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USGS personnel collect a water-quality sample on the Missouri River. USGS/Photo by Kelly Brady.
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7.2 Fecal Indicator Viruses (11/2003) [325 KB PDF]
By R.N. Bushon
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More than 100 types of human pathogenic viruses may be present in fecal-contaminated waters. Coliphages are used as indicators of virus-related fecal contamination and of the microbiological quality of waters. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory methods that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator viruses.
7.2 Fecal indicator viruses
7.2.1 - Sampling equipment and equipment sterilization procedures
7.2.2 - Sample collection, preservation, transport, and holding times
7.2.3 - Laboratory methods
7.2.4 - Calculation and reporting of fecal indicator viruses>
Citation for Section 7.2
Bushon, R.N., 2003, Fecal indicator viruses: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A7, section 7.2, November, accessed __list date__ from http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/.