USGS Water-Quality Information
Water Quality Data
Today's Water Conditions
Get continuous real-time water-quality measurements from Water-Quality Watch maps.
Water Quality Portal (WQP)
Get current and historical USGS and EPA water-quality data at the WQP.
Get stream ecosystem aquatic bioassessment data from BioData.
For More Data
USGS in Your Area
USGS Water Science Centers are located in each state.
7.5 Cyanobacteria In Lakes And Reservoirs: Toxin And Taste-And-Odor Sampling Guidelines (9/2008) [3 MB PDF]
By Jennifer L. Graham, Keith A. Loftin, Andrew C. Ziegler, and Michael T. Meyer
Download a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader for free.
The study of cyanobacteria and associated toxins and taste-and-odor compounds is an active area of research. Cyanobacteria and the compounds they produce are receiving increased attention as an economic, environmental, and human health issue. Consistent guidelines and sampling protocols are needed for the development of scientific studies of cyanobacterial toxins and taste-and-odor compounds in order to produce nationally comparable data sets that will allow for scientifically based evaluation and interpretation among a spectrum of studies in various areas. NFM 7.5 provides background information on cyanobacteria and study designs and objectives related to the occurrence of cyanobacterial populations in lakes and reservoirs, and describes standard USGS procedures for collecting, processing, and handling samples to be analyzed for cyanobacterial community composition (enumeration and identification) and total, particulate, and dissolved cyanobacterial toxins and taste-and-odor compounds.
7.5 Cyanobacteria in lakes and reservoirs: Toxin and taste-and-odor sampling guidelines
7.5.1 - Light intensity and thermal stratification in lakes and reservoirs
7.5.2 - Cyanobacteria, toxins, and taste-and-odor compounds
7.5.3 - Temporal and spatial variability of cyanobacteria
7.5.4 - Study objectives and designs
7.5.5 - Sample collection
7.5.6 - Sample holding time, processing, and shipping
7.5.7 - Analytical techniques
7.5.8 - Safety considerations
7.5.9 - Reporting of cyanobacterial populations, toxins, and taste-and-odor compounds
7.5.10 - Selected references
7.5.11 - Acknowledgments
7.5.12 - Glossary
Appendices - Examples of designs and approaches for studies
Citation for Section 7.5
Graham, J.L., Loftin, K.A., Ziegler, A.C., and Meyer, M.T., 2008, Cyanobacteria in lakes and reserviors—Toxin and taste-and-odor sampling guidelines (ver. 1.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A7, section 7.5, September, accessed__date__ from http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/.