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USGS personnel collect a water-quality sample on the Missouri River. USGS/Photo by Kelly Brady.


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National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9)

Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples (Version 2.0, 9/2006) [3 MB PDF]

Revised September 2006 Franceska D. Wilde, Managing Editor


This report is in pdf format. Download a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader for free.


Abstract

Chapter A4 describes preparations and methods for the collection of surface-water, ground-water, and associated quality-control samples. Topics covered in this chapter include procedures to prevent sample contamination, establishing site files, instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing-water and still-water sites, and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

Sections of Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples:

Introduction

Purpose and scope

Requirements and recommendations

Field manual review and revision

Acknowledgments

4.0. Responsibilities, field preparations, and preventing sample contamination

4.0.1. Responsibilities and field preparations

4.0.2. Preventing sample contamination

4.1. Surface-water sampling

4.1.1. Site files

4.1.2. Selection of surface-water sampling sites

4.1.3. Sampling at flowing-water and still-water sites

4.2. Ground-water sampling

4.2.1. Site inventory and site files

4.2.2. Considerations for collecting representative samples at wells

4.2.3. Well purging

4.2.4. Steps for sampling at wells

4.3. Quality control

4.3.1. Blank samples

4.3.2. Replicate samples

4.3.3. Spike samples

4.3.4. Reference samples

4.3.5. Blind samples

Conversion factors, selected terms, and abbreviations

Selected references and documents

Appendixes

Appendix A4-A. Transit rate and volume guidelines for isokinetic sampling

Appendix A4-B. Instructions related to measuring water levels at wells, and a sample USGS ground-water-quality field form

Appendix A4-C. Quality-control samples collected by field personnel for water-quality studies

Appendix A4-D. Examples from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program related to protocols for collecting blank samples at ground-water sampling sites

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