Distribution of "Channel Scour at Bridges in the United States", by Mark N. Landers and David S. Mueller (Federal Highway Administration Publication FHWA RD 95 184), and of "Bridge-Scour Data Management System User's Manual," by Mark N. Landers, David S. Mueller, and Gary R. Martin  (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-754)

To: "A  - Division Chief and Staff",
        "FO - State, District, Subdistrict and other Field Offices"
cc: " , WRD Archive File, Reston, VA ",
        "Annette L Ledford, Clerk Typist, Reston, VA "
Subject: OSW Technical Memorandum No. 96.10
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Date: Wed, 25 Sep 1996 12:55:23 -0400
From: "Annette L Ledford, Clerk Typist, Reston, VA "

In Reply Refer To:
Mail Stop 415                                          August 19, 1996


SUBJECT:  Distribution of "Channel Scour at Bridges in the United 
          States", by Mark N. Landers and David S. Mueller (Federal 
          Highway Administration Publication FHWA RD 95 184), and of 
          "Bridge-Scour Data Management System User's Manual," by 
          Mark N. Landers, David S. Mueller, and Gary R. Martin 
          (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-754)

Channel scour around bridge foundations is the leading cause of 
bridge failure in the United States, exceeding all other causes 
combined.  Channel scour is difficult to evaluate for bridge 
crossings, where localized scour processes are particularly dynamic. 
Field measurements of channel scour at bridges are needed to improve 
the understanding of scour processes and the ability to predict scour 
depths accurately.  In response to this need, an extensive data base 
of more than 380 pier-scour measurements from 56 bridges has been 
collected over the last several years by the U.S. Geological Survey 
(USGS) in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) 
and several State Departments of Transportation.

The purpose of this memorandum is to distribute two reports related 
to this work.  An initial synthesis of recent bridge-scour 
investigations is contained in the report, Channel Scour at Bridges 
in the United States, by Mark N. Landers and David S. Mueller, and 
published by the FHWA.  Topics included in the report are:  
investigative design; advances in scour-measurement instrumentation 
and techniques; consistent and representative methods to interpret 
scour data; analysis of local-scour processes at bridge piers; and 
evaluation of selected pier-scour equations.  The observed depth of 
channel scour at piers is evaluated in relation to flow intensity, 
flow depth, pier characteristics, and sediment parameters.

The Bridge-Scour Data Management System Users Manual documents the 
data base management system developed to support preparation, 
compilations, and analysis of bridge-scour data.  Bridge-scour data 
sets in this data base contain attributes of channel geometry, flow 
hydraulics, geomorphic setting, location, sediment, and bridge 
specifications.  The users manual includes two 3.5 inch diskettes 
that contain a DOS-based version of the Bridge-Scour Data Management 
System (BSDMS) and the data base of site and measurement data for 
384 pier-scour measurements. The BSDMS is also distributed for DOS 
and for UNIX systems on the Water Resources Applications Software web 
page under /software/bsdms.html.

Over the last several years the USGS has produced many publications 
that address channel scour at bridges. Following is a partial list of 
recent USGS reports related to bridge-scour. In addition to these 
reports, many journal articles and conference proceedings have been 
published. The information in these reports will contribute to the 
improved design and evaluation of bridges, and to the safety of the 
traveling public.

Becker, L.D., 1995, Investigation of Bridge Scour at Selected Sites 
on Missouri Streams, USGS WRIR 94-4200, 40p.

Brabets, Timothy P., 1994, Scour Assessment at Bridges from Flat 
Point to Million Dollar Bridge, Copper River Highway, Alaska, 
USGS WRIR 94-4073, 57p.

Brabets, Timothy P., 1995, Application of surface geophysical 
techniques in a study of the geomorphology of the lower Copper 
River, Alaska, USGS WRIR 94-4165, 33p.

Bryan, B.A., Simon, A., and Outlaw, G.S., 1994, Methods for Assessing 
Channel Conditions Related to Scour-Critical Conditions at 
Bridges in Tennessee, USGS WRIR 94-4229, 54p.

Butch, G.K., 1991, Measurement of Bridge Scour at Selected Sites in
New York, Excluding Long Island, USGS WRIR 91-4083, 17p.

Crumrine, M.D., 1992, Bridge-scour data for the Highway 101 bridge 
over Alsea River Estuary at Waldport, Oregon -- 1988-90, USGS 
OFR 91-531, 48p.

Crumrine, M.D., 1991, Results of a reconnaissance bridge-scour study 
at selected sites in Oregon using surface-geophysical methods, 
1989, USGS WRIR 90-4199, 44p.

Fischer, E.E., 1995, Potential-scour assessments and estimates of 
maximum scour at selected bridges in Iowa, USGS WRIR 95-4051, 75p.

Gorin, S.R., and Haeni, F.P., 1989, Use of surface-geophysical 
methods to assess riverbed scour at bridge piers, USGS 
WRIR 88-4212, 34p.

Hayes, D.C., 1996, Scour at bridge sites in Delaware, Maryland, and 
Virginia, USGS WRIR 96-4089, 35p.

Hayes, D.C. and Drummond, F.E., 1995, Use of Fathometers and 
Electrical-Conductivity Probes to Monitor Riverbed Scour at 
Bridge Piers, USGS WRIR 94-4164, 17p.

Hayes, D.C., 1993, Site Selection and collection of bridge-scour data 
in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, USGS WRIR 93-4017, 23p.

Holmes, R.R. Jr., and Dunn, C.J., 1995, Development, verification, 
and application of a simplified method to estimate total-
streambed scour at bridge sites in Illinois, USGS WRIR 95-4298, 

Jarrett, R.D., and Boyle, J.M., 1986, Pilot study for collection of 
bridge-scour data, USGS WRIR 86-4030, 46p.

Jackson, K.S., 1997, Evaluation of bridge scour data at selected 
sites in Ohio, USGS WRIR 97-xxxx (in review).

Miller, R.L., and Wilson, J.T., 1995, Evaluation of Scour at Selected 
Bridge Sites in Indiana, USGS WRIR 95-4259, 225p.

Mueller, David S., and Landers, Mark N., 1995, Evaluation, 
development, and performance of portable instrumentation and 
deployment systems for real-time measurement of scour at bridges. 
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration 
publication FHWA RD 95 xxx, 1995 (in press). 

Mueller, D.S., Miller, R.L., and Wilson, J.T., 1994, Historical and 
potential scour around bridge piers and abutments of selected 
stream crossings in Indiana, USGS WRIR 93-4066, 109p.

Placzek, Gary, and Haeni, F.P., 1995, Surface-geophysical techniques 
used to detect existing and infilled scour holes near bridge 
piers, USGS WRIR 95-4009, 44p.

Robinson, B.A., and Thompson, R.E., Jr, 1995, An observed-streambed-
scour index for selected bridges in southwestern Indiana, 1991, 
USGS WRIR 95-4264, 7p.

Skinner, J.V., 1986, Measurements of scour-depth near bridge piers, 
USGS WRIR 85-4106, 33p.

Southard, R.E., 1992, Scour Around Bridge Piers on Streams in 
Arkansas, USGS WRIR 92-4126, 29p.

Vaill, J.E., 1995, Application of a sediment-transport model to 
estimate bridge scour at selected sites in Colorado, 1991-93, 
USGS WRIR 95-4179, 37p.

Waltemeyer, S.D., 1995, Bridge-scour analysis on Cuchillo Negro Creek 
at the Interstate 25 crossing near Truth or Consequences, New 
Mexico, USGS WRIR 95-4050, 29 p.

Wilson, K.V., Jr., 1995, Scour at selected bridge sites in 
Mississippi, USGS WRIR 94-4241, 44p.

                                 Thomas H. Yorke
                                 Chief, Office of Surface Water

2 Attachments (Can be obtained through OSW at 703/648-5301)

WRD Distribution:  A, FOL