"Proceedings, Federal Interagency Workshop,
"Sediment Technology for the 21'st Century,"
St. Petersburg, FL, February 17-19, 1998"

Particle Tracking Velocimetry for Sediment-Laden Flows

By Marian Muste

Pre-Proposal

Rationale for Instrument Development

The lack of reliable theoretical formulation for the description of flows with suspended sediment emphasizes the important role played by experimental research to further our knowledge in the area. However, most of the existing techniques for velocity measurement of suspended sediment are intrusive, hence, they are subjected to unknown sediment-probe interactions. Practically it is not known what is measured: water or sediment velocities. The advent of acoustic and optical nonintrusive measurement techniques in recent years has promised considerable progress toward accurate measurements and new insights in the study of flows with suspended sand. Successful preliminary work carried out by the authors for the development of an image-based instrumentation for providing full flow diagnostics in flows with suspended sediment (laboratory and field conditions) provide the motivation for the research proposed herein.

Beneficiaries

The instrument is broadly applicable for both laboratory and field conditions, hence, its applicability encompasses both fundamental research and various practical applications. It is expected that research laboratories as well as federal agencies and other parties involved in the monitoring of suspended sediment will be potential beneficiaries of this technology.

Objectives

The instrumentation proposed herein is an extension of Particle Tracking Velocimeter (PTV) aimed to provide full diagnostics on the mean and turbulence characteristics in flow with natural suspended sediment. The proposed PTV system will allow measurement of three important properties of sediment-laden flows, namely, liquid and sediment velocities, sediment size and concentrations. Velocity information is measured simultaneously but separately for the two flow fractions. The final goal of the instrument development is to better characterize physical processes in sediment-laden flows, an area with along history of conflicting experimental and numerical evidence, and to provide a reliable predictive tool for engineering applications.

Approach

The configuration of the PTV system under consideration will comprise software and hardware components already tested at the Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research (see Muste et. al., 1997.b). A new design for the illumination and recording units of the PTV will be added to the existing components to further improve the capabilities of the technique for measurements in flows with high concentrations of suspended sediment.

New software will be developed to include sediment sizing and concentration measurements. The added features have already been tested in IIHR in separate equipment settings and were found to work successfully. The proposed configuration for the PTV system will combine these features in one setting, creating a powerful nonintrusive tool for measurements in a complex flow environment (both field and laboratory conditions) where there are no alternative measurement techniques. The PTV system proposed herein is also applicable to experimental investigations in clear-water and multi-phase flows. Its submerged feature facilitates measurements near the free surface and near the bed.

Budget and Human Resources

ORGANIZATION
Duration
The University of Iowa
Proposed
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT DIRECTOR
Marian Muste
A. Senior Personnel
(List Separately)$ Amt/month Calendar Academic Summer $ Requested
1. Marian Muste 3,4581.00(COST SHARED)0
2. Anton Kruger4,9961.00 (COST SHARED)0
3.0

0
5. () Others (list individually on budget explanation page)
6.(2)Total Senior Personnel (1-5)0
B. Other Personnel (show Numbers in Brackets)
1.( ) Postdoctoral Assoc 0
2.(2)Other Professional4,2271.00 (for assembly of system)4,227
3.( ) Graduate Students 0
4.( ) Undergrad Student 0
5.( )Secretarial0
6.( ) Other (Mech Shop2,9861.00(for assembly of system) 2,986
Total Salaries and Wages7,213
C.Fringe Benifits (28.79% B.2; 33.19% B.6; 8.25% B.3)2,208
Total Salaries, Wages, and Fringe Benefits9,421
D. Permanent Equipment (for items exceeding $1,000)
1. (SEE DETAILED EQUIPMENT BELOW)
2. Total Equipment Cost $174,195
3. Amount Cost Shared by UI $ 61,000

Total Permanent Equipment113,195
E. Travel 1. Domestic (Incl Canada and U.S. Possessions)

2. Foreign


Total Participant Costs0
G. Other direct Costs
Total Other Direct Costs 0
H. Total Direct Costs (A through G)122,616
I. Indirect Costs (Specify Rate and Base)4,428
47% of Modified Total Direct Costs; fixed; negotiated 1/9/97
J. Total Direct and Indirect Costs (H+I)127,044

L. Amount of this Request127,044
M. Cost Sharing: Proposed Level 77,005 Agreed Level if Different: $




Item D. Permanent Equipment

From IIHR
Dantec's wet part $102,800

Yag Laser
32,400
Light Fuiding Arm
28,600
Computer2,500

Frame grabber software1,500

Electronics2,000

CCD Camera925

Time Controller2,750

Seeding System720

TOTAL D.113,195 $61,000

Principal Investigator

M. Muste - Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research,
The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242

A. Kruger - Iowa Institute of hydraulic Research,
The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242

References

Adrian, R.J. (1991). "Particle-Imaging Techniques for Experimental Fluid Mechanics,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 23, 261-304.

Cowen, E.A. and Monismith, S.G. (1997). "A Hybrid Particle Tracking Velocimetry Technique," Experiments in Fluids, 22, pp. 199-211.

Ettema, R., Fujita, I., Muste, M., and Kruger, A. "Particle-Image Velocimetry for Whole-Field Measurement of Ice Velocities," submitted to Cold Regions Science and Technology Journal

Fujita, I. and Komura, S. (1992). "On the accuracy of the correlation method," Proceedings, 6th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, pp. 858-862.

Fujita, I., Muste, M. and A. Kruger. (1997). "Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in Hydraulic Applications," (in press) J. Hydr. Res.

Hassan, Y.A., Blanchat, T.K., Seeley, C.H., and Canaan, R.E. (1992). "Simultaneous Velocity Measurements of both Components of a Two-Phase Flow Using Particle Image Velocimetry," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 18(3), pp. 371-395.

Lloyd, P.M., Stansby, P.K., and Ball, D.J. (1995). "Unsteady Surface-Velocity Field Measurement Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, J. of Hydraulic Research,33(4), 519-534.

Muste, M., Fujita, I., and Kruger, A. (1997.a). "Whole-Field Diagnostic in Flows with Suspended Sediment Using a Particle-Imaging Technique," Proceedings XXVII IAHR Congress, Theme B, Vol. 1, San Francisco, CA, pp. 125-130.

Muste, M., Fujita. I., and Kruger, A. (1997.b). "Experimental Comparison of Two Laser-Based Velocimeters for Flows with Alluvial Sand," Experiments in Fluids (in press)

Stevens, C. and Coates, M. (1994). "Applications of a Maximized Cross-Correlation Technique for Resolving Velocity Fields in Laboratory Experiments," J. of Hydraulic Research, 32(2), 195-212.

***. (1997.a). "The World’s First Towing Tank PIV System," Dantec Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dantec Measurement Technology A/S, Denmark


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