Two input files are necessary to run DAFLOW with MODFLOW. One file is identical to the input file needed to run DAFLOW alone. It defines the physical system to be modeled, specifies model options used for the simulation, and contains the boundary conditions as a function of time. In DAFLOW without MODFLOW, this file must be named flow.in, and throughout this report, it will be referred to as the flow.in file. But in the coupled version of DAFLOW and MODFLOW, this file can have any name. The name of the flow.in file is specified in the MODFLOW name file. The MODFLOW name file specifies all of the files used in a MODFLOW simulation. One line is used for each file, and this line consists of the file type, file unit, and file name. The file type for the flow.in file must be DAF. For example, the following line indicates that the flow.in file will be named test.inf:
DAF 42 test.inf .
The information contained in flow.in is divided into three data groups: (1) general information, (2) branch information, and (3) boundary conditions.
Table 1 is a summary description of the input data records as required in the file flow.in.

The first data group consists of nine records that define parameters to control the simulation.






1


Title of simulation
TITLE  The title is specified as any combination of letters, symbols, or numbers of up to 80 characters in length. It will be printed in the output file for identification purposes but otherwise is not used. The remaining lines of the general information are read as formatted input so it is important that the numbers be placed in columns 21 to 30.


A80

2

1

Number of branches
NBRCH and NJNCT  The number of branches is self evident and only the number of interior junctions, not total junctions, is input as the third record. An interior junction is one that connects two or more branches.


20X,I10

3

1

Number of interior junctions
NBRCH and NJNCT  The number of branches is self evident and only the number of interior junctions, not total junctions, is input as the third record. An interior junction is one that connects two or more branches.


20X,I10

4

1

Number of time steps to be modeled
NHR  The number of time steps in the simulation is calculated as the duration of the simulation divided by the SW timestep size, expressed in hours.


20X,I10

5

1

Number of time steps between midnight and the start of the simulation
JTS The time reference for the simulation is midnight of the first day of the simulation. This is specified to the model as the number of time steps from midnight to the start of the simulation. For example, if the simulation is to begin at 06:00 hours and the timestep size is 0.5 hours, the value specified for JTS is 6 divided by 0.5, which equals 12 time steps.


20X,I10

6

1

Number of time steps between printouts in FLOW.OUT
JGO The printout frequency is specified in terms of the number of time steps between printouts. For example, if tabular flow information is desired every 3 hours and the timestep size is 0.5 hours, the value of JGO is specified as 3 divided by 0.5, which equals 6 time steps.


20X,I10

7

1

Input units [0 = metric (length unit is meters except for river miles), 1 = English (length unit is feet except river miles)]. Make IENG consistent with LENUNI.
IENG  The length units are specified as either 1 = English (ft) or 0 = metric (meter), except that the distance to node points (specified in data group 2) is input as either miles or kilometers.


20X,I10

8

1

Timestep size in hours
DT The timestep size is input in hours. DAFLOW uses an iterative solution scheme, such that its solutions must converge to a given tolerance.


20X,F10.3

9

1

Maximum discharge of interest (“peak discharge”), discharge below QP/100000.0 will be considered to be zero
QP  DAFLOW assumes that discharges (cubic feet or meter per second), differences in discharges, and water volumes divided by the timestep size, which are less than a tolerance, to be insignificant (nearly zero). The model calculates the tolerance from a given “peak” discharge divided by 100,000. This peak discharge should be larger than the maximum discharge expected during the simulation. It follows that the accuracy of the model results can be no better than this tolerance value. If the tolerance value is set too small, the program may not converge because the tolerance is smaller than the roundoff error of flows carried in computer memory.


20X,F10.0

Data group two consists of two types of records: (1) branch record, (2) node/subreach records.






1

1

Number of nodes (cross sections) in branch N
NXSEC, PF, JNCU, and JNCD  The branch record specifies the number of nodes (cross sections) in the branch, the fraction of flow at the upstream junction that enters the branch, and the upstream and downstream junction numbers. When more than one branch originates at a junction, the water that enters the junction is split between these outgoing branches. This is specified to the model as the fraction of flow to enter the branch. For example, if two branches receive equal amounts of flow from the junction, this value should be specified as 0.5 for each branch. If only one branch receives flow from a junction (the most common case), this value is specified as 1.0.


13X,I3

1

2

Fraction of flow at upstream junction to enter branch N
NXSEC, PF, JNCU, and JNCD  The branch record specifies the number of nodes (cross sections) in the branch, the fraction of flow at the upstream junction that enters the branch, and the upstream and downstream junction numbers. When more than one branch originates at a junction, the water that enters the junction is split between these outgoing branches. This is specified to the model as the fraction of flow to enter the branch. For example, if two branches receive equal amounts of flow from the junction, this value should be specified as 0.5 for each branch. If only one branch receives flow from a junction (the most common case), this value is specified as 1.0.


16X,F5.2

1

3

Junction number at upstream end of branch N
NXSEC, PF, JNCU, and JNCD  The branch record specifies the number of nodes (cross sections) in the branch, the fraction of flow at the upstream junction that enters the branch, and the upstream and downstream junction numbers. When more than one branch originates at a junction, the water that enters the junction is split between these outgoing branches. This is specified to the model as the fraction of flow to enter the branch. For example, if two branches receive equal amounts of flow from the junction, this value should be specified as 0.5 for each branch. If only one branch receives flow from a junction (the most common case), this value is specified as 1.0.


16X,I3

1

4

Junction number at downstream end of branch N
NXSEC, PF, JNCU, and JNCD  The branch record specifies the number of nodes (cross sections) in the branch, the fraction of flow at the upstream junction that enters the branch, and the upstream and downstream junction numbers. When more than one branch originates at a junction, the water that enters the junction is split between these outgoing branches. This is specified to the model as the fraction of flow to enter the branch. For example, if two branches receive equal amounts of flow from the junction, this value should be specified as 0.5 for each branch. If only one branch receives flow from a junction (the most common case), this value is specified as 1.0.


8X,I3

2

1

Header A header line follows the branch information to define the columns of data for the nodes or subreaches. The model ignores this line so it could be simply a blank line.



3

1

Node of data in record
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


I3

3

2

Distance of node I of branch N from reference point in miles
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


G11.4

3

3

Output flag (equal 1 if output in BLTM.OUT is desired for this node, 0 otherwise)
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


I2

3

4

Initial flow in subreach I (between node I and I+1)
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


G11.4

3

5

Constant A1 in equation 3 for subreach I
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


G10.3

3

6

Constant A2 in equation 3 for subreach I
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


G10.3

3

7

Constant A0 in equation 3 for subreach I
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


G10.3

3

8

Bed slope of subreach, in ft/ft or m/m
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


G10.3

3

9

Constant W1 in equation 4 for subreach I
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


F7.1

3

10

Constant W2 in equation 4 for subreach I
I, X, IOUT, F, A1, A2, A0, SL, W1, and W2  The node records define the node number, location of the node in miles or kilometers, an output flag, for each node and the initial flow, hydraulicgeometry parameters and slope for each subreach. The hydraulicgeometry exponents are independent of the system of units, but the hydraulicgeometry coefficients are dependent upon the units used. The number of noderecords input must equal the number specified on the branch record. Node records are input in sequence starting with the node 1, at the upstream end of the branch. The node location is specified as the distance to the cross section from a reference point at or above the upstream end of the branch. The initial discharge, slope, and all coefficients apply to the subreach extending from the node for which it is specified to the next node downstream. For example, the value of A1 input for node 1 applies to the subreach extending from node 1 to node 2. Because there is no subreach downstream of the last node, only the river mile and output flag needs to be specified for the last node. The model is based on the assumption that tributaries enter the stream just upstream of the node. The initial discharge for subreach I, therefore, should include the effect of the tributary flow at node I. The output flag (IOUT) specifies whether or not the flow information for the node is to be printed in the output file. The data at each node is read as a freefield format, so it is not necessary to keep the numbers in any particular column or even to line them up. It is necessary that at least one blank space separate each number and that a number be available for each variable. Exponential formats (see slope) are acceptable. The formats shown in Table 1 are used if the file is created interactively using the program BDAFLOW (Jobson, 1989).


F7.6

Boundary conditions must represent the average flow during the time step. For example, the first boundary condition should represent the average flow between time 0 and the end of the first time step. For the first time step, all boundary conditions should be entered because DAFLOW assumes all unspecified boundary conditions to be zero. After the first time step, however, DAFLOW assumes all boundary conditions remain constant unless specifically changed. The third data group is used to input boundary conditions and consists of two types of records.






1

1

Number of new boundary conditions to be input for this time step
NBC The first record for each time step specifies the number of boundary conditions that have changed for this time step (NBC). A line for each boundary condition that has changed must follow. For example, if NBC=0, no records are required but if NBC = 5, five records must follow.


18X,I3

2

1

Branch number for new boundary condition
N, I, and TRB  The second type of record specifies the branch number, node number, and flow for the changed boundary condition. Data group 3 must be input for each time step of the simulation. The first record is always required, whereas the second record is only required if one or more boundary conditions are changed.


10X,I3

2

2

Node number for new boundary condition
N, I, and TRB  The second type of record specifies the branch number, node number, and flow for the changed boundary condition. Data group 3 must be input for each time step of the simulation. The first record is always required, whereas the second record is only required if one or more boundary conditions are changed.


5X,I3

2

3

New boundary flow for branch N, node I
N, I, and TRB  The second type of record specifies the branch number, node number, and flow for the changed boundary condition. Data group 3 must be input for each time step of the simulation. The first record is always required, whereas the second record is only required if one or more boundary conditions are changed.


3X,G14.5

Example input "flow.in" for example shown in figure 2
2 No. of Branches 3 *
3 No. of Internal 1 * Junctions
4 No. Time Steps 5 * Modeled
5 Model Starts 0 time steps after midnight.
6 Output Given Every 1 Time Steps in "flow.out"
7 0=Metric,1=Englis 1 *
8 Time Step Size 1.000 Hours.
9 Peak Discharge 100000. *
Branch 1 has 9 xsects & routes 1.00 of flow at JNCT 2 To JNCT 1
Grd Mi/Km IOUT Disch A1 A2 AO Slope W1 W2
1 0.0000 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
2 0.7000 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
3 1.500 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
4 1.600 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
5 2.400 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
6 2.500 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
7 3.000 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
8 3.150 0 5000. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.800E03 50.0 0.260
9 3.160 0
Branch 2 has 8 xsects & routes 1.00 of flow at JNCT 3 To JNCT 1
Grd R Mile IOUT Disch A1 A2 AO Slope W1 W2
1 3.000 0 50.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
2 3.400 0 50.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
3 4.000 0 50.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
4 4.600 1 25.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
5 5.500 0 25.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
6 6.000 0 25.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
7 6.490 0 25.00 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.150E02 50.0 0.260
8 6.500 0
Branch 3 has 8 xsects & routes 1.00 of flow at JNCT 1 To JNCT 4
Grd R Mile IOUT Disch A1 A2 AO Slope W1 W2
1 6.500 0 5025. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
2 7.000 0 5025. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
3 7.800 0 5025. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
4 8.300 0 5050. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
5 8.900 0 5050. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
6 9.500 0 5050. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
7 10.40 1 5050. 7.00 0.660 0.000 0.700E03 50.0 0.260
8 11.00 0
for Time 1 NBC= 4 *
Branch 1 Node 1 Q= 5000.0 *
Branch 2 Node 1 Q= 50.000 *
Branch 2 Node 4 Q= 25.000 *
Branch 3 Node 4 Q= 25.000 *
for Time 2 NBC= 1 *
Branch 1 Node 1 Q= 50000. *
for Time 3 NBC= 0 *
for Time 4 NBC= 2 *
Branch 1 Node 1 Q= 5000.0 *
Branch 2 Node 4 Q= 0.00000 *
for Time 5 NBC= 0 *

