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Chapter A6. Field Measurements

National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9)

Selected References, Selected Documents, and Publications on Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations


Selected References For

6.0 - General Guidelines
6.1 - Temperature
6.2 - Dissolved Oxygen
6.3 - Specific Electrical Conductance
6.4 - pH
6.5 - Reduction-Oxidation Potential (Electrode Method)
6.6 - Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity (version 1.1)
6.7 - Turbidity

Selected Documents

Water Quality
WRD

Publications on Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations

Book 1. Collection of Water Data by Direct Measurement
Book 2. Collection of Environmental Data
Book 3. Applications of Hydraulics
Book 4. Hydrologic Analysis and Interpretation
Book 5. Laboratory Analysis
Book 6. Modeling Techniques
Book 7. Automated Data Processing and Computations
Book 8. Instrumentation
Book 9. Handbooks for Water-Resources Investigations


Selected References For
6.0 - General Guidelines

ASTM International, 2005, D6462-99 (2005), Standard guide for purging methods for wells used for ground-water quality investigations: ASTM International publication accessed May 5, 2005, at http://www.astm.org.

______, 1992, Standards on ground water and vadose zone investigations: American Society for Testing and Materials publication code number 03-4181920-38, 166 p.

Edwards, T.K., and Glysson, D.G., 1999, Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, book 3, chap. C2, 80 p.

Fishman, M.J., and Friedman, L.C., 1989, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, book 5, chap. A1, 545 p.

Hem, J.D., 1986, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, 263 p.

Hoopes, B.C., ed., 2004, User's manual for the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1238, 262 p.

Horowitz, A.J., Demas, C.R., Fitzgerald, K.K., Miller, T.L., and Rickert, D.A., 1994, U.S. Geological Survey protocol for the collection and processing of surface-water samples for the subsequent determination of inorganic constituents in filtered water: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-539, 57 p.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1991, Hydrolab H2O, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, December 1991, p. 7-9.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1992, pH, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, March 1992, p. 7-8.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1992, pH, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, September 1992, p. 8.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1992, Conductivity, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, December 1992, p. 12-13.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1993, pH, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, March 1993, p. 10-14.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1992, Hydrolab's H2O, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, March 1993, p. 4-5.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1993, Dissolved oxygen, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, September 1993, unnumbered insert.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1994, Temperature measurement tests, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, September 1994, p. 3-7; 10-12.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1994, Turbidity meter tests, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, June 1994, p. 11-13.

Kearl, P.M., Korte, N.E., and Cronk, T.A., 1992, Suggested modifications to ground water sampling procedures based on observations from the colloidal borescope: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 12, no. 2, p. 155-160.

Koterba, M.T., Wilde, F.D., and Lapham, W.W. , 1995, Ground-water data-collection protocols and procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program--collection and documentation of water-quality samples and related data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-399, 113 p.

Lapham, W.W., Wilde, F.D., and Koterba, M.T., 1997, Guidelines and standard procedures for studies of ground-water quality--selection and installation of wells, and supporting documentation: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4233, 110 p.

Puls, R.W., and Powell, R.M., 1992, Acquisition of representative ground water quality samples for metals: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 12, no. 3, p. 167-176.

Puls, R.W., Powell, R.M., Clark, D.A., and Paul, C.J., 1991, Facilitated transport of inorganic contaminants in ground water, part II, Colloidal transport: Ada, Oklahoma, Robert S. Kerr Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA/600/m-91/040, 12 p.

Rantz, S.E., and others, 1982, Measurement and computation of streamflow: Volume 1, Measurement of stage, and Volume 2, Computation of discharge: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2175, v. 1, p. 1-284, v. 2, p. 285-631.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1978, Sediment, chap. 3 in U.S. Geological Survey, National handbook of recommended methods for water-data acquisition: p. 3-1 to 3-100.

Ward, J.R., and Harr, C.A., 1990, Methods for collection and processing of surface-water and bed-material samples for physical and chemical analyses: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-140, 71 p.

Wells, F.C., Gibbons, W.J., and Dorsey, M.E., 1990, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-127, 79 p.


Selected References For
6.1- Temperature

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 2-59.

Stevens, H.H. Jr., Ficke, J.F., and Smoot, G.F., 1975, Water temperature--influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D1, 65 p.

Ween, Sidney, 1968, Care and use of liquid-in-glass laboratory thermometers: Transactions of Instrument Society of America, v. 7, no. 2, p. 93-100.

Wood, W.W., 1976, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D2, 24 p.


Selected References For
6.2- Dissolved Oxygen

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 4-98 to 4-105.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1981, Standard test methods for dissolved oxygen in water, No. D 888: Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 529-543.

Brown, Eugene, Skougstad, M.W., and Fishman, M.J., 1970, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 126-129.

Hem, J.D., 1985, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (3d ed.): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, p. 155-156.

Skougstad, M.W., Fishman, M.J., Friedman, L.C., Erdmann, D.E., and Duncan, S.S., eds., 1979, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, 626 p.

Walters, G.L., ed., 1989, Hach water analysis handbook: Loveland, Colo., Hach Company, p. 430-452.

Weiss, R.F., 1970, The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater: Deep Sea Research, v. 17, p. 721-735.

Wells, F.C., Gibbons, W.J., and Dorsey, M.E., 1990, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-127, p. 56-65.

White, A.F., Peterson, M.L., and Solbau, R.D., 1990, Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water: Ground Water, v. 28, no. 4, p. 584-590.

Wood, W.W., 1981, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D2, p. 22-24.


Selected References For
6.3 - Specific Electrical Conductance

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 2-43 to 2-48.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, Standard test methods for electrical conductivity and resistivity of water, No. D 1125-77: Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 138-146.

Brown, Eugene, Skougstad, M.W., and Fishman, M.J., 1970, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 148-150.

Fishman, M.J., and Friedman, L.C., eds., 1989, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 461-463.

Hem, J.D., 1982, Conductance--a collective measure of dissolved ions, in Minear, R.A., and Keith, L.H., eds., Water analysis, v. 1, inorganic species, pt. 1: New York, Academic Press, p. 137-161.

______ 1985, Study and interpretation of chemical characteristics of natural water (3d ed.): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, p. 66-69.

Rainwater, F.H., and Thatcher, L.L., 1960, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1454, p. 275-278.

Roberson, C.E., Feth, J.H., Seaber, P.R., and Anderson, Peter, 1963, Differences between field and laboratory determinations of pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance of natural water: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-C, p. C212-C215.

Shelton, L.R., 1994, Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-455, 42 p.

Wells, F.C., Gibbons, W.J., and Dorsey, M.E., 1990, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-127, p. 42-44.

Wood, W.W., 1981, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D2, p. 11.


Selected References For
6.4 - pH

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 4-65 to 4-69.

Barnes, Ivan, 1964, Field measurement of alkalinity and pH: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1535-H, 17 p.

Bates, R.G., 1973, Determination of pH--theory and practice (2d ed.): New York, John Wiley, 479 p.

Beckman Instruments, Inc., 1986, The Beckman handbook of applied electrochemistry: Fullerton, Calif., 86 p.

Brown, Eugene, Skougstad, M.W., and Fishman, M.J., 1970, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 129-130.

Busenberg, Eurybiades, and Plummer, L.N., 1987, pH measurement of low-conductivity waters: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4060, 21 p.

Drever, J.I., 1988, The geochemistry of natural waters (2d ed.): Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, p. 282-304.

Fishman, M.J., and Friedman, L.C., eds., 1989, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 363-364.

Hem, J.D., 1985, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (3d ed.): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, p. 61-66.

Orion Research Inc., 1982, Handbook of electrode technology: Cambridge, Mass., p. P2-P4.

Roberson, C.E., Feth, J.H., Seaber, P.R., and Anderson, Peter, 1963, Differences between field and laboratory determinations of pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance of natural water: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-C, p. C212-C215.

Shelton, L.R., 1994, Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-455, 42 p.

Stumm, Werner, and Morgan, J.J., 1981, Aquatic chemistry--an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters (2d ed.): New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 131-134 and 483-487.

Wells, F.C., Gibbons, W.J., and Dorsey, M.E., 1990, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-127, p. 47-50.

Wood, W.W., 1981, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D2, p. 12.


Selected References For
6.5 - Reduction-Oxidation Potential (Electrode Method)

Adams, R.N., 1969, Electrochemistry at solid electrodes: New York, Marcel Dekker, 402 p.

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 2-60 to 2-63.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, ASTM Standard Practice D 1498-76, Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 208-212.

Back, William, and Barnes, I.L., 1965, Relation of electrochemical potentials and iron content to ground-water flow patterns: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 498-C, 16 p.

Barcelona, M.J., Holm, T.R., Schock, M.R., and George, G.K., 1989, Spatial and temporal gradients in aquifer oxidation-reduction conditions: Water Resources Research, v. 25, no. 5, p. 991-1,003.

Baedecker, M.J., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1992, The determination and fate of unstable constituents of contaminated groundwater, in Lesage, Suzanne, and Jackson, R.E., eds., Groundwater contamination and analysis at hazardous waste sites: New York, Marcel Dekker, p. 425-461.

Berner, R.A., 1963, Electrode studies of hydrogen sulfide in marine sediments: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 27, p. 563-575.

______ 1981, A new geochemical classification of sedimentary environments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 51, 359-365.

Boulegue, Jacques, and Michard, Gil, 1979, Sulfur speciations and redox processes in reducing environments, in Jenne, E.A., ed., Chemical modeling in aqueous systems: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 93, p. 25-50.

Bricker, O.P., 1965, Some stability relations in the system Mn-O2-H2O at 25°C and 1 atm, total pressure: American Mineralogist, v. 50, p. 1,296-1,354.

______1982, Redox potential--its measurement and importance in water systems, in Minear, R.A., and Keith, L.H., eds., Water analysis, v. 1, pt. 1: Orlando, Fla., Academic Press, p. 55-83.

Callame, B., 1968, Contribution a l'etude des potentials d'oxydo-reduction dans les sediments marins: Cah. Oceanographie, v. 20, p. 305-319.

Champ, D.R., Gulens, R.L., and Jackson, R.E., 1979, Oxidation-reduction sequences in ground water flow systems: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 16, p. 12-23.

Chateau, H., 1954, Déterminations précises des potentiels de référence données par les electrodes au calomel entre 5 et 70°C: Journal de Chimie Physique, v. 51, p. 590-593.

Doyle, R.W., 1968, The origin of the ferrous-ion ferric oxide Nernst potential in environments containing dissolved ferrous iron: American Journal of Science, v. 266, p. 840-859.

Edmunds, W.M., 1973, Trace element variations across an oxidation-reduction barrier in a limestone aquifer: Proceedings of Symposium on Hydrogeochemistry and Biogeochemistry, Tokyo, 1970, p. 500-527.

Ficken, J.R., 1988, Recent development of downhole water samplers for trace organics, in Collins, A.G., and Johnson, A.I., eds., 1988, Ground-water contamination--field methods: American Society for Testing and Materials Special Technical Publication 963, Philadelphia, ASTM, p. 253-257.

Hem, J.D., 1982, Conductance--a collective measure of dissolved ions, in Minear, R.A., and Keith, L.H., eds., Water analysis, v. 1, inorganic species, pt. 1: New York, Academic Press, p. 137-161.

Hostettler, J.D., 1984, Electrode electrons, aqueous electrons, and redox potentials in natural waters: American Journal of Science, v. 284, p. 734-759.

Langmuir, Donald, 1971, Eh-pH determination, in Carver, R.E., ed., Sedimentary petrology: New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 597-634.

Lindberg, R.D., and Runnells, D.D., 1984, Ground water redox reactions--an analysis of equilibrium state applied to Eh measurements and geochemical modeling: Science, v. 225, p. 925-927.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1977, Thermochemical redox equilibria of ZoBell's solution: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 41, p. 1,835-1,841.

Nordstrom, D.K., Jenne, E.A., and Ball, J.W., 1979, Redox equilibria of iron in acid mine waters, in Jenne, E.A., ed., Chemical modeling in aqueous systems: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 93, p. 51-79.

Pankow, J.F., 1991, Aquatic chemistry concepts: Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, 673 p.

Sato, Michiaki, 1960, Dissolved oxygen in aqueous systems: Economic Geology, v. 55, p. 928-949.

Stumm, Werner, 1966, Redox potential as an environmental parameter--conceptual significance and operational limitation, in Advances in water pollution research--Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Munich, Germany, September 1966: p. 283-307.

Stumm, Werner, and Morgan, J.J., 1981, Aquatic chemistry--an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters (2d ed.): New York, John Wiley & Sons, 780 p.

Thorstenson, D.C., 1984, The concept of electron activity and its relation to redox potentials in aqueous geochemical systems: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84-072, 45 p.

Thorstenson, D.C., Fisher, D.W., and Croft, M.G., 1979, The geochemistry of the Fox Hills-Basal Hell Creek aquifer in southwestern North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota: Water Resources Research, v. 15, p. 1,479-1,498.

Truesdell, A.H., 1968, The advantage of using pe rather than Eh in redox equilibrium calculations: Journal of Geological Education, v. 16, p. 17-20.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1977, Ground water, chap. 2, in U.S. Geological Survey, National handbook of recommended methods for water-data acquisition: p. 2-101 to 2-108.

Welch, A.H., Lico, M.S., and Hughes, J.L., 1988, Arsenic in ground water of the western United States: Ground Water, v. 26, no. 3, p. 333-347.

Whitfield, M.S., 1974, Thermodynamic limitations on the use of the platinum electrode in Eh measurements: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 19, p. 857-865.


Selected References For
6.6 - Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity

Almgren, Tom, Dryssen, David, and Strandberg, Mats, 1977, Computerized high-precision titrations of some major constituents of seawater on board the R.V. Dmitry Mendeleev: Deep-Sea Research, v. 24, p. 345-364.

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 2-25 to 2-28.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, Standard test methods for acidity or alkalinity of water, No. D 1067: Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 129-137.

Baedecker, M.J., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1992, The determination and fate of unstable constituents of contaminated groundwater, in Lesage, Suzanne, and Jackson, R.E., eds., Groundwater contamination and analysis at hazardous waste sites: New York, Marcel Dekker, p. 425-461.

Barnes, Ivan, 1964, Field measurement of alkalinity and pH: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1535-H, 17 p.

Brown, Eugene, Skougstad, M.W., and Fishman, M.J., 1970, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 41-44.

Drever, J.I., 1988, The geochemistry of natural waters (2d ed.): Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, p. 48-58.

Edmond, J.M., 1970, High precision determination of titration alkalinity and total carbon dioxide content of sea water by potentiometric titration: Deep Sea Research, v. 17, p. 737-750.

Fishman, M.J., and Friedman, L.C., eds., 1989, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, 545 p.

Gran, G., 1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations: Analyst, v. 77, n. 920, p. 661-671.

Hansson, Ingemar, and Jagner, Daniel, 1973, Evaluation of the accuracy of Gran plots by means of computer calculations--application to the potentiometric titration of the total alkalinity and carbonate content in sea water: Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 12 p.

Hem, J.D., 1985, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (3d ed.): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, p. 105-111.

Horowitz, A.J., Demas, C.R., Fitzgerald, K.K., Miller, T.L., and Rickert, D.A., 1994, U.S. Geological Survey protocol for the collection and processing of surface-water samples for the subsequent determination of inorganic constituents in filtered water: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-539, 57 p.

Pankow, J.F., 1991, Aquatic chemistry concepts: Chelsea, Michigan, Lewis Publishers, 673 p.

Parkhurst, D.L., and Appelo, C.A.J., 1999, User's guide to PHREEQC (version 2)--A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations: U.S. Geological Surey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4259, 312 p.

Roberson, C.E., Feth, J.H., Seaber, P.R., and Anderson, Peter, 1963, Differences between field and laboratory determinations of pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance of natural water: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-C, p. C212-C215.

Stumm, Werner, and Morgan, J.J., 1981, Aquatic chemistry--an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters (2d ed.): New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 171-229.

Wells, F.C., Gibbons, W.J., and Dorsey, M.E., 1990, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-127, 79 p.

Wood, W.W., 1981, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D2, p. 15-18.

Yurewicz, M.C., 1981, Incremental field titration of bicarbonate: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division Bulletin, October-December 1981, p. 8-13.


Selected References For
6.7 - Turbidity

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 1992, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.): Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, p. 2-8 to 2-11.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, Annual book of ASTM standards, v. 11.01, Part 31, "Water," Standard D1889-88a: Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 309-314.

Backhus, D.A., Ryan, J.N., Groher, D.M., MacFarlane, J.K., and Gschwend, P.M., 1993, Sampling colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in ground water: Ground Water, v. 31, no. 3, p. 466-479.

Edwards, T.K., and Glysson, D.G., 1988, Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-531, 118 p.

Edwards, T.K., and Glysson, D.G., 1998, Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, book 3, chap. C2, 80 p.

Gschwend, P.M., Backhus, D.A., MacFarlane, J.K., and Page, A.L., 1990, Mobilization of colloids in groundwater due to infiltration of water at a coal ash disposal site: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 6, p. 307-320.

Hach, C.C., Vanous, R.D., and Heer, J.M., 1990, Understanding turbidity measurement, technical information series--Booklet No. 11, first ed: Loveland, Colorado, Hach Company, 11 p.

Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, 1994, Turbidity meter tests, in Instrument News: Stennis Space Center, Miss., U.S. Geological Survey, Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility, June 1994, p. 11-12.

Kearl, P.M., Korte, N.E., and Cronk, T.A., 1992, Suggested modifications to ground water sampling procedures based on observations from the colloidal borescope: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 12, no. 2, p. 155-160.

King, Karl, 1991, Four-beam turbidimeter for low NTU waters, in Water, October 1991, Journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association.

McCluney, W.R., 1975, Radiometry of water turbidity measurements: Water Pollution Control Federation, v. 47, no. 2, p. 252-266.

McCoy, W.F., and Olson, B.H., 1986, Relationship among turbidity, particle counts and bacteriological quality within water distribution lines: Water Research, v. 20, no. 8, p. 1023-1029.

Nightingale, H.I., and Bianchi, W.C., 1977, Ground-water turbidity resulting from artificial recharge: Ground Water, v. 15, no. 2, p. 146-152.

Pickering, R.J., 1976, Measurement of turbidity and related characteristics of natural waters: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-153, 13 p.

Puls, R.W., and Powell, R.M., 1992, Acquisition of representative ground water quality samples for metals: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 12, no. 3, p. 167-176.

Shelton, L.R., 1994, Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-455, 42 p.

Shelton, L.R., and Capel, P.D., 1994, Guidelines for collecting and processing samples of stream bed sediment for analysis of trace elements and organic contaminants for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-458, 20 p.

Strausberg, S.I., 1983, Turbidity interferes with accuracy in heavy metal concentrations: Industrial Wastes, v. 29, no. 2, p. 16-21.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1979, Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes: EPA/600/4/79/020, p. 180.1-1 to 180.1-3.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1994, Technical notes on drinking water methods: EPA/600/R-94/173, October 1994, p. 28.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1984, Chemical and physical quality of water and sediment, chap. 5, in U.S. Geological Survey, National handbook of recommended methods for water-data acquisition: p. 5-1 to 5-194.

Ward, J.R., and Harr, C.A., 1990, Methods for collection and processing of surface-water and bed-material samples for physical and chemical analyses: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-140, 71 p.

Wells, M.C., Magaritz, Mordeckai, Ameil, A.J., Rophe, Benjamin, and Ronen, Daniel, 1989, Determination of in situ metal partitioning between particulate matter and ground water: Naturwissenchaften, v. 76, no. 12, p. 568-570.


Selected Documents

The following training documents and memorandums are available in U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) offices nationwide. The technical memorandums listed are available electronically on the World Wide Web. The URL is: http://water.usgs.gov/admin/memo.

Technical Memorandums

Water Quality

76.25-t. WATER QUALITY--Analytical methods: microbiological. September 1, 1976.

79.10. ANALYTICAL METHODS--Recommended procedures for calibrating dissolved oxygen meters. March 14, 1979.

81.11. WATER QUALITY--New tables of dissolved oxygen saturation values. May 8, 1981.

81.15. WATER QUALITY--New tables of dissolved oxygen saturation values: amendment of quality of water technical memorandum no. 81. May 27, 1981.

93.10. PROGRAMS AND PLANS--(1) Disposal of petri dishes containing bacteria media, and (2) Aspergillus. April 19, 1993.

WRD

91.09. PUBLICATIONS-Quality systems terminology. November 28, 1990.

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