Water Resources Applications Software

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Summary of DR3M

       dr3m - Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model--version II

       DR3M is a watershed model for routing storm runoff through a
       Branched system of pipes and (or) natural channels using rainfall as
       input.  DR3M provides detailed simulation of storm-runoff periods
       selected by the user.  There is daily soil-moisture accounting
       between storms.  A drainage basin is represented as a set of
       overland-flow, channel, and reservoir segments, which jointly
       describe the drainage features of the basin.  This model is usually
       used to simulate small urban basins.  Interflow and base flow are
       not simulated.  Snow accumulation and snowmelt are not simulated.

       The rainfall-excess components include soil-moisture accounting,
       pervious-area rainfall excess, impervious-area rainfall excess, and
       parameter optimization.  The Green-Ampt equation is used in the
       calculations of infiltration and pervious area rainfall excess.  A
       Rosenbrock optimization procedure may be used to aid in calibrating
       several of the infiltration and soil-moisture accounting parameters.
       Kinematic wave theory is used for both overland-flow and channel
       routing.  There are three solution techniques available:  method of
       characteristics, implicit finite difference method, and explicit
       finite difference method.  Two soil types may be defined.  Overland
       flow may be defined as turbulent or laminar.  Detention reservoirs
       may be simulated as linear storage or using a modified-Puls method.
       Channel segments may be defined as gutter, pipe, triangular cross
       section, or by explicitly specifying the kinematic channel
       parameters alpha and m.

       1991 - DR3M-version II, added option to output simulated time-series
          data to Watershed Data Management (WDM) file.  Output file
          modified to reduce width from 132 characters to 80 characters or

       1984 - DR3M-version II, WDM file replaces "card" input of time-
          series data.

       1982 - DR3M-version II, added two solution techniques for kinematic
          wave routing.  Improved general output.

       1978 - Original DR3M version, incorporated the routing component
          from a version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
          catchment model into the lumped parameter rainfall-runoff model.

       1972 - A lumped parameter rainfall-runoff model for small rural

       Daily precipitation, daily evapotranspiration, and short-interval
       precipitation are required.  Short-interval discharge is required
       for the optimization option and to calibrate the model.  These time
       series are read from a WDM file.  Roughness and hydraulics
       parameters and sub-catchment areas are required to define the basin.
       Six parameters are required to calculate infiltration and soil-
       moisture accounting.  Up to three rainfall stations may be used.
       Two soil types may be defined.  A total of 99 flow planes, channels,
       pipes, reservoirs, and junctions may be used to define the basin.

       The computed outflow from any flow plane, pipe, or channel segment
       for each storm period may be written to the output file or to the
       WDM file.  A summary of the measured and simulated rainfall, runoff,
       and peak flows is written to the output file.  A flat file
       containing the storm rainfall, measured flow (if available), and
       simulated flow at user selected sites can be generated.  A flat file
       for each storm containing the total rainfall, the measured peak flow
       (if available), and the simulated peak flow for user-selected sites
       can be generated.

       DR3M is written in Fortran 77 with the following extension: use of
       include files. The UTIL, ADWDM, and WDM libraries from LIB are used.
       A subset of these libraries is provided with the code and may be
       used instead of the libraries, this subset uses INTEGER*4 and mixed
       type equivalence. For more information, see System Requirements in

       Alley, W.M., and Smith, P.E., 1982, Distributed routing rainfall-
          runoff model--version II:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File
          Report 82-344, 201 p.

       Flynn, K.M., Hummel, P.R., Lumb, A.M., Kittle, J.L., Jr., 1995,
          User's manual for ANNIE, version 2, a computer program for
          interactive hydrologic data management:  U.S. Geological Survey
          Water-Resources Investigations 95-4085, 211 p.

       Dawdy, D.R., Lichty, R.W., and Bergmann, J.M., 1972, A rainfall-
          runoff simulation model for estimation of flood peaks for small
          drainage basins: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 506-B,
          28 p.

       Dawdy, D.R., Schaake, J.C., Jr., and Alley, W.M., 1978, User's guide
          for distributed routing rainfall-runoff model:  U.S. Geological
          Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 78-90, 146 p.

       Doyle, H.W., Jr., and Miller, J.E., 1980, Calibration of a
          distributed routing rainfall-runoff model at four urban sites
          near Miami, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources
          Investigations Report 80-1, 87 p.

       Guay, J.R., and Smith, P.E., 1988, Simulation of quantity and
          quality of storm runoff for urban catchments in Fresno,
          California:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources
          Investigations Report 88-4125, 76 p.

       Leclerc, Guy, and Schaake, J.C., Jr., 1973, Methodology for
          assessing the potential impact of urban development on urban
          runoff and the relative efficiency of runoff control
          alternatives:  Ralph M. Parsons Laboratory Report no. 167,
          Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 257 p.

       Watershed Systems Modeling I (SW2008TC), offered annually at the
       USGS National Training Center.

       Watershed Systems Modeling II (SW3018TC), offered upon request at
       the USGS National Training Center.

       Operation and Distribution:
          U.S. Geological Survey
          Hydrologic Analysis Software Support Program
          437 National Center
          Reston, VA 20192

       Official versions of U.S. Geological Survey water-resources analysis
       software are available for electronic retrieval via the World Wide
       Web (WWW) at:


       and via anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) from:

         (path: /pub/software).

       The WWW page and anonymous FTP directory from which the DR3M
       software can be retrieved are, respectively:


       annie(1) - Program to list, table, plot data in a WDM file
       dr3m-qual - Multi-event urban runoff quality model
       iowdm(1) - Program to store time-series data in a WDM file
       wdm(1) - Watershed Data Management system

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