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Chapter A7. Biological Indicators

National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9)

7.5 Cyanobacteria In Lakes And Reservoirs: Toxin And Taste-And-Odor Sampling Guidelines (9/2008) [3 MB PDF]

By Jennifer L. Graham, Keith A. Loftin, Andrew C. Ziegler, and Michael T. Meyer

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The study of cyanobacteria and associated toxins and taste-and-odor compounds is an active area of research. Cyanobacteria and the compounds they produce are receiving increased attention as an economic, environmental, and human health issue. Consistent guidelines and sampling protocols are needed for the development of scientific studies of cyanobacterial toxins and taste-and-odor compounds in order to produce nationally comparable data sets that will allow for scientifically based evaluation and interpretation among a spectrum of studies in various areas. NFM 7.5 provides background information on cyanobacteria and study designs and objectives related to the occurrence of cyanobacterial populations in lakes and reservoirs, and describes standard USGS procedures for collecting, processing, and handling samples to be analyzed for cyanobacterial community composition (enumeration and identification) and total, particulate, and dissolved cyanobacterial toxins and taste-and-odor compounds.


7.5 Cyanobacteria in lakes and reservoirs: Toxin and taste-and-odor sampling guidelines

7.5.1 - Light intensity and thermal stratification in lakes and reservoirs

7.5.2 - Cyanobacteria, toxins, and taste-and-odor compounds

7.5.3 - Temporal and spatial variability of cyanobacteria

7.5.4 - Study objectives and designs

7.5.5 - Sample collection

7.5.6 - Sample holding time, processing, and shipping

7.5.7 - Analytical techniques

7.5.8 - Safety considerations

7.5.9 - Reporting of cyanobacterial populations, toxins, and taste-and-odor compounds

7.5.10 - Selected references

7.5.11 - Acknowledgments

7.5.12 - Glossary

Appendices - Examples of designs and approaches for studies

Comments/Errata page

 [Back] Return to Chapter A7 Biological Indicators Table of Contents

 [Back] Return to Field Manual Table of Contents

Citation for Section 7.5

Graham, J.L., Loftin, K.A., Ziegler, A.C., and Meyer, M.T., 2008, Cyanobacteria in lakes and reserviors—Toxin and taste-and-odor sampling guidelines (ver. 1.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A7, section 7.5, September, accessed__date__ from

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