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Models & Patents

The USGS has been a leader in the development of hydrologic and geochemical simulation models since the 1960's. USGS models are widely used to predict responses of hydrologic systems to changing stresses, such as increases in precipitation or ground-water pumping rates, as well as to predict the fate and movement of solutes and contaminants in water. Today, many USGS models are available for free on the Internet.

USGS Modeling Software


The Global Climate Change Viewer

Screenshot from The Global Climate Change Viewer.The Global Climate Change Viewer (GCCV) is used to visualize future temperature and precipitation changes simulated by global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The application allows the user to visualize projected climate change (temperature and precipitation) for each country, for all available models and all Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) emission scenarios (2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5).

Visit the GCCV website for more information, or access the GCCV web application directly.

Coupled Ground Water and Surface Water Flow Model (GSFLOW)

Screenshot from GSFLOW output.Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW (GSFLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW).

Visit the GSFLOW website for more information and to download the software.

Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

Screenshot from PRMS manual.The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is a deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical process based modeling system developed to evaluate the response of various combinations of climate and land use on streamflow and general watershed hydrology.

Visit the PRMS website for more information and to download the software.

Multidimensional Surface-Water Modeling System

Screenshot from The Multidimensional Surface-Water Modeling System.The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) is a pre- and post-processing application for computational models of surface-water hydraulics. The system is both a tool and framework that provides an easy to use interface to a variety of environmental hydraulic models.

Visit the Multidimensional Surface-Water Modeling System website for more information and to download the software.

PHREEQC

Screenshot from PHREEQC.PHREEQC is a general purpose geochemical model for reactions in water and between water and rocks and sediments. Reactions include aqueous equilibria, mineral dissolution and precipitation, ion exchange, surface complexation, solid solutions, gas-water equilibrium, and kinetic biogeochemical reactions. PHREEQC has been applied to regional aquifer studies, nuclear waste disposal, carbon sequestration, acid mine drainage, and a multitude of other environments as diverse as paper making, concrete science, and dental research. IPhreeqc and IPhreeqcCOM are interfaces that allow PHREEQC to be implemented in other software. PhreeqcI is a Windows-based user interface that allows defining input, running simulations, and plotting results.

Visit the PHREEQC web site for more information and to download the software.

PHAST

Screenshot from PHAST.PHAST is a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model that has extensive capabilities to simulate water-rock and biogeochemical reactions that include all of the reactions available in PHREEQC. Simulations of reactive-transport of are useful for studies of naturally occurring toxic substances, such as selenium and arsenic, and anthropogenic organic and inorganic contaminant plumes. Phast4Windows is a Windows-based, intuitive, 3D graphical user interface for defining model features and execution of PHAST.

Visit the PHAST web site for more information and to download the software.

VS2DI

Screenshot from VS2DI.The VS2DI package contains all the tools that a user needs to create, run, and view results for a simulation of flow and transport through variably saturated porous media. The package seamlessly integrates a graphical user interface - within which the user can draw the simulated domain and enter or modify model parameters - with existing USGS models of flow and solute transport, and a postprocessor that displays simulation results.

Visit the VS2DIweb site for more information and to download the software.

ModelMuse

Screenshot from ModelMuse.ModelMuse is a graphical user interface (GUI) for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models MODFLOW-2005, MODFLOW-LGR, MODFLOW-NWT, MODPATH, ZONEBUDGET, and PHAST and for MT3DMS. This software package provides a GUI for creating the flow and transport input file for PHAST and the input files for MODFLOW-2005. In ModelMuse, the spatial data for the model are independent of the grid, and the temporal data are independent of the stress periods. Being able to input these data independently allows the user to redefine the spatial and temporal discretization at will. This report describes the basic concepts required to work with ModelMuse. These basic concepts include the model grid, data sets, formulas, objects, the method used to assign values to data sets, and model features.

Visit the ModelMuse site for more information and to download the software.

You can obtain more software at http://water.usgs.gov/software/, including general-use, water quality and chemistry, groundwater, statistics and graphics, and surface water applicaitons.

Software and related material (data and documentation) are made available by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to be used in the public interest and the advancement of science. You may, without any fee or cost, use, copy, modify, or distribute the software, and any derivative works thereof, and its supporting documentation, subject to the USGS software User's Rights Notice.

NRP Patents

Pore-Water Profiler

Murphy, F., Kuwabara; J.S., Topping; B.R., F. and, Myhre, R.C., 2011

Figure from US Patent 8,051,727.

US Patent 8,051,727 A pore-water profiler and method for sampling pore water. The pore-water profiler includes a sample intake probe that receives the fluid to be sampled. A clog-resistant first filter filters the fluid... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Sequential, Time-Integrated Collector of Precipitation, Ground Water, and Surface Water for Analysis of Isotopes

Coplen II, T.B., 2010

Figure from US Patent 7,687,028.

US Patent 7,687,028 A sequential, time-integrated collector having an electronic controller that actuates either of two electrically-actuated valves, each connected to a water reservoir. At a preset time interval... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Solar Distillation Loop Evaporation Sleeve

Constantz, J.; issued March 10, 2009, as continuation-in-part to US 7,1108,769, 2009

Figure from US Patent 7,501,046.

US Patent 7,501,046 An evaporation sleeve is placed within a solar distillation loop apparatus to increase the amount of water evaporated by the apparatus. The evaporation sleeve is rotationally attached within... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Measurement of Surface Areas by Polyvinylpyrrolidone Sorption

Blum, A.E., and Eberl, D.D., 2007

Figure from US Patent 7,264,777.

US Patent 7,264,777A method of quantitatively determining surface area of a sample uses polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) dispersed in a solution containing the sample, and determining... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Solar Distillation Loop

Constantz, J., 2006

Figure from US Patent 7,108,769.

US Patent 7,108,769 A solar distillation loop apparatus includes a first pipe section disposed on a ground surface, the first pipe section including a substantially straight portion and elevated portions on each end of... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

A Bioreactor for the Oxidation of the Fumigant Methyl Bromide

Miller, L.G., Oremland, R.S., and Baesman, S.M., 2005

Figure from US Patent 6,916,446.

US Patent 6,916,446 Methyl halide contaminants are oxidized in a reaction chamber containing a methylotrophic bacterium through direct oxidation of the methyl halide contaminant. Methyl halides may be used as... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Sorbant Sequestration and Removal of Toxic Metal Ions

Harthill, M.K., and Simon, N.S., 2005

US Patent 6,896,813 A matrix for water decontamination has an amended sorbant cellulose substrate with an iron (ferric) oxyhydroxide component and a component to sorb dissolved... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Small-Scale, Hydrogen-Oxidizing Denitrifying Bioreactor

Smith, R.L., 2005

Figure from US Patent 6,863,815.

US Patent 6,863,815 A method for treating nitrate-contaminated water comprising treating said water with hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria in the presence of... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Borehole Testing System (Shapiro, A.M., 2004)
US Patent 6,761,062
A self-contained, transportable system for conducting any of hydrologic tests or water sampling techniques without the need for retooling or readjusting the system. The system includes a borehole unit for conducting... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Deep Aquifer Remediation System (Naftz, D. L., and Davis, J.A., 2002)
US Patent 6,458,271
A groundwater decontamination system includes a decontamination unit adapted to be lowered down through a non-pumping well into an aquifer containing contaminated water. The unit can also be raised up and out of the non-pumping well for... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Aquifer Remediation Barrier for Removal of Inorganic Contaminants (Naftz, D. L., and Davis, J.A., 2002)
US Patent 6,428,695
A permeable barrier for decontaminating groundwater having two distinct components for increasing contaminant removal. Preferably, the barrier material is a mixture or distinct layers of bone-char phosphate material and iron oxide pellets. The barrier material can be... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Crystallization of Powders Having Uniform Particle Sizes by Ostwald Ripening at Large Levels of Supersaturation (Eberl, D.D., Kile, D.E., and Hoch, A.R., 2002)
US Patent 6,379,459
A method is provided for the manufacture of mineral power crystals having a uniform mean size. The method includes forming a solution which is highly supersaturated with respect to... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Method for Enhancing Oxidation of Methyl Bromide With Strain IMB-1 (ATCC 202197) During Agricultural Fumigations (Oremland, R.S., Connell, T.L., Miller; L.G., 2000)
US Patent 6,013,254
A method is provided for enhancing oxidation of methyl bromide during agricultural fumigations of fields using a fumigant containing methyl bromide. The method comprises adding a methylotrophic bacterium to the soil in an amount effective to provide bacterial oxidation of... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Selenate Removal from Waste Water (Oremland, R.S., 1993)
US Patent 5,271,831
A method and apparatus for removing selenate from waste water through the use of selenate respiring microorganisms under substantially anoxic conditions is described. The method includes a first zone for removing nitrate by... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Selenate Removal from Waste Water (Oremland, R.S., 1991)
US Patent 5,009,786
A method and apparatus for removing selenate from waste water through the use of selenate respiring microorganisms under substantially anoxic conditions is described. The method includes a first zone for removing nitrate by... (full details are available at the USPTO website)

Method and Apparatus for Steady-State Measurement of Liquid Conductivity in Porous Media (Rubin, J., Hammermeister, D.P. , Nimmo, J.R., 1987)
US Patent 4,679,422
In the operation of the present invention, a compacted porous medium is provided with a supply of the desired liquid and is subjected to centrifugal force until the measurement of the flow rate of liquid through the medium is... (full details are available at the USPTO website)