Shih, J.S., R.B. Alexander, R.A. Smith, E.W. Boyer, G.E. Schwarz, and S. Chung, 2010, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010—1276, An Initial SPARROW Model of Land Use and In-Stream Controls on Total Organic Carbon in Streams of the Conterminous United States, 22 p.
Brakebill, J.W., S.W. Ator, and Schwarz, G.E., 2010, Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed: A regional application of the SPARROW model, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 46, 757-776. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00450.x
Hoos , A.B. and G. McMahon, 2009, Spatial analysis of instream nitrogen loads and factors controlling nitrogen delivery to streams in the southeastern United States using Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) and regional classification frameworks, Hydrological Processes, v. 23, 2275-2294. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7323
Robertson , D.M., Schwarz, G.E., Saad, D.A., and Alexander, R.B., 2009, Incorporating uncertainty into the ranking of SPARROW model nutrient yields from Mississippi/Atchafalaya River basin watersheds, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 42, 534-549. [Supporting information: phosphorus , nitrogen]
Preston, S.D., Alexander, R.B., Woodside, M.D., and Hamilton, P.A., SPARROW MODELING--Enhancing Understanding of the Nation's Water Quality, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3019, 6 p.
Alexander, R.B., Böhlke, J.K., Boyer, E.W., David, M.B., Harvey, J.W., Mulholland, P.J., Seitzinger, S.P., Tobias, C.R., Tonitto, C., and Wollheim, W.M., 2009 Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes, Biogeochemistry, 93,1/2, 91-116. DOI:10.1007/s110533-008-9274-8 (Special Issue: New Approaches to Modeling Denitrification)
Harrison, J.A., Maranger, R.J., Alexander, R.B., Giblin, A.E., Jacinthe, P.A., Mayorga, E., Seitzinger, S.P., Sobata, D.J., and Wollheim, W.M., 2009, The regional and global significance of nitrogen removal in lakes and reservoirs, Biogeochemistry, 93, 1/2, 143-157. DOI:10.1007/s10533-008-9272-x (Special Issue: New Approaches to Modeling Denitrification)
Böhlke, J.K., Antweiler, R.C., Harvey, J.W., Laursen, A.E., Smith, L.K., Smith, R.L., and Voytek, M.A., 2009, Multi-scale measurements and modeling of denitrification in streams with varying flow and nitrate concentration in the upper Mississippi River basin, USA, Biogeochemistry, 93,1/2, 117-141. DOI:10.1007/s10533-008-9282-8 (Special Issue: New Approaches to Modeling Denitrification)
Schwarz, G.E., 2008, A Preliminary SPARROW model of suspended sediment for the conterminous United States, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008–1205, 8 p.
Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., Boyer, E.W., Nolan, J.V., and Brakebill, J.W., 2008, Differences in phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River Basin, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 3, 822-830. DOI:10.1021/es0716103
Alexander, R.B., Boyer, E.W., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Moore, R.B., 2007, The role of headwater streams
in downstream water quality, Journal Amer. Water Resources Assoc. 43, 41-59.
(Abstract, PDF, HTML )
JAWRA Featured Collection on Headwaters Hydrology
Scott, D., Harvey, J., Alexander, R., and G. Schwarz, 2007, Dominance of organic nitrogen from headwater streams to large rivers across the conterminous U.S., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB1003, DOI:10.1029/2006GB002730.
Anning, D.W., Bauch, N.J., Gerner, S.J., Flynn, M.E., Hamlin, S.N., Moore, S.J., Schaefer, D.H., Anderholm, S.K., and Spangler, L.E., 2007, Dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams in the southwestern United States, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5315.
Boyer, E.W., Alexander, R.B., Parton, W.J., Li, C., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Donner, S.D., Skaggs, R.W., and S.J. Del Grosso, 2006, Modeling denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at regional scales, Ecological Applications, 16, 2123-2142. (Invited Feature on Denitrification Across Landscapes and Waterscapes)
Schwarz, G.E., Hoos, A.B., Alexander, R.B., and R.A. Smith, 2006, The SPARROW surface water-quality model: Theory, application, and user documentation, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 6, Chapter B3.
Alexander, R.B., and R.A. Smith, 2006, Trends in the nutrient enrichment of U.S. rivers during the late 20th century and their relation to changes in probable stream trophic conditions, Limnology and Oceanography, 51, 639-654. (L&O special issue on Eutrophication of Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems)
Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., and Schwarz, G.E., 2006, Comment on "In-stream nitrogen attenuation: Model-aggregation effects and implications for coastal nitrogen impacts", Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 2485-6.
Elliott, A.H., Alexander, R.B., Schwarz, G.E., Shankar U., Sukias, J.P.S., McBride, G.B., 2005, Estimation of nutrient sources and transport for New Zealand using the hybrid physical-statistical model SPARROW, New Zealand Journal of Hydrology, 44, 1-27.
Moore, R.B., Johnston, C.M., Robinson, K.W., and Deacon, J.R., 2004, Estimation of total nitrogen and phosphorus in New England streams using spatially referenced regression models, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5012.
Ierardi, M.C., R.B. Alexander, G.E. Schwarz, and R.A. Smith, 2004, SPARROW-WEB: A graphical interactive system for displaying reach-level water-resource information for rivers of the conterminous United States, Proceedings of the AWRA Spring Specialty Conference, Geographic Information Systems and Water Resources III, Nashville, Tennessee, May 17-19, 2004.
Brakebill, J.W., and Preston, S.E., 2004, Digital data used to relate nutrient inputs to water quality in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Version 3.0, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1433
Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., and Schwarz, G.E., 2004, Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model, Water Science and Technology, 49, 1-10 (Article PDF).
Smith, R.A., Alexander, R.B., and Schwarz, G.E., 2003, Estimating the natural background concentrations of nutrients in streams and rivers of the conterminous United States, Environ. Sci. Tech., 37, 3039-3047 (Article; Supporting Information; Data for Fig. 7).
McMahon, G., Alexander, R.B., Qian, S., 2003, Support of TMDL programs using spatially referenced regression models, ASCE Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 129, 315-329. (Special Issue TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management)
Brakebill, J.W., and Preston, S.E., 2003, A hydrologic network supporting spatially referenced regression modeling in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Environ. Mon. Assess., 81, 73-84.
Alexander, R.B., Elliott, A.H., Shankar, U., and McBride, G.B., 2002, Estimating the sources and transport of nutrients in the Waikato River Basin, New Zealand, Water Resources Research, 38, 1268-1290.
Alexander, R.B., Johnes, P.J., Boyer, E.W., and Smith, R.A., 2002, A comparison of models for estimating the riverine export of nitrogen from large watersheds, Biogeochemistry, 57/58, 295-339. (Biogeochemistry Special Issue on The Nitrogen Cycle at Regional to Global Scales)
Seitzinger, S.P., Styles, R.V., Boyer, E.W., Alexander, R.B., Billen, G., Howarth, R.W., Mayer, B., and van Breemen, N., 2002, Nitrogen retention in rivers: Model development and application to watersheds in the eastern United States, Biogeochemistry, 57/58.
McMahon, G, and Roessler, C., 2002, A regression-based approach to understand baseline total nitrogen loading for TMDL planning, Proceedings of Water Environment Federation National TMDL Science and Policy Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, November 13-16, 2002 (Article PDF).
Nolan, J.V., Brakebill, J.W., Alexander, R.B., and Schwarz, G.E., 2002, Enhanced River Reach File 2, (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-40, Reston, Virginia).
Sauer, T.J., Alexander, R.B., Brahana, J.V., and R.A. Smith, 2001, The importance and role of watersheds in the transport of nitrogen, in Nitrogen in the environment: Sources, problems, and management, Follett, R.F. and J.L. Hatfield (eds.) Elsevier Science Publishers, the Netherlands.
Schwarz, G.E., Smith, R.A., Alexander, R.B., and Gray, J.R., 2001, A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S., in U.S. Subcommittee on Sedimentation, Proceedings of the Seventh Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, March 25-29, 2001, Reno, Nevada USA, pp. VII-80-7.
Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A. Schwarz, G.E., Preston, S.D., Brakebill, J.W., Srinivasan, R., and Pacheco, P.A., 2001, Atmospheric Nitrogen Flux from the Watersheds of Major Estuaries of the United States: An Application of the SPARROW Watershed Model, In: Nitrogen Loading in Coastal Water Bodies: An Atmospheric Perspective, American Geophysical Union Monograph 57, Richard Valigura, Richard Alexander, Mark Castro, Tilden Meyers, Hans Paerl, Paul Stacey, and R. Eugene Turner (eds.) pp. 119-170.
Stacey, P.E., Greening, H.S., Kremer, J.N., Peterson, D., and Tomasko, D.A., 2001, Contributions of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to U.S. Estuaries: Summary and Conclusions, In: Nitrogen Loading in Coastal Water Bodies: An Atmospheric Perspective, American Geophysical Union Monograph 57, Richard Valigura, Richard Alexander, Mark Castro, Tilden Meyers, Hans Paerl, Paul Stacey, and R. Eugene Turner (eds.).
Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., and Schwarz, G.E., 2000, Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico, Nature, 403, 758-761.
Smith, R.A. and Alexander, R.B., 2000, Sources of Nutrients in the Nation's Watersheds In: Managing Nutrients and Pathogens from Animal Agriculture, Proceedings from the Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service Conference for Nutrient Management Consultants, Extension Educators, and Producer Advisors March 28-30, 2000, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania
Alexander, R.B., Brakebill, J.W., Brew, R.E., and Richard A. Smith, 1999, ERF1—Enhanced River Reach File 1.2 (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-457, Reston, Virginia).
Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., Focazio, M.J., and Horn, M.A., 1999, Source-Area Characteristics of Large Public Surface-Water Supplies in the Conterminous United States: An Information Resource for Source-Water Assessment (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-248, Reston, Virginia).
Preston, S.D. and Brakebill, J.W., 1999, Application of Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling for the Evaluation of Total Nitrogen Loading in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 99-4054, Baltimore, Maryland).
Brakebill, J.W, and Preston, S.E., 1999, Digital Data Used to Relate Nutrient Inputs to Water Quality in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Version 1.0 (U.S. Geological Survey Water Open-File Report 99-60).
Brezonik, P.L. & V.J. Bierman, V.J. (co-chairs), R. Alexander, J. Anderson, J. Barko, M. Dortch, L. Hatch, D. Keeney, D. Mulla, V. Smith, C. Walker, T. Whitledge, and W. Wiseman (task group members), 1999, Effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters within the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico (Report of Task Group 4 to the White House Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, Hypoxia Work Group) Federal Register, 64, 23834-23835.
Alexander, R.B., Slack, J.R., Ludtke, A.S., Fitzgerald, K.K., and Schertz, T.L., 1998, Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water-Quality Monitoring Networks, Water Resources Research, 34, 9, 2401-2405.
Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Alexander, R.B., 1997, Regional interpretation of water-quality monitoring data , Water Resources Research, 33, 12, 2781-2798.
Alexander, R.B., Slack, J.R., Ludtke, A.S., Fitzgerald, K.K., and Schertz, T.L., 1996, Data from Selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water-Quality Monitoring Networks (WQN) (U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series—DDS 37, Reston, Virginia).
Alexander, R.B., Murdoch, P.S., and Smith, R.A., 1996, Streamflow-induced variations in nitrate flux in tributaries to the Atlantic Coastal Zone, Biogeochemistry, 33, 149-177.
Schwarz, G.E. and Alexander, R.B., 1995, State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base for the Conterminous United States (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-449, Reston, Virginia).
Smith, R.A., Alexander, R.B., Tasker, G.D., Price, C.V., Robinson, K.W., and White, D.A., 1993, Statistical Modeling of Water Quality in Regional Watersheds (Proceeding of Watershed '93, A national conference on watershed management, Alexandria, Virginia, March 21-24, 1993, pp. 751-754)
White, D. A., Smith, R. A., Price, C. V., Alexander, R. B., and Robinson, K. W., 1992, A spatial model to aggregate point-source and nonpoint-source water-quality data over large areas, Computers and Geosciences, v. 18, no. 8, pp. 1055-1073.