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 [Photo: Groundwater flowing out of well.]

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* New!: Press Release: High Plains Aquifer Groundwater Levels Continue to Decline

* new: Regional Groundwater Availability Study Geospatial Data

* Press Release: USGS Assesses Current Groundwater-Quality Conditions in the Williston Basin Oil Production Area

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USGS Groundwater Watch

USGS maintains a network of active wells to provide basic statistics about groundwater levels.

 [Image: USGS active water level wells location map.]

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Water-Table Fluctuation (WTF) Method

References Related to the Water-Table Fluctuation Method

Akindunni, F., Gillham, R.1992. Unsaturated and saturated flow in response to pumping of an unconfined aquifer: numerical investigation of delayed drainage. Groundwater 30:873–884

Arya, L., Paris, J. 1981. A physicoempirical model to predict the soil moisture characteristic from particle size distribution and bulk density data. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:1023–1030

Boulton, N. 1963. Analysis of data from non-equilibrium pumping tests allowing for delayed yield from storage. Proc Inst Civil Eng 6:469–482

Briggs L., Shantz H. 1912. The wilting coefficient for different plants and its indirect determination. US Dept Agric Bur Plant Ind Bull 230, 83 pp

Carsel, R, Parrish, R. 1988. Developing joint probability distributions of soil water retention characteristics. Water Resour Res 24:755–769

Cassel, D., Nielsen, D. 1986 Field capacity and available water capacity. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analyses, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 901–926

Childs, E. 1960. The nonsteady state of the water table in drained land. Journal of Geophysical Research 65, 780-782.

Clark, W. 1917. Groundwater for irrigation in the Morgan Hill area, California. US Geol Surv Water-Supply Paper 400:84–86

Coes, A., Spruill, T., and Thomasson, M. 2007. Comparison of recharge rates estimated from multiple methods for a shallow unconfined aquifer: Hydrogeology Journal, accessed April 25, 2007 at

Crosbie, R., Binning, P., Kalma, J. 2005. A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method, Water Resources Research Vol. 41, no. 1, p 1-9.

Delin, G., Healy, R., Lorenz, D., and Nimmo, J. 2007, Comparison of local- to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA: Journal of Hydrology. vol 334, no. 1-2, p.231-249

Endres, A., Clement, W., Rudolph, D. 2000. Ground penetrating radar imaging of an aquifer during a pumping test. Groundwater 38:566–576

Freeze, R., Cherry, J. 1979. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 604 pp

Gburek, W., Folmar, G. 1999. A groundwater recharge field study: site characterization and initial results. Hydrol Process 13:2813–2831

Hall, D., Risser, D. 1993. Effects of agricultural nutrient management on nitrogen fate and transport in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Water Resources Bulletin 29, 55-76.

Healy, R., Cook, P. 2002. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge. Hydrogeology Journal 10, 91-109.

Heppner, C., and Nimmo, J. 2005. A computer program for predicting recharge with a master recession curve: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5172, 8 p.

Jamison, V., Kroth, E. .1958. Available moisture storage capacity in relation to textural composition and organic matter content of several Missouri soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 22: 189–192

Johnson, A., Prill, R., Morris, D. 1963. Specific yield – column drainage and centrifuge moisture content. US Geol Surv Water-Supply Paper 1662-A, 60 pp

McWhorter, D., Garcia, A. 1990. The concept of specific yield and its evaluation by laboratory measurements. Groundwater Engineering and Management Conference 1990 Proceedings, pp 235–246

Meinzer, O. 1923. The occurrence of groundwater in the United States with a discussion of principles. Water-Supply Paper 489. U.S. Geological Survey.

Meyer W. 1962. Use of a neutron moisture probe to determine the storage coefficient of an unconfined aquifer: US Geol Surv Prof Paper 450-E:174–176

Moench, A. 1994. Specific yield as determined by type-curve analysis of aquifer-test data. Groundwater 32:949–957

Moench, A. 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer. Groundwater 33:378–384

Moench, A. 1996. Flow to a well in a water-table aquifer: an improved Laplace transform solution. Groundwater 34:593–596

Neuman, S. P. 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resources Research. V. 8, pp. 1031-1044.

Neuman, S. 1987. On methods of determining specific yield. Groundwater 25:679–684

Neuman, S., Witherspoon P. 1972. Field determination of hydraulic properties of leaky multiple aquifer systems. Water Resour Res 8:1284–1298

Nimmo, J. 1999. Predicting soil-water retention and hydraulic conductivity from textural and structural information. In: van Genuchten MT, Leij FJ, Wu L (eds) Characterization and measurement of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated porous media. Univ of California, pp 923–930

Nwankwor, G. I., J. A. Cherry, and R. W. Gillham. 1984. A comparative study of specific yield determinations for a shallow sand aquifer. Ground Water. v. 22, pp. 764-772.

Nwankwor, G., Gillham, R., van der Kamp, G., Akindunni, F. 1992. Unsaturated and saturated flow in response to pumping of an unconfined aquifer: field evidence of delayed drainage. Groundwater 30:690–700

Olmsted, F.H., and Hely, A.G., 1962, Relation between ground water and surface water in Brandywine Creek Basin Pennsylvania: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 417-A, 21 p.

Pool D., Eychane, R. J. 1995. Measurements of aquifer-storage change and specific yield using gravity surveys. Groundwater 33:425–432

Prickett, T. 1965. Type-curve solution to aquifer tests under water-table conditions. Groundwater 3:5–14

Prill, R., Johnson, A., Morris, D. 1965. Specific yield – laboratory experiments showing the effect of time on column drainage. US Geol Surv Water-Supply Paper 1662-B, 55 pp

Rasmussen, W., Andreasen, G. 1959. Hydrologic budget of the Beaverdam Creek Basin, Maryland. US Geol Surv Water-Supply Pap 1472: 106 p

Remson, I., Lang, S. 1955. A pumping test method for the determination of specific yield. Trans Am Geophys Union 36:321–325

Risser, D., Gburek, W., and Folmar, G. 2005. Comparison of methods for estimating ground-water recharge and base flow at a small watershed underlain by fractured bedrock in the eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5038, 31 p.

Sloto, R. 1990. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the carbonate rocks of the Valley Creek Basin, E astern Chester County, Pennsylvania:U.S.Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4169, 60 p.

Sophocleous, M. 1985. The role of specific yield in ground-water recharge estimations—A numerical study: Ground Water, v. 23, no. 1, p 52-58

Sophocleous, M. 1991. Combining the soil-water balance and water-level fluctuation methods to estimate natural groundwater recharge: practical aspects. J Hydrol 124:229–241

Stallman, R. 1971. Aquifer-test design, observation and data analysis. Techniques of Water Resource Investigations of the US Geol Surv, Chap B1. Govt Printing Office Washington, DC

van Genuchten, M. 1980. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898

Walton, W. 1970. Groundwater resource evaluation. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Weeks, E., Sorey M. 1973. Use of finite-difference arrays of observation wells to estimate evapotranspiration from groundwater in the Arkansas River Valley, Colorado. US Geol Surv Water-Supply Pap 2029-C, 27 pp

Wenzel, L. 1942. Methods of determining permeability of water bearing materials with special reference to discharging well methods. US Geol Surv Water-Supply Pap 887

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