Water Resources Applications Software

Geochemical || Ground Water || Surface Water || Water Quality || General

Summary of MODBRNCH

       modbrnch - MODFLOW/BRANCH coupled flow model

       Surface- and ground-water interactions can be simulated by the
       coupled BRANCH and USGS modular, three-dimensional, finite-
       difference ground-water flow (MODFLOW-96) models, referred to as
       MODBRNCH.  MODFLOW-96 simulates steady and nonsteady flow in an
       irregularly shaped flow system in which aquifer layers can be
       confined, unconfined, or a combination of confined and unconfined.
       BRANCH simulates steady or unsteady flow in a single open-channel
       reach (branch) or throughout a system of branches (network)
       connected in a dendritic or looped pattern by solving the one-
       dimensional equations of continuity and momentum for the river flow.
       Channel-aquifer flows are leakage through a confining layer or
       riverbed.  Computation of this leakage in the ground-water and
       surface-water systems allows these processes to be coupled for
       simulation purposes.

       The ground-water flow equation is solved using the finite-difference
       approximation.  The BRANCH model uses a weighted four-point,
       implicit, finite-difference approximation of the unsteady-flow
       equations.  A leakage term has been added to the equations in the
       BRANCH model and was coupled through the leakage quantity to the
       MODFLOW-96 model.

       Version 3.7 1997/06/05 - Use name file to designate input and output
          file names.  Updated to be compatible with MODFLOW-96 version 3.1
          and BRANCH version 4.3.

       Version 3.6 1995/11/09 - First version available on World Wide Web.
          Coupled with MODFLOW version 2.5 and BRANCH version 4.0.

       In order to use MODFLOW, initial conditions, hydraulic properties,
       and stresses must be specified for every model cell in the finite-
       difference grid.  BRANCH input data consist of channel geometry and
       initial flow conditions defined at all cross-section locations and
       boundary conditions defined at channel extremities.  Refer to input
       specifications instructions for the MODFLOW-96 and BRANCH models for
       specific details.

       Primary ground-water computational output is head, which can be
       written to the listing file or into a separate file.  Other output
       includes the complete listing of all input data, drawdown, and
       budget data.  Budget data are printed as a summary in the listing
       file, and detailed budget data for all model cells can be written
       into a separate file.

       Time series of computed surface-water flow results can be directly
       output in tabular or graphical form at all, or selected, cross-
       section locations.  Tabular output options include discrete flow
       results at every time step or iteration; daily summaries of minimum,
       maximum, and average flow conditions; monthly flow-volume summaries;
       or river-mile locations of injected particles.  Digital or line-
       printer graphical options include hydrograph plots of computed water
       levels or discharges or comparative plots of computed results versus
       measured data.  Output results can be either in metric or inch-pound

       MODBRANCH is written in Fortran 77 with the following extensions:
       use of integer*2 declarations, use of include files, variable names
       longer than 6 characters, use of mixed case, and reference to
       compiler-dependent system date and time routines.  To compile
       MODBRANCH the BRANCH and MODFLOW-96 software and LIBUTL utility
       library are required.  LIBUTL includes software/user,
       software/computer, software/data base, and software/graphics
       interaction routines.  MODBRANCH graphics (from the BRANCH model)
       are coded using CalComp graphics calls.  The LIBUTL software
       provides graphics libraries to convert CalComp graphic references to
       Graphical Kernel System (GKS) library references and Interactive
       Software Services's INTERACTER library references.  MODBRANCH memory
       requirements depend on array dimensioning parameters found in the
       dimens.cmn include file and modflw96.f source file.  The memory
       requirements can be tailored to suit application needs and computer
       system memory constraints by modifying the parameters in these files
       and then recompiling the code.  Generally, the program is easily
       adapted to most computer systems that have access to one of the
       mentioned graphics libraries.  The code has been used on UNIX-based
       computers and DOS-based 386 or greater computers having a math
       coprocessor and 8 mb of memory.

       Swain, E.D., and Wexler, E.J., 1996, A coupled surface-water and
          ground-water flow model (MODBRNCH) for simulation of stream-
          aquifer interaction:  U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-
          Resources Investigations, book 6, chap. A6, 125 p.

       Swain, E.D., 1992, Incorporating hydraulic structures in an open-
          channel model: Proceedings, 1992 National Hydraulic Engineering
          Conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, N.Y.,
          p. 1118-1123.


       Schaffranek, R.W., 1987, Flow model for open-channel reach or
          network:  U.S.  Geological Survey Professional Paper 1384, 12 p.

       Schaffranek, R.W., Baltzer, R.A., and Goldberg, D.E., 1981, A model
          for simulation of flow in singular and interconnected channels:
          U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources
          Investigations, book 7, chap. C3, 110 p.

       Latest version enhancements and additions to the BRANCH model are
       documented and maintained in a file included in the software
       distribution.  The latest model version is downward compatible with
       the original documentation:


       The basic model is documented in:

       Harbaugh, A.W., and McDonald, M.G., 1996, User's documentation for
          MODFLOW-96, an update to the U.S. Geological Survey modular
          finite-difference ground-water flow model: U.S. Geological Survey
          Open-File Report 96-485, 56 p.

       Harbaugh, A.W., and McDonald, M.G., 1996, Programmer's documentation
          for MODFLOW-96, an update to the U.S. Geological Survey modular
          finite-difference ground-water flow model: U.S. Geological Survey
          Open-File Report 96-486, 220 p.

       McDonald, M.G., and Harbaugh, A.W., 1988, A modular three-
          dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model:  U.S.
          Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations,
          book 6, chap. A1, 586 p.


       Harbaugh, A.W., 1990, A simple contouring program for gridded data:
          U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-144, 37 p.

       Regan, R.S., and Schaffranek, R.W., 1985, A computer program for
          analyzing channel geometry: U.S. Geological Survey Water-
          Resources Investigations Report 85-4335, 49 p.

       Regan, R.S., Schaffranek, R.W., and Baltzer, R.A., 1996, Time-
          Dependent Data System (TDDS)--An interactive program to assemble,
          manage, and appraise input data and numerical output of
          flow/transport simulation models: U.S. Geological Survey Water-
          Resources Investigations Report 96-4143, 104 p.

       Sanders, C.L., 1995, The use of three-parameter rating table lookup
          programs, RDRAT and PARM3, in hydraulic flow models: U.S.
          Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4090,
          18 p.

       Modeling of Ground-Water Flow Using Finite-Difference Methods
       (GW2096TC), offered annually at the USGS National Training Center.

       Advanced Modeling of Ground-Water Flow (GW3099TC), offered annually
       at the USGS National Training Center.

       Ground-Water/Surface-Water Relationships (ID2015TC), offered
       annually at the USGS National Training Center.

       Implementation and Calibration of Unsteady Open-Channel Flow
       Transport Models (SW3091TC), offered annually at the USGS National
       Training Center.

          U.S. Geological Survey
          Eric Swain
          9100 NW 36 Street, Suite 107
          Miami, FL 33178

          U.S. Geological Survey
          Hydrologic Analysis Software Support Program
          437 National Center
          Reston, VA 20192

       Official versions of U.S. Geological Survey water-resources analysis
       software are available for electronic retrieval via the World Wide
       Web (WWW) at:


       and via anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) from:

                    (path: /pub/software).

       The WWW page and anonymous FTP directory from which the MODBRNCH
       software can be retrieved are, respectively:


       branch(1) - One-dimensional Branch-network flow model
       cgap(1) - Channel Geometry Analysis Program
       contour(1) - A contouring program for gridded data
       libutl(1) - Utility libraries for simulation models
       modflow(1) - Modular three-dimensional ground-water flow
       Modflowp(1) - Parameter-estimation version of the modular model
       modpath(1) - Particle-tracking postprocessor program for
                    the modular three-dimensional finite-difference
                    ground-water flow model
       tdds(1) - Time-Dependent Data System
       wdm(1) - Watershed Data Management system

The URL for this page is:
Send questions or comments to