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USGS scientists deploy SPMD and POCIS samplers to collect waterborne contaminants in Manoa Stream on Oahu, Hawaii.


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Chapter A7. Biological Indicators

National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9)

7.3 Protozoan Pathogens (11/2003) [1.2 MB PDF]

By R.N. Bushon and D.S. Francy

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Protozoan pathogens are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the principal protozoan pathogens that are known to affect the acceptability of water supplies for public use within the United States. A sampling program for protozoan pathogens should be conducted over an extended period of time because of cyclical and seasonal variations in their concentrations in the environment. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory method that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on protozoan pathogens.


7.3 Protozoan pathogens

7.3.1 - Sterilization procedures for sampling equipment

7.3.2 - Sample collection, preservation, transport, and holding times

7.3.3 - Laboratory method: USEPA Method 1623

7.3.4 - Calculation and reporting of protozoan pathogens

Comments/Errata page

 [Back] Return to Chapter A7 Biological Indicators Table of Contents

 [Back] Return to Field Manual Table of Contents

Citation for Section 7.3

Bushon, R.N., and Francy, D.S., 2003, Protozoan pathogens: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A7, section 7.3, November, accessed __ list date __ from

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