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USGS scientists deploy SPMD and POCIS samplers to collect waterborne contaminants in Manoa Stream on Oahu, Hawaii.


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Chapter A6. Field Measurements

National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9)

6.1 Temperature

Revised By F.D. Wilde

This section of Chapter 6 is available as a pdf file:
6.1, Version 2 (dated March 2006) [426KB PDF]

Download a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader for free.


Accurate temperature measurements are required for accurate determinations of important environmental parameters such as pH, specific electrical conductance, and dissolved oxygen, and to the determination of chemical reaction rates and equilibria, biological activity, and physical fluid properties. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of temperature in air, ground water, and surface water and calibration of the equipment used.


6.1 Temperature

6.1.1 - Equipment and supplies

6.1.1.A - Maintenance, cleaning, and storage

6.1.2 - Calibration

6.1.2.A - Calibration thermometers

6.1.2.B - Field thermometers

6.1.3 - Measurement

6.1.3.A - Air

6.1.3.B - Surface water

6.1.3.C - Ground water

6.1.4 - Troubleshooting

6.1.5 - Reporting

Selected references


 [Back] Return to Chapter A6 Contents Page

 [Back] Return to Field Manual Table of Contents

Section 6.1 Archived Versions:

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