaminant levels at study sites
  8. Pearson product-moment correlation matrix of contaminant groups
  9. Principal component analysis of tissue and bed sediment contaminants
  10. Pearson product-moment correlations between biomarkers and contaminant groups for male adult carp
  11. Pearson product-moment correlations between biomarkers and contaminant groups for female adult carp
  12. Summary of analyses of correlations between biomarkers and contaminants for male and female adult carp

CONVERSION FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS
---------------------------------------------------------------
        Multiply	      By	       To Obtain
---------------------------------------------------------------
	centimeter	    0.3937	   inch 
	gram    	    0.03527	   ounce, avoirdupois
	kilogram	    2.205	   pound, avoirdupois
	square kilometer    0.3861	   square mile
	liter	            33.82	   ounce, fluid
	milliliter	    0.061024       cubic inches
	millimeter	    0.03937	   inch
---------------------------------------------------------------

Temperature is given in degrees Celsius (C), which can be converted 
to degrees Fahrenheit (F) by the following equation:

                   F = 1.8(C) + 32.



Abbreviations                     Acronyms
cm, centimeter                    ANCOVA, analysis of covariance
dw, dry weight                    ANOVA, analysis of variance
g, gram                           E2/11-KT, ratio of 17b-estradiol to 
                                   11-ketotestosterone
in., inch                         ELISA, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
kg, kilogram                      GIRAS, Geographic Information Retrieval 
                                   and Analysis System
km2, square kilometer             HSD, Tukey's studentized range test
L, liter                          NAWQA, National Water Quality Assessment
mg, milligram                     NWQL, National Water Quality Laboratory
mg/mL, milligram per milliliter   PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
mL, milliliter                    PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls
mm, millimeter                    RIA, radioimmunoassay
ng, nanogram                      STP, sewage treatment plants
nm, nanometer                     TBST, tris-buffered saline Tween
pg, picogram
pg/mL, picogram per milliliter
ww, wet weight
µ, microgram
µ/kg, microgram per kilogram
µ/L, microgram per liter
µ/mL, microgram per milliliter
µ/well, microgram per well
µL, microliter
µ, micrometer

Contributing U.S. Geological Survey Staff

Copies of this report are available from:

The price of the paper copy is $7.75; microfiche is $4.00

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