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Water Software > Groundwater Software > MODFLOW and Related Programs > SWR


Surface-Water Routing (SWR) Process for Modeling Surface-Water Flow with the USGS Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW)

Overview of the SWR Process

[Image: Cover of software documentation report. ]

The Surface-Water Routing (SWR) Process was developed to accurately simulate stages, surface-water flows, and surface-water/groundwater interactions in areas where surface-water gradients are small and (or) there is significant management of surface water. A simplified form of the Saint-Venant equations was implemented in the SWR Process based on assumption requirement that it will be applied to continuous simulations (hourly to daily time steps) in support of water-resource planning activities. As a result, the SWR Process was not intended as a replacement for hydrodynamic models that solve the full Saint-Venant equations and are applied to event simulations (sub-hourly time steps).

The SWR Process uses a flexible approach for simulating one- and two-dimensional routing of surface-water flow. The SWR Process is implicitly coupled to the Groundwater Flow Process in MODFLOW. Surface-water routing in SWR can be simulated using a diffusive-wave approximation of the vertically-integrated Saint-Venant equations and/or a simplified level-pool approach. SWR can account for surface-water flow controlled by backwater conditions caused by small water-surface gradients or surface-water control structures. A number of typical surface-water control structures (such as culverts, weirs, and pumps, for example) can be represented, and simple operational rules can be specified to manage surface-water stages and streamflow by moving water from one surface-water feature to another. The non-linear surface-water flow equations implemented in the SWR Process are solved using Newton methods and direct or iterative solvers.

The SWR Process uses the familiar structure of MODFLOW-2005 and the MODFLOW concepts of "packages" and "processes" are retained. This permits versions of MODFLOW-NWT and MODFLOW-2005 that include the SWR Process to work with many of the MODFLOW-related software programs, such as MODPATH, ZONEBUDGET, and parameter estimation programs. MODFLOW-NWT and MODFLOW-2005 with the SWR Process are public domain computer programs. The source code and software are distributed free of charge by the USGS.

SWR Information and Downloads

SWR History

  • SWR Release Notes [5KB TXT]
  • History Version 1.0, released 09/21/2012: This is the original SWR version as documented in Hughes and others (2012).
  • Version 1.01.0, released 10/17/2012: The SWR Process was modified to allow incorporation of SWR derivative terms into the groundwater flow equation solved by MODFLOW-NWT. The SWR Process was also modified to allow downstream discharge from a SFR2 reach to be routed to a SWR reach using an additional type of SWR surface-water control structure. The SWR Process was also modified to allow surface-water control structures discharging from the SWR network to discharge to SFR2 reaches. SWR Version 1.01.0 is also included in the version of MODFLOW-2005 available in the "Superseded Versions" section of this page.

SWR Process users are encouraged to use the version incorporated into MODFLOW-NWT, even if the features of MODFLOW-NWT are not required for a particular application.

Downloads

Documentation of SWR

Hughes, J.D., Langevin, C.D., Chartier, K.L., and White, J.T., 2012, Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A40 (Version 1.0), 113 p. Available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/6a40/

Superseded Versions

Note: these versions are no longer actively supported or maintained

Example Applications of the Surface-Water Routing Process

Hughes, J.D., and White, J.T., 2014, Hydrologic conditions in urban Miami-Dade County, Florida, and the effect of groundwater pumpage and increased sea level on canal leakage and regional groundwater flow: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5162, 175 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145162.

Hughes, J.D., Langevin, C.D., and White, J.T., 2014, MODFLOW-based coupled surface-water routing and groundwater flow simulation: Ground Water, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwat.12216/abstract

Point of Contact

Support is provided for correcting bugs and clarification of how the SWR Process is intended to work. Only limited assistance can be provided for applying the SWR Process to specific problems by contacting the point of contact listed below:

Joseph D. Hughes

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Groundwater
411 National Center
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 20192

Development of the SWR Process was funded in part by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department[ Link exits USGS web site ].

Related USGS Software Resources

Other USGS Groundwater Software

The USGS develops groundwater RSS, water-quality, surface-water, and other water-resources software for use by the USGS in fulfilling its mission. Most of this software is available online for download at no charge.

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Please refer to the USGS Software User Rights Notice for complete use, copyright, and distribution information. The USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the correctness of the furnished software or the suitability for any purpose. The software has been tested, but as with any complex software, there could be undetected errors. Users who find errors are requested to report them to the USGS.

References to non-USGS products, trade names, and (or) services are provided for information purposes only and do not constitute endorsement or warranty, express or implied, by the USGS, U.S. Department of Interior, or U.S. Government, as to their suitability, content, usefulness, functioning, completeness, or accuracy.


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Page Last Modified: Thursday, 16-Oct-2014 18:13:14 EDT