State Water Resources Research Institute Program
Project Id: 2010NV161B
Title: Predicting Solar Still Water Production by Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Project Type: Research
Start Date: 3/01/2010
End Date: 2/28/2011
Congressional District: NV01
Focus Categories: Water Supply, Water Quantity, Water Quality
Keywords: Solar Stills, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, Performance Prediction, Distillation, Solar, Leadership in Energy
Principal Investigators: Said, Aly (University of Nevada, Las Vegas); James, David Earl (Univ of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Federal Funds: $ 7,890
Non-Federal Matching Funds: $ 21,684
Abstract: With the rising cost and limited supply of traditional fossil fuels, both water transportation costs and distillation processes such as multistage flash, multiple effect, vapor compression, reverse osmosis, electrolysis, phase change, and solvent extraction will see their price per unit of water increase drastically. Solar distillation is a simple and clean technology which can be used to distill brackish or polluted water into drinkable water and can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependence that presently exists at distillation plants. Being able to predict solar still performance from long-term solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and cloud cover data, while taking into account meteorological variations, will prove to be a novel scientific investment to better the quality of life for Nevada and many people in need of potable water worldwide.
Solar stills can be considered as a miniature watershed, producing varying amounts of potable water in response to fluctuating meteorological conditions. Adequate prediction of solar still output using conventionally-obtained meteorological data would enable accurate, cost-effective, conservative design of solar still installations to deliver predicted water yields to meet a community's potable water needs for arid locations on the earth's surface.
Solar stills could be widely implemented in Nevada because of its combination of ample sunlight and, in many locations, supplies of surface or groundwaters that require treatment before becoming potable. These types of conditions also exist in many arid locations worldwide where groundwater is contaminated with arsenic or fluoride as their only available supply; as a result, many people suffer chronic health impairments from consuming these supplies. In the southwestern U.S., contaminated surface runoff or ground water could be purified for use as a potable supply in remote locations, irrigation of food crops, or for landscape irrigation. Furthermore, in an urban set up, solar stills could also be implemented into Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) projects for onsite treatment of wastewater and runoff; this could qualify for credits towards United States Green Building Council (USGBC) accreditation.
Progress/Completion Report, 2010, PDF