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USGS personnel collect a water-quality sample on the Missouri River. USGS/Photo by Kelly Brady.
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Revised By F.D. Wilde
This section of Chapter 6 is available as a pdf file:
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Accurate temperature measurements are required for accurate determinations of important environmental parameters such as pH, specific electrical conductance, and dissolved oxygen, and to the determination of chemical reaction rates and equilibria, biological activity, and physical fluid properties. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of temperature in air, ground water, and surface water and calibration of the equipment used.
6.1.1 - Equipment and supplies
6.1.1.A - Maintenance, cleaning, and storage
6.1.2 - Calibration
6.1.2.A - Calibration thermometers
6.1.2.B - Field thermometers
6.1.3 - Measurement
6.1.3.A - Air
6.1.3.B - Surface water
6.1.3.C - Ground water
6.1.4 - Troubleshooting
6.1.5 - Reporting
Section 6.1 Archived Versions: