The USGS Water Science School
Water Science water-use pages
Categories of Use:
National Water Use Program
Information and Data
Saline Water Use in the United States
In today's world we are all more aware of the need to conserve freshwater. With the ever-growing demand for water by growing populations worldwide, it makes sense to try to find more uses for the abundant saline water supplies that exist, mainly in the oceans. As these pie charts of the Nation's water use show, about 14 percent of all water used in the United States in 2010 was saline. (All 2010 water use information is from the report Estimated use of water in the United States in 2010.) The second chart shows that almost all saline withdrawals, over 90 percent, was used by the thermoelectric-power industry to cool electricity-generating equipment.
What is saline water?
Water that is saline contains significant amounts (referred to as "concentrations") of dissolved salts, the most common being the salt we all know so well—sodium chloride (NaCl). In this case, the concentration is the amount (by weight) of salt in water, as expressed in "parts per million" (ppm). If water has a concentration of 10,000 ppm of dissolved salts, then one percent (10,000 divided by 1,000,000) of the weight of the water comes from dissolved salts.
Here are our parameters for saline water:
Saline water withdrawals by State, 2010
Florida had the largest saline withdrawals, accounting for 18 percent of the total in the United States, mostly saline surface-water withdrawals for thermoelectric power. Oklahoma and Texas accounted for about 70 percent of the total saline groundwater withdrawals in the United States, mostly for mining.
Trends in saline-water withdrawals, 1950-2010
As the chart below shows, the use of saline water, and freshwater, also, has been trending downward since peaking in 1980. Of interest, from 1950 to 1975 the use of saline water increased at a much higher rate than freshwater use.
Data for freshwater withdrawals for 1980-2000 have been revised from original published values.
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