ResearchThe Reston Microbiology Laboratory (RML) conducts research in the fields of microbial ecology, geomicrobiology, environmental microbiology, biogeochemistry, and the hydrologic sciences. Our goals are 1) to understand interactions between microbes and their environment, and 2) to link environmental microbial community structure with microbial function. This work is important because microbes, the unseen majority of organisms on our planet, drive reactions of global importance, which have critical impacts on water quality, environmental health, and energy production.
We use an interdisciplinary approach in our research, combining traditional microbiology methods with molecular biology and biogeochemistry techniques. We specialize in studying anaerobic microorganisms (those that are intolerant to oxygen), microbial processes, and the genetics of microbial communities and isolates.
Research projects we are currently involved in include:
Microbes and Energy
Microbes can impact energy production by 1) reducing risk of contaminants from energy development 2) enhancing energy production. We are investigating how microorganisms lessen risks to the environment and human health from waste produced during oil and gas development and crude oil spills.
US energy demands have increased focus on novel energy resources including coal bed methane (CBM) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). We are studying how microbes can be used to enhance CBM production through stimulating in place microbial coal conversion to methane. We are studying how geologic CO2 sequestration and microbial processes can be used for enhanced oil or natural gas recovery in depleted petroleum reservoirs.
For more information see these USGS webpages: Fate and Effects of Wastes from Oil and Gas Development, Crude Oil Contamination in the Shallow Subsurface—Bemidji, Minnesota, Geologic CO2 Sequestration, Coalbed Gas
Snail Gut Microbiome
Host-microbiome interactions are a hot topic in health studies, with research showing that microbes can control various aspects of host health from digestion to bioavailability of toxins. Our research is focused on developing a new approach using the gut microbiome of a model species to assess the environmental health effects of contaminants. Our model organism is Lymnaea stagnalis, an aquatic snail species that is ubiquitous and routinely cultured in the laboratory. The snail is known to bioaccumulate contaminants from aqueous and dietary exposure pathways. This work is in collaboration with Dr. Marie-Noele Croteau (USGS).
Acetylene can be degraded as a carbon/energy substrate by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with the acetylene hydratase (AH) enzyme catalyzing the anaerobic reaction. Despite the detection of acetylene fermentation in variety of environments, little is known about the diversity of acetylene fermenting bacteria and their AH genes. It is important to study acetylene degraders because acetylene can inhibit reactions of global importance, including chlorinated solvent degradation and methanotrophy (methane consumption).
Chlorinated solvents pose a significant risk to drinking water supplies because they are carcinogens and the most common groundwater contaminant. Chlorinated solvents can be detoxified but existing strategies have limited effectiveness. Recent research has shown that microbial degradation of acetylene can increase the effectiveness of biological chlorinated solvent degradation.
To better understand how acetylene degraders impact globally important processes we are investigating the diversity and genetic mechanisms of these organisms. This work is in collaboration with Dr. Ronald Oremland (USGS) and Dr. Janna Fierst (University of Alabama).
Environmental contamination with radionuclides and heavy metals is a global problem resulting from nuclear weapons production during the Cold War Era. Microbial activity may limit the mobility of contaminants through natural attenuation or bioremediation where organisms, such as fungi, plants and bacteria, naturally reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous particles. These processes differ, as bioremediation increases the activity of.. read more
Geomicrobiology of Pristine Environments
As microbes are the drivers of biogeochemical cycles, understanding their impact on life-sustaining processes starts with an understanding of their biodiversity in pristine habitats. I am interested in understanding the microbiology of the Earth´s Critical Zone (CZ) and the impact of microorganisms on carbon cycling (Akob and Küsel 2011). The CZ is the heterogeneous environment where complex interactions between rock, soil, water, air, and living organisms regulate.. read more