Industrial water use includes water for such purposes as processing, washing, and cooling in facilities that manufacture products. Major water-using industries include, but are not limited to, steel, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and petroleum refining.
Many States have developed permit programs that require reporting of industrial withdrawals and return flows. Estimates for 1990 are improved over those of previous years because of the availability of more comprehensive inventories of industrial facilities and more complete water-use records. Information on deliveries from public suppliers to industrial users were estimated from a variety of methods if not available directly from public suppliers. Consumptive-use estimates generally were based on coefficients ranging from 3 to 80 percent (depending on the type of industry) of withdrawals and deliveries.
Industrial water use (freshwater withdrawals, public-supply deliveries, saline water withdrawals) during 1990 was an estimated 19,300 Mgal/d of self-supplied freshwater, 5,190 Mgal/d of public-supplied freshwater, and an additional 3,270 Mgal/d of saline water. (See table 19: water-resources regions and table 20: States.) Industrial freshwater use during 1990 was 13 percent less than during 1985 and represents 7 percent of total freshwater use for all offstream categories. Surface water was the source for about 82 percent of self-supplied industrial withdrawals; ground water, 18 percent; and reclaimed wastewater, only a fraction of 1 percent. Public-supplied deliveries to industries accounted for 13 percent of public-supply withdrawals.
The source and disposition of water for industrial purposes are shown in the pie charts below (or as a GIF file or PostScript file (94Kb)). The consumptive use of freshwater for industrial purposes during 1990 was 3,330 Mgal/d, or 14 percent of freshwater withdrawals and deliveries; saline consumptive use was 913 Mgal/d, or about 28 percent of saline water withdrawals.
In 1990, the Great Lakes and Mid Atlantic water-resources regions had the largest withdrawals for industrial purposes as shown in figure 20 (GIF file), or (PostScript file (620Kb)). Indiana, Louisiana, Texas, Pennsylvania, and Michigan reported the largest state withdrawals for industries as shown in figure 21 (GIF file) or (PostScript file (508Kb)). Indiana, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Michigan reported the largest freshwater use (figure 22 (GIF file)), or (PostScript file (508Kb)), and Maryland and Texas reported the largest quantities of reclaimed wastewater used by industries.
Last updated Monday, 24-Feb-2014 14:37:07 EST
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