USGS - science for a changing world

USGS Groundwater Information

*  Home *  Data & Information *  Publications *  Methods & Modeling *  Selected Topics *  Programs *  About *  Contact Us

Karst Publications in USGS

USGS reports and maps include a wide body of work on karst. Additionally, USGS researchers (indicated in red) have authored numerous karst-related publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. You also can find featured publications for a particular aquifer by choosing it here.

  • Adamski, J.C., and Pugh, A.L. (1996) Occurrence of pesticides in ground water of the Ozark Plateaus Province: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 32, iss. 1, p. 97-105.
  • Adamski, J.C. (2000) Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA : Hydrological Processes, vol. 14, iss. 5, p. 849-866.
  • Alpha, T.R., Galloway, J.P., and Tinsley, J.C., III (1997) Karst topography; computer animation and paper model: USGS Open-File Report 97-536-A, 1 CD p.
  • Andrews, W.J. (1994) Nitrate in ground water and spring water near four dairy farms in North Florida, 1990-93: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4162, 63 p.
  • Asquith, W.H., and Gary, M.O. (2005) Acoustic doppler velocity monitoring within Main Spring, Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, April-September 2004-enhancing the accuracy of springflow data: USGS Fact Sheet 2005-3044, 4 p.
  • Back, W., Hanshaw, B.B., Plummer, L.N., Rahn, P.H., Rightmire, C.T., and Rubin, M. (1983) Process and rate of dedolomitization: mass transfer and C14 dating in a regional carbonate aquifer: Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 94, iss. 12, p. 1415-1429.
  • Banner, J.L., Guilfoyle, A.L., James, E.W., Stern, L.A., and Musgrove, MaryLynn (2007) Seasonal variations in modern speleothem calcite growth in Central Texas, U.S.A: Journal of Sedimentary Research, vol. 77, iss. 7-8, p. 615-622.
  • Barker, R.A., Bush, P.W., and Baker, E.T., Jr. (1994) Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4039, 51 p.
  • Barker, R.A., and Ardis, A.F. (1996) Hydrogeologic framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas: USGS Professional Paper 1421-B, 61 p.
  • Barnhardt, W.A., Richmond, B.M., Grossman, E.E., and Hart, P. (2005) Possible modes of coral-reef development at Molokai, Hawaii, inferred from seismic-reflection profiling: Climate Dynamics, vol. 25, iss. 5, p. 315-323.
  • Barr, G.L. (1993) Application of ground-penetrating radar methods in determining hydrogeologic conditions in a karst area, west-central Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4141, 26 p.
  • Bartos, T.T., Halberg, L.L., and Ogle, K.M. (2002) Potentiometric surfaces, altitudes of the tops, and hydrogeology of the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, Black Hills area, Wyoming: USGS Hydrologic Atlas 748, 4 p.
  • Bedinger, M.S., Mason, J.L., Langer, W.H., Gates, J.S., Stark, J.R., and Mulvihill, D.A. (1984) Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depths to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Utah: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4122-B, 12 p.
  • Berger, D.L. (1992) Lithologic properties of carbonate-rock aquifers at five test wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area, southern Nevada, as determined from geophysical logs: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4167, 27 p.
  • Bischoff, J.L., Williams, R.W., Rosenbauer, R.J., Aranburu, A., Arsuaga, J.L., Garcia, N., and Cuenca-Bescos, G. (2007) High-resolution U-series dates from the Sima de los Huesos hominids yields 600- 66 + 8 kyrs: implications for the evolution of the early Neanderthal lineage: Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 34, iss. 5, p. 763-770.
  • Bischoff, J.L., Fitzpatrick, J.A., Leon, L., Arsuaga, J.L., Falgueres, C., Bahain, J.J., and Bullen, T.D. (1997) Geology and preliminary dating of the hominid-bearing sedimentary fill of the Sima de los Huesos Chamber, Cueva Mayor of the Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain: Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 33, iss 2-3, p. 129-154.
  • Bjorklund, L.J. (1958) Flow analysis of Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, New Mexico: USGS Open-File Report 58-16, 25 p.
  • Blome, C.D., Pedraz, D.E., Ockerman, D.J., Clark, A.K., and Ozuna, G.B. (2005) An improved method for modeling the infiltration potential of the Edwards aquifer recharge area, Comal County, South-Central Texas: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 37, iss. 7, p. 216.
  • Bohlke, J.K., and Horan, M. (2000) Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwaters and streams affected by agriculture, Locust Grove, MD: Applied Geochemistry, vol. 15, iss. 5, p. 599-609.
  • Bradfield, A.D. (1992) Hydrology of the Cave Springs area near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4018, 28 p.
  • Brady, B.T., Mulvihill, D.A., Hart, D.L., and Langer, W.H. (1984) Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, New Mexico: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4118-B, 6 p.
  • Brady, B.T., Bedinger, M.S., Mulvihill, D.A., Mikels, John, and Langer, W.H. (1984) Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4121-B, 7 p.
  • Brown, C.E. (1993) Use of principal-component, correlation, and stepwise multiple-regression analyses to investigate selected physical and hydraulic properties of carbonate-rock aquifers: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 147, iss. 1-4, p. 169-195.
  • Brown, D.P. (1982) Effects of effluent spray irrigation on ground water at a test site near Tarpon Springs, Florida: USGS Open-File Report 81-1197, 40 p.
  • Bruno, M.C., Cunningham, K.J., and Perry, S.A. (2003) Copepod communities from surface and ground waters in the everglades, south Florida: Southeastern Naturalist, vol. 2, iss. 4, p. 523-546.
  • Busby, J.F., Plummer, L.N., Lee, R.W., and Hanshaw, B.B. (1991) Geochemical evolution of water in the Madison Aquifer in parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming: USGS Professional Paper 1273-F, 89 p.
  • Bush, P.W., Ardis, A.F., Fahlquist, Lynne, Ging, P.B., Hornig, C.E., and Lanning-Rush, Jennifer (2000) Water Quality in South-Central Texas, Texas, 1996–98: USGS Circular 1212, 32 p.
  • Bush, P.W., Ulery, R.L., and Rittmaster, R.L. (1994) Dissolved-solids concentrations and hydrochemical facies in water of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4126, 29 p.
  • Byl, T.D., and Williams, S.D. (2000) Biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes at a karst site in middle Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4285, 58 p.
  • Campbell, W.R., and Barton, P.B. (1996) Occurrence and significance of stalactites within the epithermal deposits at Creede, Colorado: Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 34, iss. 5, p. 905-930.
  • Campbell-Rehmann, L.L., Welty, C., and Harvey, R.W. (1999) Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers: Water Resources Research, vol. 35, iss. 7, p. 1987-2006.
  • Carter, J.M., and Driscoll, D.G. (2006) Estimating recharge using relations between precipitation and yield in a mountainous area with large variability in precipitation: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 316, iss 1-4, p. 71-83.
  • Cederberg, J.R., Ging, P.B., and Ourso, R.T. (1998) Monitoring of selected water-quality constituents near the freshwater/saline-water interface of the Edwards aquifer, July 1996–December 1997: USGS Fact Sheet 103-98, 4 p.
  • Coe, J.A., and Harp, E.L. (2007) Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA: Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 7, iss. 1, p. 1-14.
  • Coplen, T.B. (2007) Calibration of the calcite-water oxygen-isotope geothermometer at Devils Hole, Nevada, a natural laboratory: Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta, vol. 71, iss. 16, p. 3948-3957.
  • Covich, A.P., Fritz, S.C., Lamb, P.J., Marzolf, R.D., Matthews, W.J., Poiani, K.A., Prepas, E.E., Richman, M.B., and Winter, T.C. (1997) Potential effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems of the Great Plains of North America: Hydrological Processes, vol. 11, iss. 8, p. 993-1021.
  • Cox, E.R. (1967) Geology and hydrology between Lake McMillan and Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, New Mexico: USGS Water Supply Paper, 1828, p. 48.
  • Crain, A.S. (2002) Pesticides and nutrients in karst springs in the Green River basin, Kentucky, May-September 2001: USGS Fact Sheet 133-01, 4 p.
  • Crain, A.S. (2006) Concentrations of nutrients, pesticides, and suspended sediment in the karst terrane of the Sinking Creek basin, Kentucky, 2004: USGS Open-File Report 2006-1091, 15 p.
  • Crain, A.S. (2002) Pesticides and nutrients in karst springs in the Green River basin, Kentucky, May-September 2001: USGS Fact Sheet 133-01, 4 p.
  • Crandall, C.A., Katz, B.G., and Hirten, J.J. (1999) Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA: Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 7, iss. 5, p. 454-467.
  • Cunningham, K.I., and LaRock, E.J. (1991) Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico: Health Physics, vol. 61, iss. 4, p. 493-500.
  • Cunningham, K.I., Northup, D.E., Pollastro, R.M., Wright, W.G., and LaRock, E.J. (1995) Bacteria, fungi and biokarst in Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico: Environmental Geology, vol. 25, iss. 1, p. 2-8.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Sukop, M.C., Huang, Haibo, Alvarez, P.F., Curran, H.A., and Renken, R.A. (2009) Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer--Stratiform "super-K" zones: Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 121, iss. 1-2, p. 164-180.
  • Cunningham, K.J., and Sukop, M.C. (2011) Multiple technologies applied to characterization of the porosity and premeability of the Biscayne aquifer, Florida: USGS Open-File Report 2011-1037, 8 p.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Carlson, J.I., Wingard, G.L., Robinson, Edward, and Wacker, M.A. (2004) Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity using cyclostratigraphy and geophysical methods in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida--relation to rock fabric and sequence stratigraphy: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4208, 46 p.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Renken, R.A., Wacker, M.A., Zygnerski, M.R., Robinson, Edward, Shapiro, A.M., and Wingard, G.L. (2006) Application of carbonate cyclostratigraphy and borehole geophysics to delineate porosity and preferential flow in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, SE Florida: in Harmon, R.S., and Wicks, C. (eds.), Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry--A tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White--A tribute volume to D.C. Ford and W.B. White, Geological Society of America Special Paper, 404, p. 191-208.
  • Cunningham, K.J., and Walker, C. (2009) Seismic-sag structures in Tertiary carbonate rocks beneath southeastern Florida, USA--evidence for hypogeneic speleogenesis?: in Klimchouk, A.B., and Ford, D.C. (eds.), Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins, special paper no. 1, p. 151-158.
  • Cunningham, K.J., and Florea, L.J. (2009) The Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida: in Palmer, A.N., and Palmer, M.V. (eds.), Caves and Karst of the USA, Huntsville, Alabama National Speleological Society, p. 196-199.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Wacker, M.A., Robinson, Edward, Dixon, J.F., and Wingard, G.L. (2006) A cyclostratigraphic and borehole-geophysical approach to development of a three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeologic model of the karstic Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5235, 69 p.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Wacker, M.A., Robinson, Edward, Gefvert, C.J., and Krupa, S.L. (2004) Hydrogeology and ground-water flow at Levee-31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida, July 2003 to May 2004: USGS Scientific Investigations Map I-2846, 1 p.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Sukop, M.C., Huang, Haibo, Alvarez, P.F., Curran, H.A., Wacker, M.A., Florea, L.J., Renken, R.A., and Dixon, J.F. (2008) Biogenic macroporosity and its lattice Boltzmann method permeability in the karst Biscayne aquifer: in Sasowsky, I.D., Feazel, C.T., Mylroie, J.E., Palmer, A.N., and Palmer, M.V. (eds.), Karst from Recent to Reservoirs, special publication 14, Karst Waters Institute, p. 30-35.
  • Cunningham, K.J., Carlson, J.I., and Hurley, N.F. (2004) New method for quantification of vuggy porosity from digital optical borehole images as applied to the karstic Pleistocene limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida : Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 55, iss. 1-2, p. 77-90.
  • Cunningham, K.J. (2004) Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA: Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 55, iss. 1-2, p. 61-76.
  • Cushing, G.E., Titus, T.N., Wynne, J.J., and Christensen, P.R. (2007) THEMIS observes possible cave skylights on Mars: Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, iss. 17, p. .
  • Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G. (1976) Map showing engineering aspects of karst in the United States: USGS Open-File Report 76-623, 1 map p.
  • Davis, J.V., and Schumacher, J.G. (1992) Water-quality characterization of the Spring River basin, southwestern Missouri and southeastern Kansas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 90-4176, 112 p.
  • Dixon, E.J., Heaton, T.H., Fifield, T.E., Hamilton, T.D., Putnam, D.E., and Grady, F. (1997) Late quaternary regional geoarchaeology of Southeast Alaska Karst: A progress report: Geoarchaeology - An International Journal, vol. 12, iss. 6, p. 689-712.
  • Doctor, D.H., Weary, D.J., Orndorff, R.C., Harlow, G.E., Jr., Kozar, M.D., and Nelms, D.L. (2008) Bedrock structural controls on the occurrence of sinkholes and springs in the northern Great Valley karst, Virginia and West Virginia: in Yuhr, L.B., Alexander, E.C., Jr., and Beck, B.F. (eds.), Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Geotechnical Special Publication, 183, p. 12-22.
  • Doctor, D.H., Alexander, E.C., Petric, M., Kogovsek, J., Urbanc, J., Lojen, S., and Stichler, W. (2006) Quantification of karst aquifer discharge components during storm events through end-member mixing analysis using natural chemistry and stable isotopes as tracers : Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 14, iss. 7, p. 1171-1191.
  • Downey, J.S. (1984) Geohydrology of the Madison and associated aquifers in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming: USGS Professional Paper 1273-G, 47 p.
  • Duerr, A.D., and Stewart, J.W. (1980) Hydrogeologic data for Eureka Springs landfill and adjacent area, North-central Hillsborough County, Florida, 1969-73: USGS Open-File Report 80-70, 83 p.
  • Dyer, K.L., and Young, H.W. (1971) A reconnaissance of the quality of water from irrigation wells and springs in the Snake Plain Aquifer, southeastern Idaho: USGS Open-File Report 71-93, 29 p.
  • Eberts, S.M. (2011) Hydrogeologic settings and groundwater-flow simulations for regional investigations of the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants to public-supply wells--Investigations begun in 2004: USGS Professional Paper 1737-B, 127 p.
  • Ellins, K. K., Roman-Mas, A., and Lee, R.W. (1990) Using 222Rn to examine groundwater/surface discharge interaction in the Rio Grande de Manati, Puerto Rico: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 115, iss. 1-4, p. 319-341.
  • Fairchild, R.W., Hanson, R.L., and Davis, R.E. (1990) Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 91, 112 p.
  • Feder, G.L. (1986) Hydrogeologic controls on nitrogen species in ground and surface waters ( USA): Conjunctive water use, , p. 211-215.
  • Feder, G.L. (1973) A conceptual model of the hydrologic system supplying the large springs in the Ozarks: USGS Open-File Report 74-1031, 148 p.
  • Feth, J.H., and Barnes, Ivan (1979) Map showing occurrences of spring-deposited travertine in the conterminous Western United States: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 79-35, 1 map p.
  • Fischer, W.A., Davis, D.A., and Sousa, T.M. (1966) Fresh-water springs of Hawaii from infrared images: USGS Hydrologic Atlas 218, 1 map p.
  • Florea, L.J., and Vacher, H.L. (2007) Eogenetic karst hydrology: Insights from the 2004 hurricanes, peninsular Florida: Ground Water, vol. 45, iss. 4, p. 439-446.
  • Florea, L.J., Cunningham, K.J., and Altobelli, S. (2009) NMR imaging of fluid exchange between macropores and matrix in eogenetic karst: Ground Water, vol. 47, iss. 3, p. 382-390.
  • Florea, L.J., Cunningham, K.J., and Altobelli, S. (2008) Visualization of groundwater flow within touching-vug and matrix porosity in an eogenetic karst aquifer: in Sasowsky, I.D., Feazel, C.T., Mylroie, J.E., Palmer, A.N., and Palmer, M.V. (eds.), Karst from Recent to Reservoirs, special publication 14, Karst Waters Institute, p. 64-75.
  • Focazio, M.J., Plummer, L.N., Bohlke, J.K., Busenberg, Eurybiades, Bachman, L.J., and Powars, D.S. (1998) Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4225, 75 p.
  • Frank, E. F., Mylroie, J.E., Troester, J.W., Alexander, E.C., and Carew, J.L. (1998) Karst development and speleogenesis, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol. 60, iss. 2, p. 73-83.
  • Frank, E. F., Wicks, C.M., Mylroie, J.E., Troester, J.W., Alexander, E.C., and Carew, J.L. (1998) Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol. 60, iss. 2, p. 69-72.
  • Fretwell, J.D., and Stewart, M.T. (1981) Resistivity study of a coastal karst terrain, Florida: Ground Water, vol. 19, iss. 2, p. 156-162.
  • Fridrich, C.J., Dudley, W.W., and Stuckless, J.S. (1994) Hydrogeologic analysis of the saturated-zone ground-water system, under Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 154, iss. 1-4, p. 133-168.
  • Fulton, J.W., Koerkle, E.H., McAuley, S.D., Hoffman, S.A., and Zarr, L.F. (2005) Hydrogeologic setting and conceptual hydrologic model of the Spring Creek basin, Centre County, Pennsylvania: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5091, 91 p.
  • Galeone, D.G., Brightbill, R.A., Low, D.J., and O'Brien, D.L. (2006) Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 977, 183 p.
  • Galloway, J.P. (2004) Hydrogeologic characteristics of four public drinking-water supply springs in northern Arkansas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2003-4307, 68 p.
  • Garner, B.D., and Mahler, B.J. (2007) Relation of specific conductance in ground water to intersection of flow paths by wells, and associated major ion and nitrate geochemistry, Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer, Austin, Texas, 1978-2003: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5002, 34 p.
  • Giusti, E.V. (1978) Hydrogeology of the karst of Puerto Rico: USGS Professional Paper 1012, 68 p.
  • Gleason, J.D., Veronda, Guida, Smith, G.I., Friedman, Irving, and Martin, P.M. (1994) Deuterium content of water from wells and perennial springs, southeastern California: USGS Hydrologic Atlas 727, 1 map p.
  • Graham-Wall, B.R. (2006) Influence of depositional setting and sedimentary fabric on mechanical layer evolution in carbonate aquifers: Sedimentary Geology, vol. 184, iss 3-4, p. 203-224.
  • Gray, S.C., and Hein, J.R. (2005) Lagoonal reef accretion and holocene sea-level history from three atolls in the Cook Islands, Central South Pacific: Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 21, special issue, p. 253-264.
  • Gray-Multer, H., Gischler, E., Lundberg, J., Simmons, K.R., and Shinn, E.A. (2002) Key Largo Limestone revisited: Pleistocene shelf-edge facies, Florida Keys, USA: Facies, vol. , iss. 46, p. 229-272.
  • Greene, E.A. (1997) Tracing Recharge from Sinking Streams over Spatial Dimensions of Kilometers in a Karst Aquifer: Ground Water, vol. 35, iss. 5, p. 898-904.
  • Grossman, E.E., Barnhardt, W.A., Hart, P., Richmond, B.M., and Field, M.E. (2006) Shelf stratigraphy and the influence of antecedent substrate on Holocene reef development, south Oahu, Hawaii: Marine Geology, vol. 226, iss 1-2, p. 97-114.
  • Guzman-Rios, Senen (1988) Hydrology and water quality of the principal springs in Puerto Rico: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4269, 30 p.
  • Guzman-Rios, Senen (1983) Reconnaissance of the principal springs of Puerto Rico, 1982-83: USGS Open-File Report 83-683, 1 map p.
  • Hansen, B.P., and Smith, K.P. (2004) Characteristics of and Areas Contributing Recharge to Public-Supply Springs in Massachusetts: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2003-4266, 76 p.
  • Hanson, R.L., and Cates, S.W. (1994) Hydrology of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4102, 86 p.
  • Harvey, E.J., Williams, J.H., and Dinkel, T.R. (1977) Application of thermal imagery and aerial photography to hydrologic studies of karst terrane in Missouri: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 77-16, 58 p.
  • Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Osborn, C.L., Ryan, J.N., Cunningham, K.J., and Landkamer, L.L. (2008) Pathogen and chemical transport in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer--3. Use of microspheres to estimate the transport potential of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: Water Resources Research, vol. 44, p. #W08431.
  • Haugh, C.J. (2002) Hydrogeology and ground-water-flow simulation of the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2002-4091, 57 p.
  • Hayes, T.S. (1999) Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 99-4168, 34 p.
  • Hedman, E.R., Skelton, John, and Freiwald, D.A. (1987) Flow characteristics for selected springs and streams in the Ozark subregion, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma: USGS Hydrologic Atlas 688, 4 maps p.
  • Heitmuller, F.T., and Reece, B.D. (2003) Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas: USGS Open-File Report 2003-315, 4 p.
  • Heitmuller, F.T., and Williams, I.P. (2006) Compilation of Historical Water-Quality Data for Selected Springs in Texas, by Ecoregion: USGS Data Series, 230, p. 32.
  • Hickey, J.J. (1984) Field testing the hypothesis of Darcian flow through a carbonate aquifer: Ground Water, vol. 22, iss. 5, p. 544-547.
  • Hine, A.C., Suthard, B., Locker, S.D., Cunningham, K.J., Duncan, D.D., Evans, M., and Morton, R.A. (2009) Karst subbasins and their relation to the transport of Tertiary siliciclastic sediments on the Florida platform: in Swart, P.K., Eberli, G.P., and McKenzie, J.A. (eds.), Perspectives in Sedimentary Geology--A tribute to the Career of Robert N. Ginsburg, vol. 41, p. 179-197.
  • Hippe, D.J., Witt, E. C., III, and Giovannitti, R.M. (1994) Hydrogeology, herbicides and nutrients in ground water and springs, and relation of water quality to land use and agricultural practices near Carlisle, Pennsylvania: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4172, 66 p.
  • Hoos, A.B. (1988) Water quality of runoff to the Clarksville Memorial Hospital drainage well and of Mobley Spring, Clarksville, Tennessee, February and March, 1988: USGS Open-File Report 88-310, 26 p.
  • Hughes, G.H. (1979) Analysis of water-level fluctuations of Lakes Winona and Winnemissett-- two landlocked lakes in a karst terrane in Volusia County, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 79-55, 24 p.
  • Hunt, R.J., and Steuer, J.J. (2000) Simulation of the recharge area for Frederick Springs, Dane County, Wisconsin: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2000-4172, 33 p.
  • Imes, J.L., and Fredrick, B.S. (2002) Using dye-tracing and chemical analyses to determine effects of a wastewater discharge to Jam Up Creek on water quality of Big Spring, southeastern Missouri, 2001: USGS Fact Sheet 103-02, 6 p.
  • Imes, J.L., Plummer, L.N., Kleeschulte, M.J., and Schumacher, J.G. (2007) Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5049, 80 p.
  • Imes, J.L., and Kleeschulte, M.J. (1997) Ground-water flow and ground-and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring Quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4279, 72 p.
  • Jagucki, M.L., Musgrove, MaryLynn, Lindgren, R.J., Fahlquist, Lynne, and Eberts, S.M. (2011) Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination--Edwards aquifer near San Antonio, Texas: USGS Fact Sheet 2011-3142, 6 p.
  • Jimenez-Sanchez, M., Bischoff, J.L., Stoll, H., and Aranburu, A. (2006) A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, vol. 147, p. 129-141.
  • Johnson, G.C. (2002) Water quality of springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the upper Tennessee River basin, 1997: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2002-4180, 24 p.
  • Johnson, S.E. (1995) Hydrogeology of the Cascade Springs area near Tullahoma, Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4002, 17 p.
  • Johnston, R.H. (1993) Historical development of concepts of regional groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, southeastern United States: Hydrogeological processes in karst terranes. Proc. international symposium & field seminar, Antalya, Turkey, 1990, , p. 351-357.
  • Johnston, R.H. (1989) The hydrologic reponses to development in regional sedimentary aquifers: Ground Water, vol. 27, iss. 3, p. 316-322.
  • Jones, C.L., Cooley, M.E., and Bachman, G.O. (1973) Salt deposits in Los Medanos area, Eddy and Lea counties, New Mexico: USGS Open-File Report 4339-7, 67 p.
  • Jones, C.L. (1981) Geologic data for borehole ERDA-9, Eddy County, New Mexico: USGS Open-File Report 81-469, 49 p.
  • Jones, S.W., Lee, R.W., and Busby, J.F. (1997) Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity aquifer, south-central Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4078, 19 p.
  • Jordan, D.G. (1971) Water and copper-mine tailings in karst terrane of Rio Tanama basin, Puerto Rico: USGS Open-File Report 71-163, 24 p.
  • Kalkhoff, S.J., and Kuzniar, R.L. (1994) Hydrologic data for the Big Spring basin, Clayton County, Iowa, water year 1991: USGS Open-File Report 94-56, 87 p.
  • Kalkhoff, S.J. (1993) Using a geographic information system to determine the relation between stream quality and geology in the Roberts Creek watershed, Clayton County, Iowa: Water Resources Bulletin, vol. 29, iss. 6, p. 989-996.
  • Kalkhoff, S.J. (1995) Relation between stream-water quality and geohydrology during base-flow conditions, Roberts creek watershed, Clayton County, Iowa: Water Resources Bulletin, vol. 31, iss. 4, p. 593-604.
  • Katz, B.G. (2004) Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida: Environmental Geology, vol. 46, iss. 6-7, p. 689-706.
  • Katz, B.G., Bohlke, J.K., and Hornsby, H.D. (2001) Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA: Chemical Geology, vol. 179, iss. 1-4, p. 167-186.
  • Katz, B.G., DeHan, R.S., Hirten, J.J., and Catches, J.S. (1997) Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 33, iss. 6, p. 1237-1254.
  • Katz, B.G., Coplen, T.B., Bullen, T.D., and Hal-Davis, J. (1997) Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to characterize the interactions between ground water and surface water in mantled karst: Ground Water, vol. 35, iss. 6, p. 1014-1028.
  • Katz, B.G., Griffin, D.W., Swarzenski, P.W., Walsh, S.J., and Jelks, H.L. (2003) Florida springs interdisciplinary science study: USGS Fact Sheet 008-03, 4 p.
  • Katz, B.G., Hornsby, H.D., and Bohlke, J.K. (1999) Sources of nitrate in water from springs and the Upper Floridan aquifer, Suwannee River basin, Florida: IAHS-AISH Publication, 257, p. 117-124.
  • Katz, B.G., Hornsby, H.D., Bohlke, J.K., and Mokray, M.F. (1999) Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwannee River basin, Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 99-4252, 54 p.
  • Katz, B.G., Copeland, R., Greenhalgh, T., Ceryak, R., and Zwanka, W. (2005) Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin: Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, vol. 11, iss. 4, p. 333-346.
  • Katz, B.G., and Griffin, D.W. (2008) Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin: Environmental Geology, vol. 55, iss. 4, p. 801-821.
  • Katz, B.G., Catches, J.S., Bullen, T.D., and Michel, R.L. (1998) Changes in the isotopic and chemical composition of ground water resulting from a recharge pulse from a sinking stream: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 211, iss 1-4, p. 178-207.
  • Katz, B.G., Chelette, A.R., and Pratt, T.R. (2004) Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 289, iss. 1-4, p. .
  • Katz, B.G., and Bullen, T.D. (1996) The combined use of 87Sr/86Sr and carbon and water isotopes to study the hydrochemical interaction between groundwater and lakewater in mantled karst: Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta, vol. 60, iss. 24, p. 5075-5087.
  • Kaufman, M.I., Goolsby, D.A., and Faulkner, G.L. (1973) Injection of acidic industrial waste into a saline carbonate aquifer: geochemical aspects: Underground Waste Management and Artificial Recharge, vol. 1, p. 526-551.
  • Kaufmann, J.E. (2007) Sinkholes: USGS Fact Sheet 2007-3060, 2 p.
  • Kidd, R.E. (2001) Hydrogeologic characterization of the Coldwater Spring recharge area, Calhoun County, Alabama: USGS Open-File Report 2001-300, 8 p.
  • Kindinger, J.L., Davis, J.B., and Flocks, J.G. (1999) Geology and evolution of lakes in north-central Florida: Environmental Geology, vol. 38, iss. 4, p. 301-321.
  • King, L., Byl, T.D., and Painter, R. (2006) Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, , p. .
  • Kingsbury, J.A. (2008) Relation between flow and temporal variations of nitrate and pesticides in two karst springs in northern Alabama: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 44, iss. 2, p. 478-488.
  • Kjelstrom, L.C. (1992) Assessment of spring discharge to the Snake River, Milner Dam to King Hill, Idaho: USGS Open-File Report 92-147, 2 p.
  • Kjelstrom, L.C. (1995) Methods to estimate annual mean spring discharge to the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, Idaho: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4055, 9 p.
  • Kleeschulte, M.J., and Imes, J.L. (1997) Regional ground-water flow directions and spring recharge areas in and near the Fort Leonard Wood Military Reservation, Missouri: USGS Fact Sheet 101-97, 4 p.
  • Klein, Howard, and Ratzlaff, K.W. (1989) Changes in saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer, Hialeah-Miami Springs area, Dade County, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4249, 1 sheet p.
  • Knochenmus, L.A., and Robinson, J.L. (1996) Descriptions of anisotropy and heterogeneity and their effect on ground-water flow and areas of contribution to public supply wells in a karst carbonate aquifer system: USGS Water Supply Paper, 2475, p. 47.
  • Knochenmus, L.A., and Yobbi, D.K. (2001) Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2001-4230, 88 p.
  • Knochenmus, L.A. (2004) Streamflow losses through karst features in the upper Peace River hydrologic area, Polk County, Florida, May 2002 to May 2003: USGS Fact Sheet 103-03, 4 p.
  • Knowles, Leel (1996) Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins in North-Central Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4024, 37 p.
  • Kobza, R.M., Trexler, J.C., Loftus, W.F., and Perry, S.A. (2004) Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management: Biological Conservation, vol. 116, iss. 2, p. 153-165.
  • Koh, D.C., Plummer, L.N., Kip-Solomon, D., Busenberg, Eurybiades, Kim, Y.J., and Chang, H.W. (2006) Application of environmental tracers to mixing, evolution, and nitrate contamination of ground water in Jeju Island, Korea: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 327, iss. 1-2, p. 258-275.
  • Kolm, K.E., and Langer, W.H. (2000) Hierarchical systems analysis in karst terrains; Part A, Approaches and applications to environmental characterization; Part B, Analysis of environmental impacts of aggregate mining: USGS Open-File Report 2000-429, 1 CD p.
  • Kolpin, D.W., Kalkhoff, S.J., Goolsby, D.A., Sneck-Fahrer, D.A., and Thurman, E.M. (1997) Occurrence of selected herbicides and herbicide degradation products in Iowa's Ground Water, 1995: Ground Water, vol. 35, iss. 4, p. 679-688.
  • Kolpin, D.W., Schnoebelen, D.J., and Thurman, E.M. (2004) Degradates provide insight to spatial and temporal trends of herbicides in ground water: Ground Water, vol. 42, iss. 4, p. 601-608.
  • Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Linhart, S.M. (2000) Finding minimal herbicide concentrations in ground water? Try looking for their degradates: Science of the Total Environment, vol. 248, iss 2-3, p. 115-122.
  • Kozar, M.D., McCoy, K.J., Weary, D.J., Field, M.S., Pierce, H.A., Schill, W.B., and Young, J.A. (2008) Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia: USGS Open-File Report 2007-1358, 212 p.
  • Kozar, M.D., and Weary, D.J. (2009) Hydrogeology an ground-water flow in the Opequon Creek watershed area, Virginia and West Virginia: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5153, 61 p.
  • Kozar, M.D., Weary, D.J., Paybins, K.S., and Pierce, H.A. (2007) Hydrogeologic setting and ground-water flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5066, 70 p.
  • Kraemer, T.F. (2005) Radium isotopes in Cayuga Lake, New York: Indicators of inflow and mixing processes: Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 50, iss. 1, p. 158-168.
  • Kruse, S.E., Schneider, J.C., Campagna, D.J., Inman, J.A., and Hickey, T.D. (2000) Ground penetrating radar imaging of cap rock, caliche and carbonate strata: Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 43, iss 2-4, p. 239-249.
  • Kuniansky, E.L. (2001) U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group proceedings, St Petersburg, Florida, February 13-16, 2001: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011, 211 p.
  • Kuniansky, E.L. (2011) U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group proceedings, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26-29, 2011: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5031, 212 p.
  • Kuniansky, E.L., Halford, K.J., and Shoemaker, W.B. (2008) Permeameter data verify new turbulence process for MODFLOW: Ground Water, vol. 46, iss. 5, p. 768-771.
  • Kuniansky, E.L. (2008) U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, 142 p.
  • Kuniansky, E.L. (2002) U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group proceedings, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, August 20-22, 2002: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4174, 89 p.
  • Kuniansky, E.L. (2005) U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group proceedings, Rapid City, South Dakota, September 12-15, 2005: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 05-5160, 296 p.
  • Kuniansky, E.L., and Holligan, K.Q. (1994) Simulations of flow in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4039, 40 p.
  • Kuniansky, E.L., and Ardis, A.F. (1997) Hydrogeology and ground-water flow in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer-system, west-central, Texas: USGS Professional Paper 1421-C, p.
  • Langer, W.H., Mulvihill, D.A., and Anderson, T.W. (1984) Maps showing ground water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Arizona: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4114-B, 7 p.
  • Langer, W.H., Moyle, W.R., Woolfenden, L.R., and Mulvihill, D.A. (1984) Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Southern California: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4116-B, 6 p.
  • Langer, W.H. (2001) Potential environmental impacts of quarrying stone in karst -- a literature review: USGS Open-File Report 2001-484, 39 p.
  • Langevin, C. D. (2003) Stochastic Ground Water Flow Simulation with a Fracture Zone Continuum Model: Ground Water, vol. 41, iss. 5, p. 587-601.
  • LeGrand, H.E., and Stringfield, V.T. (1973) Karst hydrology - A review: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 20, iss. 2, p. 97-120.
  • Lee, T.M. (2002) Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 2002-4033, 54 p.
  • Lee, T.M. (1996) Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida: Water Resources Research, vol. 32, iss. 4, p. 831-844.
  • Lee, T.M. (2000) Effects of nearshore recharge on groundwater interactions with a lake in mantled karst terrain: Water Resources Research, vol. 38, iss. 8, p. 2167-2182.
  • Leidy, V.A., and Morris, E.E. (1990) Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in the Boone Formation and Cotter Dolomite in karst terrain of northwestern Boone County, Arkansas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 90-4066, 57 p.
  • Lidz, B.H., Reich, C.D., and Shinn, E.A. (2003) Regional quaternary submarine geomorphology in the Florida Keys: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, vol. 115, iss. 7, p. 845-866.
  • Lindgren, R.J., Dutton, A.R., Hovorka, S.D., Worthington, S.R.H., and Painter, Scott (2005) Conceptualization and simulation of the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas: Geotechnical Special Publication, , p. 122-130.
  • Lindgren, R.J., Dutton, A.R., Hovorka, S.D., Worthington, S.R.H., and Painter, Scott (2004) Conceptualization and simulation of the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5277, 143 p.
  • Lindgren, R.J. (2006) Diffuse-flow conceptualization and simulation of the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5319, 48 p.
  • Lindgren, R.J., Taylor, C.J., and Houston, N.A. (2009) Description and evaluation of numerical groundwater flow models for the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5183, 25 p.
  • Lindgren, R.J., Houston, N.A., Musgrove, MaryLynn, Fahlquist, Lynne, and Kauffman, L.J. (2011) Simulations of groundwater flow and particle-tracking analysis in the zone of contribution to a public-supply well in San Antonio, Texas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5149, 93 p.
  • Lindholm, G.F., Garabedian, S.P., Newton, G.D., and Whitehead, R.L. (1986) Configuration of the water table and depth to water, spring 1980, water-level fluctuations, and water movement in the Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System, Idaho and eastern Oregon: USGS Hydrologic Atlas 703, 1 map p.
  • Lindsey, B.D., and Koch, M.L. (2004) Determining sources of water and contaminants to wells in a carbonate aquifer near Martinsburg, Blair County, Pennsylvania, by use of geochemical indicators, analysis of anthropogenic contaminants, and simulation of ground-water flow: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5124, 52 p.
  • Livingston, P.P., and Bennett, R.R. (1944) Geology and ground-water resources of the Big Spring area, Texas: USGS Water Supply Paper, 913, p. 113.
  • Long, A.J., Sawyer, J.F., and Putnam, L.D. (2008) Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA: Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 16, iss. 2, p. 263-280.
  • Long, A.J., and Gilcrease, P.C. (2009) A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 378, iss. 3-4, p. 230-239.
  • Long, A.J., and Putnam, L.D. (2006) Translating CFC-based piston ages into probability density functions of ground-water age in karst: Journal of Hydrology, v. 330, p. 735-747.
  • Long, A.J., and Derickson, R.G. (1999) Linear systems analysis in a karst aquifer: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 219, p. 206-217.
  • Long, A.J., and Putnam, L.D. (2004) Linear model describing three components of flow in karst aquifers using 18O data: Journal of Hydrology, v. 296, p. 254-270.
  • Long, A.J., and Putnam, L.D. (2002) Flow-system analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota--conceptual model: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 2002-4185, 100 p.
  • Long, A.J. (2009) Hydrograph separation for karst watersheds using a two-domain rainfall-discharge model: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 364, iss. 3-4, p. 249-256.
  • Long, A.J., and Valder, J.F. (2011) Multivariate analyses with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow--Wind Cave and associated aquifers: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 409, iss. 1-2, p. 315-327.
  • Long, A.J., and Putnam, L.D. (2009) Age-distribution estimation for karst groundwater--Issues of parameterizations and complexity in inverse modeling by convolution: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 376, iss. 3-4, p. 579-588.
  • Lynch, F.L., Mahler, B.J., and Hauwert, N.M. (2003) Provenance of suspended sediment discharged from a karst aquifer determined by clay mineralogy: Studies of Cave Sediments, vol. , iss. , p. 83-94.
  • Mabe, J.A. (2007) Nutrient and biological conditions of selected small streams in the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas, 2005–06, and implications for development of nutrient criteria: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5195, 46 p.
  • Maclay, R.W., and Small, T.A. (1983) Hydrostratigraphic subdivisions and fault barriers of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, U.S.A: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 61, iss 1-3, p. 127-146.
  • Mahler, B.J., Musgrove, MaryLynn, and Herrington, Chris (2011) Nitrate concentrations and potential sources in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and its contributing zone, central Texas: USGS Fact Sheet 2011-3035, 4 p.
  • Mahler, B.J., Musgrove, MaryLynn, Herrington, Chris, and Sample, Thomas L. (2011) Recent (2008-10) concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate and concentrations of wastewater compounds in the Barton Springs zone, south-central Texas, and their potential relation to urban development in the contributing zone: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5018, 39 p.
  • Mahler, B.J., Musgrove, MaryLynn, Wong, C.I., and Sample, Thomas L. (2011) Recent (2008-10) water quality in the Barton Spring segment of the Edwards Aquifer and its contributing zone, central Texas, with emphasis on factors affecting nutrients and bacteria: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5139, 66 p.
  • Mahler, B.J., and Garner, B.D. (2009) Using nitrate to quantify quick flow in a karst aquifer: Ground Water, vol. 47, iss. 3, p. 350-360.
  • Mahler, B.J., Bennett, P.C., and Zimmerman, M. (1998) Lanthanide-labeled clay: A new method for tracing sediment transport in Karst: Ground Water, vol. 36, iss. 5, p. 835-843.
  • Mahler, B.J. (2003) Quality of sediment discharging from the Barton Springs system, Austin, Texas: USGS Fact Sheet 089-03, 6 p.
  • Mahler, B.J., Valdes, D., Musgrove, MaryLynn, and Massei, N. (2008) Nutrient dynamics as indicators of karst processes – Comparison of the Chalk aquifer (Normandy, France) and the Edwards aquifer (Texas, U.S.A.): Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, vol. 98, p. 36-49.
  • Mahler, B.J., and Massei, N. (2007) Anthropogenic contaminants as tracers in an urbanizing karst aquifer: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, vol. 91, p. 81-106.
  • Mahler, B.J., Garner, B.D., Musgrove, MaryLynn, Guilfoyle, A.L., and Rao, M.V. (2006) Recent (2003-05) water quality of Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, with emphasis on factors affecting variability: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5299, 83 p.
  • Mahler, B.J., and Lynch, F.L. (1999) Muddy waters: temporal variation in sediment discharging from a karst spring: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 214, p. 165-178.
  • Mahler, B.J., Lynch, F.L., and Bennett, P.C. (1999) Mobile sediment in an urbanizing karst aquifer: implications for contaminant transport: Environmental Geology, vol. 39, iss. 1, p. 25-38.
  • Mahler, B.J., Winkler, M., Bennett, P.C., and Hillis, D.M. (1998) DNA-labeled clay: A sensitive new method for tracing particle transport: Geology, vol. 26, iss. 9, p. 831-834.
  • Mahler, B.J., Personne, J.C., Lods, G.F., and Drogue, C. (2000) Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst : Journal of Hydrology, vol. 238, iss. 3-4, p. 179-193.
  • Mahler, B.J., Personne, J.C., Lynch, F.L., and Van Metre, P.C. (2003) Sediment and sediment-associated contaminant transport through karst: Studies of Cave Sediments, , p. 23-46.
  • Mark, R.K., and Rogers, B.W. (1996) Bulgarian archaeoastronomy site or Bulgarian quarry site?: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol. 58, iss. 1, p. 56-58.
  • Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., and Peterman, Z.E. (2003) Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, vol. 62-63, p. 237-247.
  • Maslia, M.L., and Prowell, D.C. (1990) Effect of faults on fluid flow and chloride contamination in a carbonate aquifer system: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 115, iss. 1-4, p. Jan-49.
  • Massei, N., Lacroix, M., Wang, H.Q., Mahler, B.J., and Dupont, J.P. (2002) Transport of suspended solids from a karstic to an alluvial aquifer: The role of the karst/alluvium interface: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 260, iss. 1-4, p. 88-101.
  • McCoy, K.J., Podwysocki, M.H., Crider, E.A., and Weary, D.J. (2005) Fracture trace map and single-well aquifer test results in a carbonate aquifer in Berkeley County, West Virginia: USGS Open-File Report 2005-1040, 1 p.
  • McCoy, K.J., and Kozar, M.D. (2006) Relation of chlorofluorocarbon ground-water age dates to water quality in the aquifers of West Virginia: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5221, 37 p.
  • McCoy, K.J., and Kozar, M.D. (2008) Use of sinkhole and specific capacity distributions to assess vertical gradients in a karst aquifer: Environmental Geology, v. 54, p. 921-935.
  • McCoy, K.J., Podwysocki, M.H., Crider, E.A., and Weary, D.J. (2005) Fracture trace map and single-well aquifer test results in a carbonate aquifer in Jefferson County West Virginia: USGS Open-File Report 2005-1407, 1 p.
  • McMahon, P.B., Bohlke, J.K., and Christenson, S.C. (2004) Geochemistry, radiocarbon ages, and paleorecharge conditions along a transect in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, USA: Applied Geochemistry, vol. 19, iss. 11, p. 1655-1686.
  • McMahon, P.B., Bohlke, J.K., Kauffman, L.J., Kipp, K.L., Landon, M.K., Crandall, C.A., Burow, K.R., and Brown, C.J. (2008) Source and transport controls on the movement of nitrate to public supply wells in selected principal aquifers of the United States: Water Resources Research, vol. 44, iss. 4, p. .
  • McPherson, A.K., and Mooty, W.S. (1999) Synoptic survey of septic indicators in streams and springs at Monte Sano Mountain, Madison County, Alabama, January 29-31, 1998: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4230, 18 p.
  • Mercer, J.W., and Orr, B.R. (1979) Interim data report on the geohydrology of the proposed waste isolation pilot plant site, southeast New Mexico: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 79-98, 178 p.
  • Mercer, J.W., Davis, P., Dennehy, K.F., and Goetz, C.L. (1981) Results of hydrologic tests and water-chemistry analyses, wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C, at the proposed waste isolation pilot plant site, southeastern New Mexico: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 81-36, 92 p.
  • Mercer, J.W. (1983) Geohydrology of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, Los Medanos area, southeastern New Mexico: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4016, 87 p.
  • Metz, P.A., and Lewelling, B.R. (2009) Hydrologic conditions that influence streamflow losses in a karst region of the upper Peace River, Polk County, Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5140, 82 p.
  • Miller, C.V., Denis, J.M., Ator, S.W., and Brakebill, J.W. (1997) Nutrients in streams during baseflow in selected environmental settings of the Potomac River Basin: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 33, iss. 6, p. 1155-1171.
  • Miller, L.D., and Long, A.J. (2006) Statistical analyses of hydrologic system components and simulation of Edwards aquifer water-level response to rainfall using transfer-function models, San Antonio region, Texas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5131, 20 p.
  • Mirecki, J.E., Campbell, B.G., Conlon, K.J., and Petkewich, M.D. (1998) Solute changes during aquifer storage recovery testing in a limestone/clastic aquifer: Ground Water, vol. 36, iss. 3, p. 394-303.
  • Monroe, W.H. (1970) A glossary of Karst terminology: USGS Water Supply Paper, 1899-K, p. 26.
  • Monroe, W.H. (1976) The karst landforms of Puerto Rico: USGS Professional Paper 899, 69 p.
  • Moreland, J.A. (1975) Digital-model analysis of the effects of water-use alternatives on spring discharges, Gooding and Jerome Counties, Idaho: USGS Open-File Report 75-615, 100 p.
  • Mull, D.S. (1993) Use of dye tracing to define the direction of ground-water flow from a superfund waste-disposal site in karst terrane, near Auburn, Kentucky: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4195, 28 p.
  • Mull, D.S. (1993) Use of dye tracing to determine the direction of ground-water flow in karst terrane at the Kentucky State University Research Farm near Frankfort, Kentucky: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4063, 21 p.
  • Musgrove, MaryLynn, Fahlquist, Lynne, Houston, N.A., Lindgren, R.J., and Ging, P.B. (2009) Geochemical evolution processes and water-quality observations based on results of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5129, 93 p.
  • Musgrove, MaryLynn, Fahlquist, Lynne, Stanton, G.P., Houston, N.A., and Lindgren, R.J. (2011) Hydrogeology, chemical characteristics, and water sources and pathways in the zone of contribution of a public-supply well in San Antonio, Texas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5146, 194 p.
  • Nace, R.L., Vant Hul, Arthur, and McQueen, I.S. (1958) Records of springs in the Snake River valley, Jerome and Gooding Counties, Idaho, 1899-1947: USGS Water Supply Paper, 1463, p. 62.
  • Nelms, D.L., and Harlow, G.E., Jr. (2003) Aquifer Susceptibility in Virginia: Data on Chemical and Isotopic Composition, Recharge Temperature, and Apparent Age of Water from Wells and Springs, 1998-2000: USGS Open-File Report 2003-246, 101 p.
  • Orndorff, R.C., and Goggin, K.E. (1994) Sinkholes and karst-related features of the Shenandoah Valley in the Winchester 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia: USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map, 2262, p. 1 map.
  • Pavelko, M.T. (2007) Spring Database for the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah: USGS Data Series, 272, p. 11.
  • Pavlicek, D.J. (1996) Karst hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the Cave Springs basin near Chattanooga, Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4248, 35 p.
  • Payne, J.D., Kress, W.H., Shah, S.D., Stefanov, J.E., Smith, B.A., and Hunt, B.B. (2007) Geophysical Delineation of the Freshwater/Saline-Water Transition Zone in the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Travis and Hays Counties, Texas, September 2006: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5244, 21 p.
  • Peck, D.L., Troester, J.W., and Moore, J.E. (1988) Karst hydrogeology in the United States: USGS Open-File Report 88-476, 19 p.
  • Phelps, G.G., Walsh, S.J., Gerwig, R.M., and Tate, W.B. (2006) Characterization of the hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of selected springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, 2004: USGS Open-File Report 2006-1107, 51 p.
  • Phelps, G.G. (2004) Chemistry of ground water in the Silver Springs basin, Florida, with an emphasis on nitrate: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5144, 54 p.
  • Phelps, G.G. (1994) Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4159, 69 p.
  • Pittman, J.R., Hatzell, H.H., and Oaksford, E.T. (1997) Spring contributions to water quality and nitrate loads in the Suwannee River during base flow in July 1995: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4152, 12 p.
  • Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, Eurybiades, and Riggs, A.C. (2000) In-situ growth of calcite at Devils Hole, Nevada: Comparison of field and laboratory rates to a 500,000 year record of near-equilibrium calcite growth: Applied Geochemistry, vol. 6, iss. 2, p. 257-274.
  • Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, Eurybiades, Drenkard, S., Schlosser, Peter, Ekwurzel, B., Weppernig, R., McConnell, J.B., and Michel, R.L. (1998) Flow of river water into a karstic limestone aquifer - 2. Dating the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia: Applied Geochemistry, vol. 13, iss. 8, p. 1017-1043.
  • Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, Eurybiades, Bohlke, J.K., Carmody, R.W., Casile, G.C., Coplen, T.B., Doughten, M.W., Hannon, J.E., Kirkland, Wandee, Michel, R.L., Nelms, D.L., Norton, B.C., and Widman, P.K. (2000) Chemical and isotopic composition of water from springs, wells, and streams in parts of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, and vicinity, 1995-1999: USGS Open-File Report 2000-373, 70 p.
  • Prager, E.J., and Halley, R.B. (1999) The influence of seagrass on shell layers and Florida Bay mudbanks: Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 15, iss. 4, p. 1151-1162.
  • Pupacko, Alex, Wood, D.B., and Williams, R.P. (1989) Geohydrologic data for selected springs in eastern Nevada through 1982, with emphasis on White Pine County: USGS Open-File Report 88-712, 45 p.
  • Putnam, L.D., and Long, A.J. (2007) Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5137, 29 p.
  • Reed, J.E., Bedinger, M.S., and Gonthier, J.B. (1984) Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to water, Basin and Range Province, Nevada: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4119-B, 11 p.
  • Reed, J.E., Bedinger, M.S., Langer, W.H., Ireland, R.L., and Mulvihill, D.A. (1984) Maps showing ground-water units, withdrawal, and levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Northern California: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4115-A, 6 p.
  • Reed, J.E., Bedinger, M.S., Langer, W.H., Mason, J.L., and Mulvihill, D.A. (1984) Maps showing ground-water units, ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Idaho: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4117-A, 6 p.
  • Reese, R.S., and Richardson, Emily (2008) Synthesis of the hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan Aquifer system and delineation of a major Avon Park permeable zone in central and southern Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5207, 60 p.
  • Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Zygnerski, M.R., Wacker, M.A., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Osborn, C.L., and Ryan, J.N. (2005) Assessing the vulnerability of a municipal well field to contamination in a karst aquifer: Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, vol. 11, iss. 4, p. 319-331.
  • Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., Metge, D.W., and Wacker, M.A. (2008) Pathogen and chemical transport in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer--1. Revised conceptualization of groundwater flow: Water Resources Research, vol. 44, p. #W08429.
  • Renken, R.A., Ward, W.C., Gill, I.P., Gomez-Gomez, F., and Rodriguez-Martinez, J. (2002) Geology and hydrogeology of the Caribbean Islands aquifer system of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands: USGS Professional Paper 1419, 1-139 p.
  • Richards, R.T., Troester, J.W., and Martinez, M.I. (1998) An electromagnetic geophysical survey of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol. 60, iss. 2, p. 115-120.
  • Riggs, A.C., Carr, W.J., Kolesar, P.T., and Hoffman, R.J. (1994) Tectonic Speleogenesis of Devils Hole, Nevada, and Implications for Hydrogeology and the Development of Long, Continuous Paleoenvironmental Records: Quaternary Research, vol. 42, iss. 3, p. 241-254.
  • Roberts, A.E. (1966) Stratigraphy of Madison Group near Livingston, Montana, and discussion of karst and solution-breccia features: USGS Professional Paper 526-B, B1-B23 p.
  • Robinson, B.P., Thordarson, William, and Beetam, W.A. (1967) Hydrologic and chemical data for wells, springs, and streams in Nevada, TPS. 1-21 N., and Rs. 41-57 E: USGS Open-File Report 67-190, 61 p.
  • Robinson, J.L. (2004) Age and source of water in springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex, Calhoun County, Alabama: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5145, 34 p.
  • Roman-Mas, A., Carmichael, J.K., and Bennett, M.W. (1995) Ground-Water Quality at Selected Wells and Springs in the Principal Aquifers in Tennessee: USGS Open-File Report 90-574, 30 p.
  • Rostad, C.E., Leenheer, J.A., Katz, B.G., Martin, B.S., and Noyes, T.I. (2000) Characterization and disinfection by-product formation potential of natural organic matter in surface and ground waters from Northern Florida: ACS Symposium Series, vol. 761, p. 154-172.
  • Ruhl, J.F. (1995) Relation to fracture orientation to linear terrain features, anisotopic transmissivity, and seepage to streams in the karst Prairie du Chien Group, southeastern Minnesota: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4146, 42 p.
  • Saad, D.A., and Hippe, D.J. (1990) Large springs in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province of Pennsylvania: USGS Open-File Report 90-164, 17 p.
  • Sacova, M.E., and Bergman, D.L. (1994) Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4230, 37 p.
  • Sanford, W.E., and Konikow, L.F. (1989) Porosity development in coastal carbonate aquifers: Geology, vol. 17, iss. 3, p. 249-252.
  • Sanford, W.E., Whitaker, F.F., Smart, P.L., and Jones, G. (1998) Numerical analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: I. Geothermal convection: American Journal of Science, vol. 298, iss. 10, p. 801-828.
  • Savage, W.Z. (1979) Prediction of vertical displacements in a subsiding elastic layer: a model for subsidence in karst terrains: USGS Open-File Report 79-1094, 17 p.
  • Savoca, M.E., and Bergman, D.L. (1994) Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4230, 37 p.
  • Scanlon, B.R., Healy, R.W., and Cook, P.G. (2002) Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge: Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 10, iss. 1, p. 18-39.
  • Schlottmann, J.L., Tanner, R.S., and Samadpour, Mansour (2000) Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2000-4210, 66 p.
  • Schnoebelen, D.J., and Krothe, N.C. (1999) Reef and nonreef aquifers - A comparison of hydrogeology and geochemistry, northwestern Indiana: Ground Water, vol. 37, iss. 2, p. 194-203.
  • Schofield, P.J., Loftus, W.F., and Brown, M.E. (2007) Hypoxia tolerance of two centrarchid sunfishes and an introduced cichlid from karstic Everglades wetlands of southern Florida, U.S.A: Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 71, supp. D, p. 87-99.
  • Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., and Metge, D.W. (2008) Pathogen and chemical transport in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer--2. Chemical retention from diffusion and slow advection: Water Resources Research, vol. 44, p. #W08430.
  • Sheets, R.A., and Yost, W.P. (1994) Ground-water contribution from the Silurian/Devonian carbonate aquifer to the Mad River Valley, southwestern Ohio: Ohio Journal of Science, vol. 94, iss. 5, p. 138-146.
  • Shoemaker, W.B., O'Reilly, A.M., Sepulveda, Nicasio, Williams, S.A., Motz, L.H., and Sun, Qing (2004) Comparison of Estimated Areas Contributing Recharge to Selected Springs in North-Central Florida by Using Multiple Ground-Water Flow Models: USGS Open-File Report 03-448, 31 p.
  • Shoemaker, W.B., and Edwards, K.M. (2003) Potential for saltwater intrusion into the lower Tamiami aquifer near Bonita Springs, southwestern Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2003-4262, 74 p.
  • Shoemaker, W.B., Cunningham, K.J., Kuniansky, E.L., and Dixon, J.F. (2008) Effects of turbulence on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities in preferential groundwater flow layers: Water Resources Research, vol. 44, iss. 3, p. .
  • Shoemaker, W.B., Kuniansky, E.L., Birk, Steffen, Bauer, Sebastian, and Swain, E.D. (2007) Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005: USGS Techniques and Methods, 6-A24, p. 50.
  • Sinclair, W.C. (1978) Preliminary evaluation of the water-supply potential of the spring-river system in the Weeki Wachee area and the Lower Withlacoochee River, west-central Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 78-74, 40 p.
  • Sinclair, W.C., Stewart, J.W., Knutilla, R.L., Gilboy, A.E., and Miller, R.L. (1985) Types, features, and occurrence of sinkholes in the karst of west- central Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4126, 81 p.
  • Slade, R.M., Ruiz, L.M., and Slagle, D.L. (1985) Simulation of the flow system of Barton Springs and associated Edwards aquifer in the Austin area, Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4299, 49 p.
  • Slade, R.M., Dorsey, M.E., and Stewart, S.L. (1986) Hydrology and water quality of the Edwards Aquifer associated with Barton Springs in the Austin area, Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4036, 117 p.
  • Slagle, D.L., Ardis, A.F., and Slade, R.M. (1986) Recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer hydrologically associated with Barton springs in the Austin area, Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4062, 1 map p.
  • Small, T.A., Hanson, J.A., and Hauwert, N.M. (1996) Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Edwards aquifer outcrop (Barton Springs segment), northeastern Hays and southwestern Travis Counties, Texas: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4306, 15 p.
  • Smith, M.A. (1990) Large springs in the Valley and Ridge Province in Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4205, 9 p.
  • Smoot, J.L., Mull, D.S., and Liebermann, T.D. (1987) Quantitative dye tracing techniques for describing the solute transport characteristics of ground-water flow in karst terrane: Karst hydrogeology. Proc. 2nd conference, Orlando, 1987, , p. 269-275.
  • Smoot, J.L., Mull, D.S., and Liebermann, T.D. (1989) Quantitative dye-tracing of karst ground-water flow: Karst hydrogeology. Proc. 2nd conference, Orlando, 1987, , p. 677-684.
  • Snyder, R.P., and Gard, L.M., Jr. (1982) Evaluation of breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico and their relation to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, with a section on drill-stem tests: USGS Open-File Report 82-968, 78 p.
  • Snyder, R.P. (1985) Dissolution of halite and gypsum, and hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, Rustler Formation, in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: USGS Open-File Report 85-229, 15 p.
  • Spechler, R.M., and Schiffer, D.M. (1995) Springs of Florida: USGS Fact Sheet 151-95, 2 p.
  • Spechler, R.M., and Kroening, S.E. (2006) Hydrology of Polk County, Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5320, 114 p.
  • Spechler, R.M. (1996) Detection and quality of previously undetermined Floridan aquifer system discharge to the St. Johns River, Jacksonville, to Green Cove Springs, northeastern Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4257, 29 p.
  • Spechler, R.M., and Wilson, W.L. (1997) Stratigraphy and hydrogeology of a submarine collapse sinkhole on the continental shelf, northeastern Florida: in Beck and Stephens (eds.), The Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology of Karst Terranes, ISBN 90 5410 867 3, p. 61-66.
  • Spechler, R.M. (1994) Saltwater intrusion and quality of water in the Floridan aquifer system, Northeastern Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4174, 96 p.
  • Stanton, G.P., Kress, W.H., Teeple, A.P., Greenslate, M.L., and Clark, A.K. (2007) Geophysical analysis of the Salmon Peak Formation near Amistad Reservoir dam, Val Verde County, Texas, and Coahuila, Mexico, March 2006, to aid in piezometer placement: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5143, 72 p.
  • Stewart, J.W., and Mills, L.R. (1984) Hydrogeology of the Sulphur Springs area, Tampa, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4085, 1 sheet p.
  • Stringfield, V.T., Rapp, J.R., and Anders, R.B. (1979) Effects of karst and geologic structure on the circulation of water and permeability in carbonate aquifers: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 43, iss. 1-4, p. 313-332.
  • Stringfield, V.T., and LeGrand, H.E. (1971) Effects of karst features on circulation of water in carbonate rocks in coastal areas: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 14, iss. 2, p. 139-157.
  • Stringfield, V.T., and LeGrand, H.E. (1969) Hydrology of carbonate rock terranes - A review. With special reference to the United States: Journal of Hydrology, vol. 8, iss. 4, p. 377-417.
  • Sulak, K.J., and Clugston, J.P. (1998) Early life history stages of Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, vol. 127, iss. 5, p. 758-771.
  • Sulak, K.J., and Clugston, J.P. (1999) Recent advances in life history of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the Suwannee River, Florida, USA: A synopsis: Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 15, iss. 4-5, p. 116-128.
  • Sun, P.P., Criner, J.H., and Poole, J.L. (1963) Large springs of east Tennessee: USGS Water Supply Paper, 1755, p. 52.
  • Swarzenski, P.W., and Reich, C.D. (2000) Re-examining the submarine spring at Crescent Beach, Florida: USGS Open-File Report 2000-158, 4 p.
  • Swarzenski, P.W., Reich, C.D., Spechler, R.M., Kindinger, J.L., and Moore, W.S. (2001) Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida: Chemical Geology, vol. 179, iss. 1-4, p. 187-202.
  • Taylor, C.J., and Nelson, H.L., Jr (2008) A Compilation of Provisional Karst Geospatial Data for the Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Region, Central United States: USGS Data Series, 339, p. 26.
  • Taylor, C.J., and McCombs, G.K. (1998) Recharge-area delineation and hydrology, McCraken Springs, Fort Knox Military Reservation, Meade County, Kentucky: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4196, 1 map p.
  • Taylor, C.J. (1997) Delineation of ground-water basins and recharge areas for municipal water-supply springs in a karst aquifer system in the Elizabethtown area, northern Kentucky: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4254, 22 p.
  • Taylor, G.H. (1960) Springs--Their origin, development, and protection: USGS Open-File Report 60-140, 15 p.
  • Thagard, M.E., and Seaber, P.R. (1987) Location of potential ground-water quality monitoring wells, Tarpon Springs 1 degrees by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4142, 1 map p.
  • Thomas, J.M., Bryant-Hudson, G., Stute, M., and Clark, A.K. (2003) Noble gas loss may indicate groundwater flow across flow barriers in southern Nevada: Environmental Geology, vol. 43, iss. 5, p. 568-579.
  • Thomas, J.M., Lyles, B.F., and Carpenter, L.A. (1991) Chemical and isotopic data for water from wells, springs, and streams in carbonate-rock terrane of southern and eastern Nevada and southeastern California, 1985-88: USGS Open-File Report 89-422, 24 p.
  • Tobin, B.D., and Weary, D.J. (2004) Digital engineering aspects of Karst map: a GIS version of Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G., 1984, Engineering aspects of Karst: U.S. Geological Survey, National Atlas of the United States of America: USGS Open-File Report 2004-1352, 1 plate p.
  • Torak, L.J., Crilley, D.M., and Painter, J.A. (2006) Physical and hydrochemical evidence of lake leakage near Jim Woodruff lock and dam and ground-water inflow to Lake Seminole, and an assessment of karst features in and near the lake, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida : USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5084, 80 p.
  • Toth, D.J., and Katz, B.G. (2006) Erratum: Mixing of shallow and deep groundwater as indicated by the chemistry and age of karstic springs (Hydrogeology Journal (2006) (827-847) 10.1007/s10040-005-0478-x)) : Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 14, iss. 6, p. 1060-1080.
  • Toth, D.J., and Katz, B.G. (2006) Mixing of shallow and deep groundwater as indicated by the chemistry and age of karstic springs: Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 14, iss. 5, p. 827-847.
  • Troester, J.W., and Turvey, M.D. (2004) Water-resources reconnaissance of I^le de la Gona^ve, Haiti : Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 12, iss. 2, p. 224-236.
  • Trommer, J.T. (1992) Effects of effluent spray irrigation and sludge disposal on ground water in a karst region, northwest Pinellas County, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4181, 32 p.
  • Turner, K.J., Hudson, M.R., Murray, K.E., and Mott, D.N. (2007) Three-Dimensional Geologic Framework Model for a Karst Aquifer System, Hasty and Western Grove Quadrangles, Northern Arkansas: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5095, 12 p.
  • Velasco, F., Herrero, J.M., Yusta, I., Alonso, J.A., Seebold, I., and Leach, D. (2003) Geology and geochemistry of the Reoci´n zinc-lead deposit, Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain: Economic Geology, vol. 98, iss. 7, p. 1371-1396.
  • Waite, L.A., and Thomson, K.C. (1993) Development, description, and application of a geographic information system data base for water resources in karst terrane in Greene County, Missouri: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4154, 31 p.
  • Walsh, S.J., Knowles, Leel, Katz, B.G., and Strom, D.G. (2009) Hydrology, water quality, and aquatic communities of selected springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5046, 116 p.
  • Walsh, S.J., and Kroening, S.E. (2007) Aquatic Community, Hydrologic, and Water-Quality Data for Apopka, Bugg, Rock, and Wekiva Springs, Central Florida, 1931-2006: USGS Open-File Report 2007-1135, 50 p.
  • Ward, W.C., Cunningham, K.J., Renken, R.A., Wacker, M.A., and Carlson, J.I. (2003) Sequence-stratigraphic analysis of the regional observation monitoring program (ROMP) 29A test corehole and its relation to carbonate porosity and regional transmissivity in the Floridan aquifer system, Highlands County: USGS Open-File Report 03-201, 34 p.
  • Warne, A.G., Toth, L.A., and White, W.A. (2000) Drainage-basis-scale geomorphic analysis to determine reference conditions for ecologic restoration-Kissimmee River, Florida: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, vol. 112, iss. 6, p. 884-899.
  • Webster, D.A., and Carmichael, J.K. (1993) Ground-water hydrology of the lower Wolftever Creek basin, with emphasis on the Carson Spring area, Hamilton County, Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4190, 47 p.
  • Webster, J.M., Clague, D.A., Braga, J.C., Spalding, H., Renema, W., Kelley, C., Applegate, B., Smith, J.R., Paull, C.K., Moore, J.G., and Potts, D. (2006) Drowned coralline algal dominated deposits off Lanai, Hawaii; carbonate accretion and vertical tectonics over the last 30 ka: Marine Geology, vol. 225, iss. 1-4, p. 223-246.
  • Wells, F.C. (1985) Statistical summary of water-quality data collected from selected wells and springs in the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas: USGS Open-File Report 85-182, 162 p.
  • Whallon, A.J., and Crawford, N.C. (1985) Hydrologic hazards in karst terrain (water fact sheet): USGS Open-File Report 85-677, 2 p.
  • Whelan, J.F., Paces, J.B., Peterman, Z.E., Marshall, B.D., and Neymark, L.A. (2004) Reply to the comment on "physical and stable-isotope evidence for formation of secondary calcite and silica in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada", by Y.V. Dublyansky, S.E. Smirnov and G.P. Palyanova: Applied Geochemistry, vol. 19, iss. 11, p. 1879-1889.
  • White, W.E., and Kues, G.E. (1992) Inventory of springs in the state of New Mexico: USGS Open-File Report 92-118, 253 p.
  • Wicks, C.M., and Troester, J.W. (1998) Groundwater geochemistry of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol. 60, iss. 2, p. 107-114.
  • Willard, D.A., Bernhardt, C.E., Brooks, G.R., Cronin, T.M., Edgar, T., and Larson, R. (2007) Deglacial climate variability in central Florida, USA: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 251, iss. 3-4, p. 366-382.
  • Williams, C.F., and Sass, J.H. (2006) Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin: Transactions - Geothermal Resources Council, vol. 301, p. 111-116.
  • Williams, S.D., Wolfe, W.J., and Farmer, J.J. (2006) Sampling strategies for volatile organic compounds at three karst springs in Tennessee: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, vol. 26, iss. 1, p. 53-62.
  • Williams, S.D., and Farmer, J.J. (2003) Volatile organic compound data from three karst springs in middle Tennessee, February 2000 to May 2001: USGS Open-File Report 2003-355, 69 p.
  • Winograd, I.J. (2002) Evidence from uranium-series-dated speleothems for the timing of the penultimate deglaciation of northwestern Europe: Quaternary Research, vol. 58, iss. 1, p. 60-61.
  • Wolfe, W.J., Haugh, C.J., Webbers, Ank, and Diehl, T.H. (1997) Preliminary conceptual models of the occurrence, fate, and transport of chlorinated solvents in karst regions of Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4097, 80 p.
  • Wolfe, W.J., and Williams, S.D. (2002) Soil gas screening for chlorinated solvents at three contaminated karst sites in Tennessee: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, vol. 22, iss. 4, p. 91-99.
  • Wolfe, W.J., Evans, J.P., McCarthy, Sarah, Gain, W.S., and Bryan, B.A. (2004) Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4217, 62 p.
  • Wolfe, W.J. (1996) Hydrology and tree-distribution patterns of karst wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tennessee: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4277, 46 p.
  • Wynne, J.J., Titus, T.N., and Chong-Diaz, G. (2008) On developing thermal cave detection techniques for earth, the moon and mars: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 272, iss. 1-2, p. 240-250.
  • Wynne, J.J., and Pleytez, W. (2005) Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol. 67, iss. 3, p. 148-157.
  • Yobbi, D.K. (1992) Effects of tidal stage and ground-water levels on the discharge and water quality of springs in coastal Citrus and Hernando counties, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4069, 44 p.
  • Yobbi, D.K. (1989) Simulation of steady-state ground water and spring flow in the upper Floridan aquifer of coastal Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4036, 33 p.
  • Zambrano, L., Vazquez-Dominguez, E., Garcia-Bedoya, D., Loftus, W.F., and Trexler, J.C. (2006) Fish community structure in freshwater karstic water bodies of the Sian Ka'an Reserve in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico: Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, vol. 17, iss. 3, p. 193-206.

USGS Home Water Climate and Land Use Change Core Science Systems Ecosystems Energy and Minerals Environmental Health Natural Hazards

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/publications
Page Contact Information: USGS Office of Groundwater
Page Last Modified: Monday, 30-Jan-2012 16:39:46 EST