Adams, Gregory P.
Runkle, Donna
Rea, Alan
1997
Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the BeaverNorth Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma
1.0
map
OpenFile Report
96446
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
https://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?ofr96446_cond
This data set consists of digital hydraulic conductivity values
for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the BeaverNorth
Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern
Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternaryage
alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for
irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies.
The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse,
unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and
basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace
deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiaryage Ogallala
Formation and Permianage formations.
Six zones of ranges of hydraulic conductivity values for the
alluvial and terrace deposits reported in a groundwater
modeling report are used in this data set. The hydraulic
conductivity values range from 0 to 160 feet per day, and
average 59 feet per day.
The features in the data set representing aquifer boundaries
along geological contacts were extracted from a published
digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of
1:250,000. The geographic limits of the aquifer and zones
representing ranges of hydraulic conductivity values were
digitized from folded paper maps, at a scale of 1:250,000
from a groundwater modeling report.
Groundwater flow models are numerical representations that
simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique;
different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce
similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity
used in the model and presented in this data set are not
precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to
independently collected data.
This data set was created for a project to develop data sets to
support groundwater vulnerability analysis. The objective was
to create and document a digital geospatial data set from a
published report or map, or existing digital geospatial data
sets that could be used in groundwater vulnerability analysis.
Introduction 
This data set consists of digital hydraulic conductivity values
for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the BeaverNorth
Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern
Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternaryage
alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for
irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies.
The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse,
unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and
basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace
deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiaryage Ogallala
Formation and Permianage formations (Davis and Christenson,
1981).
The hydraulicconductivity values reported in Davis and
Christenson (1981) and used in this report were determined
during the calibration of a steadystate model of the alluvial
and terrace deposits. The hydraulicconductivity values range
from 0 to 160 feet per day, and average 59 feet per day (Davis
and Christenson, 1981, p. 24). The hydraulic conductivity values
tend to decrease with distance from the BeaverNorth Canadian
River.
The aquifer is divided into six zones representing ranges of
hydraulic conductivity values. The polygon attribute K contains
a code of 1 through 6 that represents different ranges of
hydraulic conductivity values (Davis and Christenson, 1981,
plate 7). The codes and ranges of hydraulic conductivity for the
attribute K in feet per day are: 1 = K less than 20 feet per
day; 2 = K greater than or equal to 20 feet per day and less
than 40 feet per day; 3 = K greater than or equal to 40 feet
per day and less than 60 feet per day; 4 = K greater than or
equal to 60 feet per day and less than 80 feet per day; 5 = K
greater than or equal to 80 feet per day and less than 100 feet
per day; 6 = K greater than 100 feet per day; and 99999 = K
not known.
The lines in the data set representing aquifer boundaries along
geological contacts were extracted from a published digital
surficial geology data set (Cederstrand, 1996) based on a scale
of 1:250,000. The polygon boundaries of zones of hydraulic
conductivity values were digitized from a folded paper map
in the U.S. Geological Survey publication, "Geohydrology and
numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along
the BeaverNorth Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton
Lake, northwestern Oklahoma," by Davis and Christenson (1981,
plate 7). Additional boundaries defining the the geographic
limits of the aquifer were digitized from a folded paper
map at a scale of 1:250,000 by Davis and Christenson (1981,
plate 3).
Groundwater flow models are numerical representations that
simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique;
different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce
similar results. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge are
closely interrelated. As long as these two model inputs are in
balance the model has a small mean residual; it represents the
natural system numerically. If the hydraulic conductivity is
accurately known, the model can be used to accurately determine
recharge. Likewise, if the hydraulic conductivity is poorly
known, then the recharge will be poorly determined.
Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity used in the model
and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a
reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.
In most aquifers, hydraulic conductivity measurements made in
wells or in cores will range over several orders of magnitude,
even over short horizontal and vertical distances. Hydraulic
conductivity values derived from groundwater flow models
represent areal generalizations and do not reflect the large
local variance in well or core measurements.
Reviews Applied to Data 
This electronic report was subjected to the same review standard
that applies to all U.S. Geological Survey reports. Reviewers
were asked to check the topological consistency, tolerances,
attribute frequencies and statistics, projection, and geographic
extent. Reviewers were given digital data sets and paper plots
for checking against the source maps to verify the linework and
attributes. The reviewers checked the metadata and a_readme.1st
files for completeness and accuracy.
Related Spatial and Tabular Data Sets 
This data set is one of four digital map data sets being published
together for this aquifer. The four data sets are:
> aqbound  aquifer boundaries
> cond  hydraulic conductivity
> recharg  aquifer recharge
> wlelev  waterlevel elevation contours
Digital map data sets of the Oklahoma surficial geology
digitized from 1:250,000scale maps (or 1:125,000scale maps for
the three Oklahoma panhandle counties) are published separately.
Other References Cited 
Cederstrand, J.R., 1996, Digital geologic map of Woodward
quadrangle, northwest Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey
OpenFile Report 96381, based on a scale of 1:250,000, 2
diskettes. (Available in nonproprietary and ARC/INFO formats.)
URL:http://wwwok.cr.usgs.gov/gis/geology/index.html
Davis, R.E. and Christenson, S.C., 1981, Geohydrology and numerical
simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the
BeaverNorth Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake,
northwestern Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Openfile Report
81483, 42 p., 15 pl.
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI), 1995,
ARC/INFO Command Reference, ARC/INFO Online manuals: Redlands,
CA.
Notes 
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive
purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S.
Government.
Although this data set has been used by the U.S. Geological
Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, no warranty expressed or
implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy
of the data and related materials.
The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty,
and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in
the use of this data, software, or related materials.
1981
publication date
None planned
99.9650
98.5487
36.9727
36.0439
none
groundwater vulnerability
groundwater vulnerability
aquifers
ground water
groundwater
North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifer
North Canadian alluvial and terrace aquifer
Beaver River alluvial and terrace aquifer
Beaver alluvial and terrace aquifer
alluvial and terrace aquifer
terrace aquifer
alluvial aquifer
terrace
terrace deposits
alluvium
hydraulic conductivity
inlandWaters
none
northwestern Oklahoma
None.
Lines representing geological contacts were extracted from the
digital geology data set by Cederstrand (1996), based on a scale
of 1:250,000. Lines representing the geographic limits of the
aquifer were digitized from a folded paper map (30 inches by
22 inches) at a scale of 1:250,000 from Davis and Christenson
(1981, plate 7). The lines digitized from the source map had a
maximum registration rootmeansquarederror (RMSE) of 0.018 map
inches (0.046 centimeters) or 377.76 feet (115.14 meters) ground
distance. Boundaries represented at these scales are indicative of
broad, regional trends and should not be interpreted as site
specific.
Groundwater flow models are numerical representations that
simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique;
different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce
similar results. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge are
closely interrelated. As long as these two model inputs are in
balance the model has a small mean residual; it represents the
natural system numerically. If the hydraulic conductivity is
accurately known, the model can be used to accurately determine
recharge. Likewise, if the hydraulic conductivity is poorly known,
then the recharge will be poorly determined.
Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity used in the model
and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within
a reasonable range when compared to independently collected
data. In most aquifers, hydraulic conductivity measurements
made in wells or in cores will range over several orders of
magnitude, even over short horizontal and vertical distances.
Hydraulic conductivity values derived from groundwater flow
models represent areal generalizations and do not reflect the
large local variance in well or core measurements.
Donna L. Runkle
U.S. Geological Survey
Hydrologist
mailing address
202 NW 66th St., Bldg. 7
Oklahoma City
Oklahoma
73116
United States of America
18882758747
(405) 8437712
dlrunkle@usgs.gov
none
https://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/ofr96446.gif
A browse image of the four aquifer data sets.
GIF
Compilation of this data set and the associated metadata was
funded under a cooperative Joint Funding Agreement between the
U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Oklahoma, Office of
the Secretary of Environment.
Public
UNCLASSIFIED
None
Operating System UNIX, ARC/INFO Version 7.0.3,(Mon Mar 13 22:21:55 PST 1995)
Cederstrand, Joel R.
1996
Digitized geology of Woodward quadrangle,
northwestern Oklahoma
1.0
map
OpenFile Report
96381
Oklahoma City, OK
U.S. Geological Survey
http://wwwok.cr.usgs.gov/gis/geology/index.html
Chainnode topology present.
This data set includes the areas of specified hydraulic
conductivity published on plate 7 by Davis and Christenson
(1981). Boundaries with a value of 2 for the LSOURCE line
attribute were taken from Cederstrand (1996).
None
64 meters
Resolution as reported
None.
Boundaries along geological contacts were extracted from a
digital geology data set. The ARC/INFO CLEAN command (ESRI,
1995) was used with a dangle length of 0.0 feet or meters
and fuzzy tolerance of 10.0 meters. The ARC/INFO PROJECT
command (ESRI, 1995) was used to convert the extracted data
set projection from Albers Conical Equal Area to Universal
Transverse MercatorZone 14.
1996
Ten registration tics were located on the data set and the
source map at township and range corners. The 10 registration
tics were projected into Universal Transverse MercatorZone
14, which was the projection used for manual digitizing. The
polygon boundaries were digitized in two sessions with a
maximum registration rootmeansquared error (RMSE) of 0.018
inches (0.046 centimeters) map distance or 377.76 feet) 115.14
meters ground distance.
1996
The data set was edited to delete extraneous pseudo and dangle
nodes. The ARC/INFO CLEAN command (ESRI, 1995), was used with
a dangle length of 32.8 feet (10.0 meters) and fuzzy tolerance
of 0.0 feet or meters.
1996
The registration tics used in the initial digitizing were
township and range corners taken form 1:24,000scale
topographic maps. A comparison of a paper plot of the data set
with the source map showed that the township and range corners
were not in the same locations on the 1:250,000scale source
map. To correct the problem a 1:250,000scale U.S. Geological
Survey quadrangle map was registered using latitudinal and
longitudinal registration tics, with a maximum
rootmeansquarederror (RMSE) of 0.003 inches (0.007
centimeters) map distance or 72.97 feet (22.24 meters) ground
distance. Ten registration tics were selected and digitized
from the quadrangle map, and given the same tic identification
numbers as the tics that were used initially. These new tics
were used with the ARC/INFO TRANSFORM command (ESRI, 1995) to
adjust the digitized lines to more closely match the source
map. The registration rootmeansquarederror (RMSE) for
TRANSFORM was 403.90 feet (123.11 meters) ground distance or
0.019 map inches (0.048 map centimeters).
1996
The ARC/INFO PROJECT command (ESRI, 1995) was used to convert
the data set projection from Universal Transverse
MercatorZone 14 to Albers Conical Equal Area. The ARC/INFO
CLEAN command (ESRI, 1995) was used with a dangle length of
0.0 feet (0.0 meters) and fuzzy tolerance of 32.8 feet (10.0
meters). Polygons were attributed for K and lines were
attributed for LSOURCE. Verification of attribute codes were
made by comparing a paper plot of the data set with the source
map.
1996
Vector
Point
101
String
301
GTpolygon composed of chains
102
Albers Conical Equal Area
29.5
45.5
96
23
0.0
0.0
coordinate pair
64 meters
64 meters
METERS
North American Datum of 1983
Geodetic Reference System 80
6378137
298.257
COND.PAT
Polygon attribute table
ARC/INFO

Polygon attribute table
ARC/INFO

n/a
n/a
AREA
Area of polygon in square coverage units
Computed
Positive real numbers
n/a
n/a
PERIMETER
Perimeter of polygon in coverage units
Computed
Positive real numbers
n/a
n/a
COND#
Internal feature number
Computed
Sequential unique positive integer
n/a
n/a
CONDID
Userassigned feature number
Userdefined
Integer
n/a
n/a
K
Ranges of k values by zones,
see Entity_and _Attribute_Overview Section
Davis and Christenson (1981)
1,2,3,4,5,6, 99999
Zone 1, less than 20 feet per day
Zone 2, greater than or equal to 20 feet per day and less than 40 feet per day
Zone 3, greater than or equal to 40 feet per day and less than 60 feet per day
Zone 4, greater than or equal to 60 feet per day and less than 80 feet per day
Zone 5, greater than or equal to 80 feet per day and less than 100 feet per day
Zone 6, greater than or equal to 100 feet per day
Davis and Christenson (1981)
MAJOR1
Ranges of k values by zones,
see Entity_and _Attribute_Overview Section
Davis and Christenson (1981)
1,2,3,4,5,6, 99999
Zone 1, less than 20 feet per day
Zone 2, greater than or equal to 20 feet per day and less than 40 feet per day
Zone 3, greater than or equal to 40 feet per day and less than 60 feet per day
Zone 4, greater than or equal to 60 feet per day and less than 80 feet per day
Zone 5, greater than or equal to 80 feet per day and less than 100 feet per day
Zone 6, greater than or equal to 100 feet per day
Davis and Christenson (1981)
MINOR1
Blank item for DLG
Calculated
0
n/a
n/a
COND.AAT
Arc attribute table
ARC/INFO

Arc attribute table
ARC/INFO

n/a
n/a
FNODE#
Internal number of fromnode
Computed
Sequential unique positive integer
n/a
n/a
TNODE#
Internal number of tonode
Computed
Sequential unique positive integer
n/a
n/a
LPOLY#
Internal number of polygon to left of arc
Computed
Sequential unique positive integer
n/a
n/a
RPOLY#
Internal number of polygon to right of arc
Computed
Sequential unique positive integer
n/a
n/a
LENGTH
Length of arc in coverage units
Computed
Positive real numbers
n/a
n/a
COND#
Internal feature number
Computed
Sequential unique positive integer
n/a
n/a
CONDID
Userassigned feature number
Userdefined
Integer
n/a
n/a
LSOURCE
Source of line
Davis and Christenson (1981),
Cederstrand (1996)
1,2
n/a
n/a
MAJOR1
Source of line
Davis and Christenson (1981),
Cederstrand (1996)
1,2
n/a
n/a
MINOR1
Blank item for DLG
Calculated
0
n/a
n/a
Each polygon in this data set has an associated attribute, K,
containing a code of 1 through 6 that represents a range of
hydraulic conductivity values. The codes and ranges of hydraulic
conductivity for the attribute K in feet per day (ft/d) are as
follows:
1 = K less than 20 ft/d;
2 = K greater than or equal to 20 ft/d and less than 40 ft/d;
3 = K greater than or equal to 40 ft/d and less than 60 ft/d;
4 = K greater than or equal to 60 ft/d and less than 80 ft/d;
5 = K greater than or equal to 80 ft/d and less than 100 ft/d;
6 = K greater than 100 ft/d;
99999 = K is not known
K code is stored in the first major code (MAJOR1) for polygons,
and 0 is stored in the first minor code (MINOR1) in the Digital
Line Graph (DLG) version of this data set.
Each line in this digital data set has an associated attribute,
LSOURCE, that contains a code to indicate the line source. An
LSOURCE code of 1 indicates the line was digitized from Davis
and Christenson (1981), and an LSOURCE code of 2 indicates the
line was extracted from Cederstrand (1996). LSOURCE is stored
in the first major code (MAJOR1) for lines, and 0 is stored in
the first minor code (MINOR1) in the Digital Line Graph (DLG)
version of this data set.
See overview.
U.S. Geological Survey
Ask USGS  Water Webserver Team
mailing
445 National Center
Reston
VA
20192
18882758747 (1888ASKUSGS)
https://water.usgs.gov/user_feedback_form.html
Although this data set has been used by the U.S. Geological
Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, no warranty expressed or
implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy
of the data and related materials. The act of distribution shall not
constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by
the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of this data, software, or
related materials.
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive
purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S.
Government.
Export
Full coverage
zipped
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https://water.usgs.gov/GIS/dsdl/ofr96446_cond.e00.gz
Other
DLG file format
zipped
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None. This dataset is provided by USGS as a public service.
20041108
U.S. Geological Survey
Ask USGS  Water Webserver Team
mailing
445 National Center
Reston
VA
20192
18882758747 (1888ASKUSGS)
https://answers.usgs.gov/cgibin/gsanswers?pemail=h2oteam&subject=GIS+Dataset+ofr96446_cond
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