The Importance of Ground Water in the Great Lakes Region
Water Resources Investigations Report 00 - 4008
By N.G. Grannemann, R.J. Hunt, J.R. Nicholas, T.E. Reilly, and T.C. Winter
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Why do we need to know more about ground-water conditions in the Great Lakes Region?
What are the major ground-water issues in the Great Lakes Region?
Geology establishes the framework for aquifers
How does ground water move in the Great Lakes Region?
How is ground water replenished?
How much ground water is pumped in the Great Lakes Region?
Some areas where the effects of ground-water pumping have been evaluated:
Chicago - Milwaukee | Green Bay | Toledo, Ohio
Ground-water and surface-water interactions
Ground-water flow into the Great Lakes
Ground water, wetlands, and stream ecology
Summary and conclusions
- Map showing surficial geology of the Great Lakes Basin
- Maps showing
- Bedrock aquifers of the Great Lakes Basin
- Approximate extent of the freshwater bearing carbonate aquifer in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and parts of Michigan and Wisconsin
- Approximate extent of the sandstone aquifer west of Lake Michigan
- Geologic section showing generalized local and regional ground-water flow systems in the Great Lakes Region
- Map showing estimated ground-water withdrawal rates for some major U.S. metropolitan areas
- Diagram showing generalized ground-water flow
- Under natural conditions
- Affected by pumping
- Map showing decline in water
levels in water levels in the sandstone confined aquifer, Chicago and Milwaukee
section showing aquifers, confining unit, and direction of ground-water flow
near Green Bay, Wisconsin
- Maps showing simulated potentiometric
surfaces in the sandstone aquifer, northeastern Wisconsin
- In 1957
- In 1990
- Map showing potentiometric surface for the carbonate aquifer near Toledo, Ohio, July 1986
- Schematic diagram showing approximate average water budget for Lake Michigan
- Map showing average ground-water and surface-runoff components of selected watersheds in
the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes Basin