Water Resources Applications Software

Geochemical || Ground Water || Surface Water || Water Quality || General

Summary of ANNIE

     annie - Interactive hydrologic analyses and data management

     ANNIE is a program designed to help users interactively
     store, retrieve, list, plot, check, and update spatial,
     parametric, and time-series data for hydrologic models and
     analyses.  Data are stored in a direct access file called a
     Watershed Data Management (WDM) file.  Many hydrologic and
     water-quality models and analyses developed by the U.S.
     Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection
     Agency (EPA) currently use WDM files.  The WDM file provides
     users with a common data base for many applications, thus
     eliminating the need to reformat data from one application
     to another.  There is also an expanding library of
     subroutines for graphics, user interaction, and data storage
     and retrieval available to application programmers designing
     software utilizing WDM files.

     A WDM file is a binary, direct-access file used to store
     hydrologic, hydraulic, meteorologic, water-quality, and
     physiographic data.  The WDM file is organized into data
     sets.  Each data set contains a specific type of data, such
     as streamflow at a specific site or air temperature at a
     weather station.  Each data set contains attributes that
     describe the data, such as station identification number,
     time step of data, latitude, and longitude.  A WDM file may
     contain a single data set or as many as 200,000 data sets.
     A data set may be described by a few attributes or by
     hundreds of attributes.  Data can be added, deleted, and
     modified without restructuring the data in the file.  Space
     from deleted data sets is reused.

     The Annie Interactive Development Environment (AIDE) user
     interface is used.  This character-based interface provides
     a consistent look and feel across different computer
     platforms, including DOS-based PC, UNIX, and minicomputers.
     The AIDE interface is used with most of the interactive
     programs that use the WDM file.

     The original design and implementation of the WDM file was a
     cooperative effort between the USGS and the Soil
     Conservation Service in 1983.  Additional types of data sets
     have been implemented by the USGS and EPA.  ANNIE, IOWDM,
     and HSPF were the original programs that used the WDM file
     in 1984.  Since then, over a dozen programs have been
     developed or modified by the USGS and EPA to use the WDM
     file.  USGS maintains and distributes the official version
     of the WDM library.

     Version 4.1 2002/02/25 - Updated to use latest libanne
        libraries, version 4.0 dated September 27, 2001.
        Calculation for last available group for attribute data
        and time series data have been corrected.  Changes in
        graphics related to font and color; added new fonts for
        PC version.

     Version 4.0 2000/11/01 - Corrected problem introduced in the
        June 29, 1998, revisions, which caused some small
        negative numbers to be exported as "*****".  This was a
        problem for data values in the range -0.01 - -0.09.  With
        respect to time series data stored in a wdm file, this
        range of data is occasionally seen in temperature data.
        All WDM data sets now contain the date the data set was
        created and the date the data set was last modified.
        Program wdmrx is included with the compiled distributions
        to trouble-shoot problems in wdm files.
     Version 3.0 - there was no 3.0 distribution.

     Version 2.5 1998/06/29 - Corrected problem introduced when
        the number of significant digits in Archive/Export files
        was increased to 6.  The Import option was not reading
        the first digit in some cases.

     Version 2.4 1998/03/06 - Updated to incorporate corrections
        and changes made in lib library; there are two noteworthy
        changes.  (1) In some instances, the common time period
        that was determined by the software may actually have
        been shorter than the actual common time period; this has
        been corrected.  (2) The Archive/Export option will now
        output the time-series data values with six significant
        digits (values were previously output with four
        significant digits).

     Version 2.3 1997/02/06 - New version number to reflect use
        of updated library (previously used lib3.0, now updated
        to lib3.1).  There were a number of miscellaneous changes
        made in the library, none of which should be noticed in
        ANNIE.  However, several scripts and the make file needed
        to be changed to point to the new library.  The make file
        now includes building the test.wdm file needed by the tests.

     Version 2.2 1996/03/01 - General release.

     Data may be input to a WDM file by hand but can be converted
     (more effectively) to WDM format by the IOWDM program.
     IOWDM can convert data to WDM format from a generic flat
     file format or from the following WATSTORE card image
     formats: daily, unit, basin, peak, and n-day data.

     Data can be output in multiple graphical, tabular, and text
     file formats.  An output option is available to export data
     to a format that can be directly converted by ANNIE to a WDM
     file.  This option is helpful for transferring data between
     WDM files including transferring data between files on
     different computer platforms on which ANNIE is implemented.
     The graphs produced can be viewed on the screen.  Additional
     plot output options depend on the devices supported by the
     GKS library used and may include PostScript, Computer
     Graphics Metafile (CGM), Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
     (HP-GL), and assorted printers and plotters.  See the
     installation instructions (README.TXT) for details of output
     devices available with precompiled distributions of the

     ANNIE is written in Fortran 77 with the following extension:
     use of include files.  The ANN, WAIDE, GRAPH, STATS, AIDE,
     WDM, ADWDM, and UTIL libraries from LIBANNE are required to
     recompile.  For more information, see System Requirements in

     Widely used in watershed modeling projects, regional
     regression analysis projects, and time-series data
     management efforts.

     Flynn, K.M., Hummel, P.R., Lumb, A.M., and Kittle, J.L.,
        Jr., 1995, User's manual for ANNIE, version 2, a computer
        program for interactive hydrologic data management:  U.S.
        Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report
        95-4085, 211 p.

     Kittle, J.L., Jr., Hummel, P.R., and Imhoff, J.C., 1989,
        ANNIE-IDE, a system for developing interactive user
        interfaces for environmental models (programmers guide):
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/3-89/034,
        Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, Ga., 166 p.

     Lumb, A.M., Carsel, R.F., and Kittle, J.L., Jr., 1988, Data
        management for water-quality modeling development and
        use:  Proceedings of the International Symposium on Water
        Quality Modeling of Agricultural Non-Point Sources, 14 p.

     Lumb, A.M., and Kittle, J.L., Jr., 1985, ANNIE - Interactive
        processing of data bases for hydrologic models:
        Proceedings of the International Conference on
        Interactive Information and Processing Systems for
        Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology.

     Lumb, A.M., Kittle, J.L., Jr., and Flynn, K.M., 1990, Users
        manual for ANNIE, a computer program for interactive
        hydrologic analyses and data management: U.S. Geological
        Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4080, 236

     Watershed Systems Modeling I (SW2008TC), offered annually at
     the USGS National Training Center.

     Watershed Systems Modeling II (SW3018TC), offered upon
     request at the USGS National Training Center.

     Statistical Approach to Surface-Water Hydrologic Analysis
     (SW2011TC), offered annually at the USGS National Training

     River Basin Water-Quality Modeling (ID2146TC), offered
     annually at the USGS National Training Center.

     Operation and Distribution:
        U.S. Geological Survey
        Hydrologic Analysis Software Support Program
        437 National Center
        Reston, VA 20192

     Official versions of U.S. Geological Survey water-resources
     analysis software are available for electronic retrieval via
     the World Wide Web (WWW) at:


     and via anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) from:

       (path: /pub/software).

     The WWW page and anonymous FTP directory from which the
     ANNIE software can be retrieved are, respectively:


     for information on ordering printed copies of USGS

     hass-cui(1) - Character-based user interface

     iowdm(1) - Program to store time-series data in a WDM file

     wdm(1) - Watershed Data Management system

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