USGS Groundwater Information
A Historical Overview of Hydrologic Studies of Artificial Recharge in the U.S. Geological Survey
By E.P. Weeks
An overview of artificial recharge studies requires a precise definition of the topic to be covered. Todd (1959) defines artificial recharge, for his bibliography, as "the practice of increasing by artificial means the amount of water that enters a ground-water reservoir." For this review, a narrower definition is invoked that includes direct recharge of potable water through spreading basins, pits, and injection or drainage wells, but excludes induced infiltration from wells, galleries, and collectors placed near streams. Deep well waste disposal and irrigation with sewage effluent as a recharge mechanism are not included. Literature reviews, except those used here, and papers that only mention artificial recharge as a solution to water-supply problems are also omitted. Sources of information for this review include Todd's (1959) bibliography of artificial recharge through 1954, Signor et al.'s (1970) bibliography for 1955-67, and the web-based Water Resources Abstracts for the period after 1967. Studies that have not resulted in citation by those sources, such as those summarized in administrative reports, are thus not included.
Early U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) interest in artificial recharge focused on the use of drainage wells to reclaim wetlands for agriculture, with reference to sites in Michigan, Georgia, Arkansas, and Minnesota (Horton, 1905; Crider, 1906; Fuller, 1911; Hall et al., 1911). Many of the drainage wells described in these studies failed due to clogging by sediment suspended in the drainage water. Drainage wells that recharged the Floridan aquifer, consisting of highly porous and permeable limestone were more successful, and Stringfield (1933, 1936) describes an extensive network of drainage wells in Orlando, Florida that recharged storm runoff and sewage to the Floridan aquifer. The hydrologic and water quality impacts of these drainage wells are described by Unklesbay and Cooper (1946). Drainage wells tapping highly fractured basalt aquifers were also successful. Stearns et al. (1938) and Stearns et al. (1939) describe the use of a pit and wells to drain surface water into basalts in the Snake River Plain of Idaho.
Significant interest developed during the 1930s, particularly in California and New York, in the use of artificial recharge to conserve or enhance ground-water storage. In California, artificial recharge of alluvial aquifers with storm runoff by use of spreading basins began about the turn of the century, and was a widespread practice by the 1930s. However, I found no record of USGS involvement in related studies during that period. In New York, water levels in a significant area of western Long Island had been drawn down below sea level by the early 1930's due to ground-water pumpage, much of it for air conditioning. The cool ground water was used to cool air in heat exchangers, and then often discharged to waste. Legislation passed in 1933 required that ground water pumped for air conditioning be recharged, either by well injection or through spreading basins. Hydrologic and temperature effects of this recharge were analyzed by Leggette and Brashears (1938), and by Brashears (1941, 1946). Artificial recharge to conserve water was also practiced in several municipalities in northern New Jersey, as described by Barksdale and DeBuchananne (1946).
After World War II, significant interest in artificial recharge developed within the USGS. Cederstrom (1947) conducted an experiment to store fresh water by well injection into a brackish aquifer in Virginia. Rorabaugh (1949) describes the use of well injection to replenish an alluvial aquifer near Louisville, Kentucky. Sniegocki (1953) proposed a study of injection-well recharge in the Grand Prairie region of Arkansas, a proposal that led to an extensive project to identify problems related to injection-well recharge, as described by Sniegocki et al. (1965) and in papers cited therein. Moulder and Frazor (1957) conducted interaquifer well injection experiments in the City of Amarillo, Texas well field. Cronin (1964) describes results of well injection of water that collects in the numerous playa lakes that dot the Southern High Plains in Texas. Hart (1958) inventoried artificial recharge practices at nine sites in Washington and Oregon, mostly by injection by wells tapping the Columbia River basalt aquifer, but also by spreading basins to recharge alluvium. Price (1961) evaluated the hydrologic effects of artificial recharge of Columbia River basalts by well injection conducted by personnel of the City of Walla Walla, Washington, and Foxworthy (1969) conducted a similar study for the City of Salem, Oregon. Brown (1963) describes effects of reinjection of ground water pumped for air conditioning on the hydrology of the Columbia River basalts in the City of Portland, Oregon.
In the late 1960s, separate considerations led to greatly increased interest in artificial recharge in the States of California, Texas, and New York, all of which heavily involved the USGS in artificial recharge studies. The California Water Plan was approved to import several million acre feet of water from northern to southern California each year, with the plan that much of the imported water be stored in the subsurface through artificial recharge. USGS personnel evaluated various sites for their potential for artificial recharge, and 16 papers describing these studies were prepared, including, as examples, Bloyd (1971), Schaefer and Warner (1975) and Hamlin (1987). These studies typically involved test drilling, and in some cases recharge experiments. A few later studies evaluated effects of ensuing artificial recharge operations (Muir and Coplen, 1981; Reichard and Meadows, 1991; Woolfenden and Kadhim, 1997). Interest in artificial recharge continues in California, as evidenced by the work of Steve Phillips and Alan Flint being discussed at this meeting.
A proposal to import water from the Mississippi River to the Southern High Plains of Texas, predicated on the presumed future availability of very inexpensive nuclear-reactor generated electrical power, resulted in political interest in artificial recharge in the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. As a result, a line item for artificial recharge studies was inserted in the USGS budget in 1967, renewed annually until about 1980. The High Plains Artificial Recharge Project, housed in Lubbock, Texas from 1967 to 1979, was implemented through this budget authority. During the project, the water importation scheme was recognized as being infeasible, and project emphasis changed to consider recharge of sediment-laden playa lake water. Several artificial-recharge experiments were conducted, results of which are presented by Brown et al. (1978) and Brown and Keys (1985). In addition to recharge in the Southern High Plains, recharge of the Hueco Bolson, the water supply for the City of El Paso, was investigated by Garza et al. (1980) and the results of a pilot artificial recharge project and ensuing recharge operations are discussed by White and Sladek (1990). Artificial recharge of the Evangeline aquifer in the Houston area as a means to alleviate subsidence is discussed by Garza (1977).
In New York, plans to convert many areas developed with wells and septic systems to municipal water supply and sewage treatment resulted in a strong interest in artificial recharge of tertiary treated waste water. Two substantial experimental recharge facilities were constructed, and USGS personnel were prominently involved in experiments at these sites. The Bay Park facility included a deep injection well that supported several experiments. Results of these experiments are described in Professional Paper 751A-F, as cited by Vecchioli et al. (1980). Other experiments were conducted at the Meadowbrook Artificial-Recharge Project Site in East Meadow, Nassau County, which includes 5 injection wells and 11 spreading basins. Results of experiments at the site are summarized by Schneider et al. (1987), and in papers cited therein.
Artificial recharge of storm runoff by use of spreading basins has been practiced on Long Island since the 1930s. Aronson and Seaburn (1974) evaluated the performance of the 2,124 spreading basins in existence on Long Island in 1969. Seaburn (1970) and Prill and Aaronson (1973) conducted detailed studies of the operations of three of these basins. Aronson et al. (1979) conducted a study to determine whether existing spreading basins for storm water recharge could serve the dual purpose of recharging treated sewage effluent. Prill et al. (1979) also constructed a spreading basin at the site of a water treatment plant in central Long Island for additional recharge experiments. Interest in artificial recharge in the New York City area continues, as indicated in Paul Misut's poster at this workshop.
In Florida, interest continued on the hydrologic (Kimrey and Fayard, 1984) and water-chemistry impacts (Schiner and German, 1983) of drainage wells in the Orlando area. Bradner (1996) has evaluated the hydrologic effects of closure of 23 out of 400 of these drainage wells. Interest has developed in the use of connector wells to recharge the deeper Floridan aquifer from the surficial alluvial aquifer. Hutchinson and Wilson (1974) evaluated effects of a single connector well, and Knochenmus (1975) of a connector well field. Watkins (1977) and Bush (1979) experimentally evaluated the performance of connector wells. Recharge of the Floridan aquifer with surface water also received study. Meyer (1974) considered the feasibility of using canal water to supplement the ground-water supply to a Navy well field. Tibbals and Frazee (1976) experimentally evaluated storage of fresh surface water in a brackish limestone aquifer, and Sinclair (1977) experimentally evaluated several mechanisms for recharging the Floridan aquifer. Hickey (1979) and Hickey and Barr (1979) evaluated surface water well-injection experiments at two sites. Sumner (1996) investigated the recharge of the surficial aquifer with tertiary treated effluent using spreading basins in Orlando. Interest in artificial recharge in Florida continues with interest in use of aquifer storage and recovery as an aid to recovery of the Everglades, described at this workshop in Bob Renken's poster.
Increased development of ground water for irrigation throughout the High Plains led to USGS involvement in artificial recharge studies in the states of Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, South Dakota, and North Dakota. Spreading-basin experiments were conducted by Gillespie and Slagle (1972), Gillespie et al. (1977) and Prill (1977) in Kansas; by Taylor (1975) and Emmons (1977) in Colorado; by Lichtler et al. (1980) in Nebraska; and by Sumner et al. (1991) in North Dakota. Lichtler et al. (1980) also conducted well recharge experiments. However, despite this intensive activity, the USGS has had only minimal involvement in the recently completed High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, involving artificial-recharge demonstration projects in each High Plains state, conducted under the leadership of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Carter, 1996). Other USGS studies associated with artificial recharge in the High Plains states include feasibility and modeling studies of artificial recharge of alluvial aquifers in the South Platte River basin, Colorado (Burns, 1980; 1984), and of alluvial aquifers in South Dakota (Koch, 1984; Emmons, 1987). Interest in artificial recharge in the High Plains continues, as indicated by the study of artificial recharge of the Equus beds in Kansas described at this workshop in Andy Zeigler's poster.
Artificial recharge of basalt aquifers in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho has received additional USGS attention since the 1960s. Norvitch et al. (1969) studied the feasibility of artificial recharge of the Snake River Plain basalt aquifer in Idaho, while Garrett and Longquist (1970) and Karlinger and Hansen (1983) have explored the possibility of artificial recharge of the Columbia River basalt aquifer.
Experiments involving storage of fresh water in brackish aquifers in coastal environments were conducted by Brown and Silvey (1977), enhancing the earlier work of Cederstrom (1947). Brown and Silvey report clogging due to the dispersion of sodic clays in the aquifer that can be stabilized by chemical pretreatment. Similar well-injection experiments are now being conducted in South Carolina, as will be described at this workshop by Dave Parkhurst and in a poster by Matt Petkewich.
Although USGS artificial recharge studies have been concentrated in a few states, they also have been conducted to a lesser extent throughout the country. Spreading-basin experiments were conducted in the Ship Creek alluvial fan near Anchorage, Alaska (Anderson, 1977), and hydrologic effects of the test were analyzed using a numerical model by Meyer and Patrick (1980). Water chemistry studies have been conducted at the site of a proposed spreading-basin artificial recharge project along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona (Tadayon, 1995). An experiment involving well injection of surface water into fractured limestone in West St. Paul, Minnesota was performed and analyzed by Reeder et al. (1976), and an experiment involving well injection into alluvium in Tucson, Arizona was performed and analyzed by Graham (1989). Augmented streambed recharge to alluvium in the Vicee Canyon near Carson City, Nevada was evaluated by Mauer and Fischer (1988). May (1985) explored the feasibility of injection-well recharge the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation in Atlantic City, New Jersey, using surface water from a local public supply. Hydrologic effects of long-term injection of surface water into the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer in Cape May County, New Jersy have been investigated by Lacombe (1996). Evaluations of the potential for artificial recharge were made for limestones in Puerto Rico by Heisel and Gonzales (1979), and for alluvium of the Carson Valley, Nevada by Mauer and Peltz (1994).
In conclusion, the USGS has played an active role in a variety of artificial recharge studies during all of the last century, with a peak in activities during the 1970s. Based on the number of current studies of artificial recharge to be described at this workshop, USGS investigations of artificial recharge, also known as aquifer storage and recovery, are continuing in good health in this century.
Historical references for artificial recharge studies in the U.S. Geological Survey
Anderson, G.S., 1977, Artificial recharge experiments on the Ship Creek alluvial fan, Anchorage, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 77-38, 39 p.
Aronson, D.A., and Seaburn, G.E., 1974, Appraisal of operating efficiency of recharge basins on Long Island, New York, in 1969: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2001-D, 22 p.
Aronson, D.A., Reilly, T.E., and Harbaugh, A.W., 1979, Use of storm-water basins for artificial recharge with reclaimed water, Nassau County, Long Island, New York--A hydraulic feasibility study: Long Island Water Resources Bulletin 11, 57 p.
Bloyd, R.M., 1971, Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1999-D, 37 p.
Bradner, L.A., 1996, Estimation of recharge through selected drainage wells and potential effects from well closure, Orange County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-316, 30 p.
Brashears, M.L., 1941, Ground-water temperature on Long Island, New York, as affected by recharge of warm water: Econ. Geology, v. 36, no. 8, p. 811-828.
_________,1946, Artificial recharge of ground water on Long Island, New York: Econ. Geology, v. 41, no. 5, p. 503- 516.
Brown, R.F., Signor, D.C., and Wood, W.W., 1978, Artificial ground-water recharge as a water-management technique on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico: Texas Department of Water Resources Report 220, 32 p.
Brown, R.F., and Keys, W.S., 1985, Effects of artificial recharge on an alluvial aquifer, Ogallala Formation, Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2251, 56 p.
Brown, S. G., 1963, Problems of utilizing ground water in the west-side business district of Portland, Oregon: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1619-O, 42 p.
Burns, A.W., 1980, Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial Recharge Project, Morgan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 80-46, 90 p.
Burns, A.W., 1984, Simulated effects of an artificial-recharge experiment near Proctor, Logan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4010, 17 p.
Bush, P.W., 1979, Connector well experiment to recharge the Floridan Aquifer, East Orange County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 78-73, 40 p.
Carter, J.M., 1996, Hydrologic data for 1994-96 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-555, 131 p.
Cederstrom, D.J., 1947, Artificial recharge of a brackish water well: Virginia Chamber Commerce, v. 14, no. 12, p. 31, 71-73.
Crider, A.F., 1906, Drainage of wet lands in Arkansas by wells: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 160, p. 54-58.
Cronin, J.G., 1964, A summary of the occurrence and development of ground water in the Southern High Plains of Texas with a section on artificial recharge studies by B.N. Meyers: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1693, 88 p.
Emmons, P.J., 1977, Artificial-recharge tests in upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Jimmy Camp Valley, and Fountain Valley, El Paso County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 77-11, 49 p.
_________, 1987, Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James Aquifers in the Aberdeen Area, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigation Report 87-4017, 33p.
Foxworthy, B.L., 1970, Hydrologic conditions and artificial recharge through a well in the Salem Heights area of Salem, Oregon: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1594-F, 56 p.
Fuller, M.L., 1911, Drainage by wells: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 258, p. 6-22.
Garrett, A.A., and Londquist, C.J., 1972, Feasibility of artificially recharging basalt aquifers in eastern Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 42 p.
Garza, Serge, 1977, Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-219, 82 p.
Garza, S., Weeks, E.P., and White, D.E., 1980, Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco Bolson with treated sewage effluent--Preliminary study of the northeast El Paso area, Texas: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-1106, 38 p.
Gillespie, J.B., and Slagle, S.E., 1972, Natural and artificial ground-water recharge, Wet Walnut Creek, central Kansas: Kansas Water Resources Board Bulletin no. 17, 94 p.
Gillespie, J.B., Hargadine, G.D., and Stough, M.J., 1977, Artificial-recharge experiments near Lakin, western Kansas: Kansas Water Resources Board Bulletin no. 20, 91 p.
Graham, D.D., 1989, Methodology, results, and significance of an unsaturated-zone tracer test at an artificial-recharge facility, Tucson, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4097, 28p.
Hall, C.W., Meinzer, O.E., and Fuller, M.L., 1911, Geology and underground waters of Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 256, 406 p.
Hamlin, S.N., 1987, Evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California--Phase 3: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4164, 17 p.
Hart, D.H., 1958, Artificial recharge to ground water in Oregon and Washington: U.S. Geological Survey open-file report, 55 p.
Heisel, J.E., and Gonzales, J.R., 1979, Water budget and hydraulic aspects of artificial recharge, south coast of Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 78-58, 102 p.
Hickey, J.J., 1979, Hydrogeologic data for the South Cross Bayou Subsurface-Injection Test Site, Pinellas County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-575, 87 p.
Hickey, J.J., and Barr, G.L., 1979, Hydrogeologic data for the Bear Creek Subsurface-Injection Test Site, St. Petersburg, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-853, 53 p.
Horton, R.E., 1905, The drainage of ponds into drilled wells: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 145, p. 30- 39.
Hutchinson, C.B., and Wilson, W.E., 1974, Evaluation of a proposed connector well, northeastern Desoto County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 74-5, 41 p.
Karlinger, M.R., and Hansen, A.J., 1983, Engineering economic analyses of artificial recharge in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 19, no. 6, p. 967-975
Kimrey, J.O., and Fayard, L.D., 1984, Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4021, 67 p.
Knochenmus, D.D., 1975, Hydrologic concepts of artificially recharging the Floridan Aquifer in eastern Orange County, Florida--A feasibility study: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigations no. 72, 36 p.
Koch, N.C., 1984, Effects of artificial recharge on the Big Sioux Aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4312, 8 p.
Lacombe, P.J., 1996, Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-313, 29 p.
Leggette, R.M., and Brashears, M.L., 1938, Ground water for air conditioning on Long Island, N.Y.: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 19, pt. 1, p. 412-418.
Lichtler, W.F., Stannard, D.I.,and Kouma, E., 1980, Investigation of artificial recharge of aquifers in Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 80-93, 112 p.
Maurer, D.K., and Fischer, J.M., 1988, Recharge to the Eagle Valley Groundwater Basin by augmented streamflow in Vicee Canyon, western Nevada: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4158, 66 p.
Maurer, D.K., and Peltz, L.A., 1994, Potential for, and possible effects of, artificial recharge in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report: 94-4126, 87 p.
May, J.E., 1985, Feasibility of Artificial Recharge in the Coastal Plain near Atlantic City, New Jersey, with Emphasis on the 800-Foot Sand of the Kirkwood Formation: : U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4063, 24 p.
Meyer, F.W., 1974, Availability of groundwater for the U.S. Navy well field near Florida City, Dade County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-014, 50 p.
Meyer, W., and Patrick, L, 1980, Effects of artificial-recharge experiments at Ship Creek alluvial fan on water levels at Spring Acres Subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-1284, 42 p.
Moulder, E.A., annd Frazor, D.R., 1958, Artificial recharge experiments at McDonald well Field, Amarillo, Texas: Texas Board of Water Engineers Bull. 5701, 34 p.
Muir, K.S., and Coplen, T.B., 1981, Tracing ground-water movement by using the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, upper Penitencia Creek alluvial fan, Santa Clara Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Water- Supply Paper 2075, 18 p.
Norvitch, R.F., Thomas, C.A., and Madison, R.J., 1969, Artificial recharge to the Snake Plain Aquifer in Idaho; An evaluation of potential and effect: Idaho Dep. Reclam. Water Information Bull. no.12, 59 p.
Price, C. E., 1961, Artificial recharge through a well tapping basalt aquifers, Walla Walla area, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1594-A, 33 p.
Prill, R.C., and Aaronson, D.B., 1973, Ponding-test procedure for assessing the infiltration capacity of storm-water basins, Nassau County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2049, 29 p.
Prill, R.C., Oaksford, E.T., and Potorti, J.E., 1979, A facility designed to monitor the unsaturated zone during infiltration of tertiary-treated sewage, Long Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 79-48, 14 p.
Prill, R. C., 1977, Movement of moisture in the unsaturated zone in a loess-mantled area, southwestern Kansas: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1021, 21 p.
Reichard, E.G., and Meadows, J.K., 1992, Evaluation of a ground-water flow and transport model of the Upper Coachella Valley, California: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4142, 101 p.
Reeder, H.O., Wood, W.W., Ehrlich, G.G., and Sun, R.J., 1976, Artificial recharge through a well in fissured carbonate rock, West St. Paul, Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2004, 80 p.
Rorabaugh, M.I, 1949, Progress report on the ground-water resources of the Louisville area, Kentucky, 1945-49: City of Louisville and Jefferson County, Kentucky (dupl. report), 64 p.
Schaefer, D.H., and Warner, J.W., 1975, Artificial recharge in the upper Santa Ana River area, San Bernardino County, California: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 75-15, 27 p.
Schiner, G.R.and German, E.R., 1983, Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando Area, central Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 82- 4094, 124 p.
Schneider, B.J., Ku, H.F.H., and Oaksford, E.T., 1987, Hydrologic effects of artificial-recharge experiments with reclaimed water at East Meadow, Long Island, New York: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4323, 79 p.
Seaburn, G.E., 1970, Preliminary results of hydrologic studies at two recharge basins on Long Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 627-C, p C1-C17.
Signor, D.C., Growitz, D.J., and Kam, William, 1970, Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1990, 141 p.
Sinclair, W.C., 1977, Experimental study of artificial recharge alternatives in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 77-13, 52 p.
Sniegocki, R.T. 1953, Plans for the first year's work on the artificial recharge project, Grand Prairie region, Arkansas: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, Little Rock, Arkansas, 16 p.
Sniegocki, R.T.,Bayley, F.H., Engler, Kyle, and Stephens, J.W., 1965, Testing procedures and results of studies of artificial recharge in the Grand Prairie region, Arkansas: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1615-G, 56 p.
Stearns, H.T., Crandall, L., and Stewart, W.G., 1938, Geology and ground-water resources of the Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 774, 268 p.
Stearns, H.T., Bryan, L.L., and Crandall, L., 1939, Geology and water resources of the Mud Lake region, Idaho, including the Island Park area: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 818, 125 p.
Stringfield, V.T., 1933, Ground-water investigations in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bull. 11, 33 p.
________,1936, Artesian water in the Floridan Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C, p. 115-195.
Sumner, D.M., Schuh, W.M., and Cline, R.L., 1991, Field experiments and simulations of infiltration-rate response to changes in hydrologic conditions for an artificial-recharge test basin near Oakes, southeastern North Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4127, 46 p.
Sumner, D. M., 1996, Hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation beneath a rapid infiltration basin, Reedy Creek Improvement District, Orange County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4281, 51 p.
Tadayon, S., 1995, Quality of Surface Water and Ground Water in the Proposed Artificial-Recharge Project Area, Rillito Creek Basin, Tucson, Arizona,1994: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95- 4270, 26 p.
Taylor, O.J., 1975, Artificial-recharge experiments in the alluvial aquifer south of Fountain, El Paso County, Colorado: Colorado Water Resources Circular no. 31, 28 p.
Tibbals, C.H., and Frazee, J.M., 1976, Ground-water hydrology of the Cocoa Well-Field area, Orange County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 75-676, 76 p.
Todd, D.K., 1959, Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water through 1954: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1477, 115 p.
Unklesbay, A.G., and Cooper, H.H., 1946, Artificial recharge of artesian limestone at Orlando, Florida: Econ. Geology, v. 41, no. 4, p, 293-307.
Vecchioli, J, Ku, H.F.H., and Sulam, D.J., 1980, Hydraulic effects of recharging the Magothy Aquifer, Bay Park, New York, with tertiary treated sewage: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 751-F, 21 p.
Watkins, F.A., 1977, Effectiveness of pilot connector well in artificial recharge of the Floridan Aquifer, western Orange County, Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 77-112, 28 p.
White, D.E., and Sladek, G.J., 1990, Summary of data from the 1981-83 pilot study and 1985-89 operations of the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project, northeast El Paso, Texas: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-175, 38 p.
Woolfenden, L.R., and Kadhim, D., 1997, Geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto-Colton Basin, San Bernardino County, California: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4012, 101 p.
In George R. Aiken and Eve L. Kuniansky, editors, 2002, U.S. Geological Survey Artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, April 2-4, 2002: USGS Open-File Report 02-89
The use of firm, trade, and brand names in this report is for identification purposes only and does not consitute endorsement by the U.S. Government.