National Research Program


Chemical Modeling of Acid Waters

Aqueous chemical models have become popular tools for the interpretation of natural water chemistry. Unfortunately, these models have deficiencies because of (1) incorrect or inconsistent thermodynamic data, (2) invalid assumption regarding the equilibrium state, (3) inappropriate or invalidated corrections for nonideality, (4) inadequate expressions for temperature dependence, (5) invalidated limitations for ionic strength, composition and temperature, and (6) lack of data on solid solution solubility. The plethora of models and databases has prompted federal agencies, especially hazardous waste and nuclear waste managers, to request geochemical code validation. Acid mine waters are a major source of water pollution and provide one of the application of trace element speciation models. Objectives of this project are to develop, test, evaluate and make field applications of chemical models for equilibrium speciation and mass transfer of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters and ground waters. For additional information, see project's home page.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2012

Asta, M.P., Nordstrom, D.K., and McCleskey, R.B., 2012 (web publication 9/12/11), Simultaneous oxidation of arsenic and antimony at low and circumneutral pH, with and without microbial catalysis: Applied Geochemistry v. 27, no. 1, p. 281–291. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Clor, L.E., McCleskey, R.B., Huebner, M.A., Lowenstern, J.B., Heasler, H.P., Mahony, D.L., Moloney, Tim, and Evans, W.C., 2012, Water chemistry and electrical conductivity database for rivers in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 632, 18 p. and data tables. (on-line abstract and data or on-line report inpdf format, 1.7 MB)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Ryan, J.N., and Ball, J.W., 2012 (web publication 10/21/11), A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 77, p. 369-382. 10.1016/j.gca.2011.10.031 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Campbell, K.M., Veeramani, H., Ulrich, K., Blue, L.Y., Giammar, D.E., Bernier-Latmani, R., Stubbs, J.E., Suvorova, E., Yabusaki, S., Lezama-Pacheco, J.S., Mehta, A,. Long, P.E., Bargar, J.R., 2011, Oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite in groundwater at Old Rifle, CO: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 45, p. 8748-8754. dx.doi.org/10.1021/es200482f (on-line abstract of journal article)

Deng, Y., Nordstrom, D.K., and McCleskey, R.B., 2011, Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 75, no. 16, p. 4476-4489. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Holloway, J.M., Nordstrom, D.K., Böhlke, J.K., McCleskey, R.B., and Ball, J.W., 2011, Ammonium in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: Processes affecting speciation and isotope fractionation: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 75, no. 16, p. 4611-4636, (on-line abstract of journal article)

Majzlan, J., Alpers, C.N., Koch, C.B., McCleskey, R.B., Myneni, S.C.B., and Neil, J.M., 2011, Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California: Chemical Geology, v. 284, p. 296-305. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Manning, A.H., Verplanck, P.L., Mast, M.A., Marsik, J., and McCleskey, R.B., 2011, Spring runoff water-chemistry data from the Standard Mine and Elk Creek, Gunnison County, Colorado, 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1159, 20 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 7.4 MB)

McClesky, R.B., 2011, Electrical conductivity of electrolytes found in natural waters from (5 to 90) °C: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data v. 56, p. 317-327. 10.1021/je101012n (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 167 KB, published by the American Chemical Society, not subject to U.S. copyright)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Ryan, J.N., 2011, Electrical conductivity method for natural waters: Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, supplement 1 [Ninth International Symposium on the Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface (GES-9)], p. s227-s229. (on-line abstract of article

Nordstrom, D.K., 2011, Sulfide mineral oxidation, in Reitner, J., and Thiel, V, eds., Encyclopedia of Geobiology: Springer.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2011, Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters: Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, p. 1777-1791. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.06.002 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2011, Mine waters: Acidic to circumneutral: Elements, v. 7, no. 6, p. 393-398. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ball, J.W., McCleskey, R.B., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2010, Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1192, 84 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 10.1 MB)

Borch, T., Campbell, K., and Kretzschmar, R., 2010, How electron flow controls contaminant dynamics: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 44, no.1, p. 3-6.

Borch, T., Kretzschmar, R., Skappler, A., Van Cappellen, P., Ginder-Vogel, M.,  Voegelin, A., and Campbell, K., 2010, Biogeochemical Redox Processes and their Impact on Contaminant Dynamics: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 44, no.1, p. 15-23. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Inskeep, W., Nordstrom, D.K., Mogk, D.W., Rodman, A.W., Fouke, B.W., Duraes, N., and Guzman, M., 2010, Secondary minerals associated with geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park, in Schroeder, P.A., ed., Clays of Yellowstone National Park, Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures, v. 17, 24-51.

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Susong, D.D., Ball, J.W., and Holloway, J.M., 2010, Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. I. Low-flow discharge and major solute chemistry: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 193, no. 3-4, p. 189-202. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Susong, D.D., Ball, J.W., and Taylor, H.E., 2010, Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.196, no. 3-4, p. 139-155. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mueller, R.S., Denef, V.J., Kalnejais, L.H., Suttle, K.B., Thomas, B.C., Wilmes, P., Smith, R.L., Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., Shah, M.B., VerBerkmoes, N.C., Hettich, R.L., and Banfield, J.F., 2010, Ecological distribution and population physiology defined by proteomics in a natural microbial community: Molecular Systems Biology, Article Number 374, doi:10.1038/msb.2010.30. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 2058 KB, Molecular Systems Biology is an on-line only, open-access journal)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2010, Book Review: Thermodynamics and kinetics of water-rock interaction: Elements 6, p. 60.

Osborne, T.H., Jamieson, H.E., Hudson-Edwards, K.A., Nordstrom, D.K., Walker, S.R., Ward, S.A., and Santini, J.M., 2010, Microbial oxidation of arsenite in a subarctic environment: diversity of arsenite oxidase genes and identification of a psychrotolerant arsenite oxidizer, BMC Microbiology, v.10, p. 205-212. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 506 KB, BMC Microbiology is an open-access journal)

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom D.K., Plumlee, G.S., and Walker, B., 2010, Estimating natural background groundwater chemistry, Questa Molybdenum Mine, New Mexico, in Morgan, L.A. and Quane, S.L., eds., Through the Generations: Geologic and Anthropogenic Field Excursions in the Rocky Mountains from Modern to Ancient, Geological Society of America Field Guide 18, p. 141-161.

Boyd, E.S., King, S., Tomberlin, J.K., Nordstrom, D.K., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Barkay, T., and Geesey, G.G., 2009, Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: Environmental Microbiology, v. 11, no. 4, p. 950-959. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2009, Acid rock drainage and climate change: Journal of Geochemical Exploration. v. 100, p. 97-104. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2009, Mining II - Acid mine drainage, in Callicott, J.B., and Frodeman, R., eds., Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy: Macmillan Reference USA, Gale Cengage, v. 2, p. 61-63,

Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., and Ball, J.W., 2009, Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: IV Acid-sulfate waters: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 2, p. 191-207. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Scanlon, B.R., Nicot, J.P., Reedy, R.C., Kurtzman, D., Mukherjee, A., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2009, Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 11, p. 2061-2071. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Sherman, L.S., Blum, J.D., Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., Barkay, T., and Vetriani, C., 2009, Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 279, no. 1-2, p. 86-96. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., Bove, D.J., Plumlee, G.S., and Runkel, R.L., 2009, Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 2, p. 255-267. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Caruso, B.S., Cox, T.J., Runkel, R.L., Velleux, M.L., Bencala, K.E., Nordstrom, D.K., Julien, P.Y., Butler, B.A., Alpers, C.N., Marion, A., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Metals fate and transport modelling in streams and watersheds: state of the science and USEPA workshop review: Hydrological Processes, v. 22, no. 19, p. 4011-4021.

Gammons, C.H., Nimick, D.A., Parker, S.R., Snyder, D.M., McCleskey, R.B., Amils, R., and Poulson, S.R., 2008, Photoreduction fuels biogeochemical cycling of iron in Spain's acid rivers: Chemical Geology, v. 252, no. 3-4, p. 202-213. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Izbicki, J.A., Ball, J.W., Bullen, T.D., and Sutley, S.J., 2008, Chromium, chromium isotopes and selected trace elements, western Mojave Desert, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 23, no. 5, p. 1325-1352. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2008, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 25. Summary of results and baseline and pre-mining ground-water geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1728, 111p. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 42.4 MB)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2008, What was the groundwater quality before mining in a mineralized region? Lessons from the Questa Project: Journal of Geosciences, v. 12, p. 139-149. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2008, Science, engineering, and the remediation of metal mine sites: Macla, v. 10, p. 10-12

Verplanck, P.L. , Mueller, S.H. , Goldfarb, R.J. , Nordstrom, D.K. , and Youcha, E.K.,2008, Geochemical controls of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater, Ester Dome, Fairbanks district, Alaska: Chemical Geology, v. 255, no. 1-2, p.160-172. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., Wright, W.G., Mast, M.A., Bove, D.J., and Rye, R.O., 2007, Aqueous-sulfate stable isotopes - A study of mining-affected and undisturbed acidic drainage, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, chapter E8, p. 387-416. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 327 kb)

Ball, J.W., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Holloway, J.M., 2007, Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1339, 183 p.

Nimick, D.A., McCleskey, B.R., Gammons, C.H., Cleasby, T.E., and Parker, S.R., 2007, Diel mercury-concentration variations in streams affected by mining and geothermal discharge: Science of the Total Environment, v. 373, no. 1,p. 344-355. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D. K., 2007, Effects of seasonal and climatic change on water quality from acid rock drainage in the western United States in Cidu, R. and Frau, F., eds., Water in Mining Environments: Proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Symposium 2007, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, p. 11-16.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2007, Modeling low-temperature geochemical processes in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and Ground Water, Weathering and Soils, Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5: Elsevier, p. 1-38 (online update)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2007, What was the water quality before mining? Inferring pre-mining water-quality at hard-rock mines as a goal for remediation, in Bullen, T.D., and Wang, Y., eds., Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Kunming, China, 31 July - 5 August, 2007: London, Taylor and Francis CRC Press, p. 23-26.

Nordstrom, D.K., Wright, W.G., Mast, M.A., Bove, D., and Rye, R.O., 2007, Aqueous-sulfate stable isotopes: A study of mining-affected and undisturbed acidic drainage: Chapter E8 in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 387-416.

Planer-Friedrich, B., London, J., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Wallschlager, D., 2007, Thioarsenates in geothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park - Determination, preservation, and geochemical importance: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, p. 5,245-5,251. (on-line abstract of journal artiicle)

Verplanck, P.L., Mueller, S.H., Goldfarb, R.J., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2007, Elevated arsenic in ground water, Ester Dome (Alaska) in Cidu, R. and Frau, F., eds., Water in Mining Environments: Proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Symposium 2007, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, p. 473-477.

Kimball, B.A., Nordstrom, D.K., Runkel, R.L., Vincent, K.R., and Verplanck, P.L., 2006, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 23. Quantification of solute mass loading for Red River, New Mexico : U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report, 2006-5004, 44 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1.7MB)

King, S.A., Behnke, S., Slack, K., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Nordstrom, D.K. Burr, M.D., and Striegl, R.G., 2006, Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 21, no. 11, p. 1868-1879. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., McCleskey, R.B., and Alpers, C.N., 2006, Thermodynamic properties and crystal structure refinement of ferricopiapite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, and Fe3(SO4)2(H2O)5: European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 18, p. 175-186. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Planer-Friedrich, B., Lehr, C., Matschullat, J., Merkel, B.J., Nordstrom, D.K., and Sandstrom, M.W., 2006, Speciation of volatile arsenic at geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, p. 2,480-2,491. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., and McCleskey, R.B., 2006, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries and precipiation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5028, 139 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 3.1 MB

Ball, J.W., Runkel, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining rround-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red River, New Mexico, 2001-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5149, 63 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 2.9 MB)

Gammons, C.H., Nimick, D.A., Parker, S.R., Cleasby, T.E., and McCleskey, R.B., 2005, Diel behavior of iron and other trace metals in a mountain stream with acidic to neutral pH: Fisher Creek, Montana, USA: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 69, no. 10, p. 2505-2516. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Jamieson, H.E., Robinson, C., Alpers, C.N., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Peterson, R.C., 2005, Major and trace element composition of copiapite group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California: Chemical Geology, v. 215, no. 1-4, p. 387-405. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Jamieson, H.E., Robinson C., Alpers, C.N., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Poustovetov, A., and Lowers, H.A., 2005, Geochemistry of jarosite-group minerals and associated waters from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 43, p. 1,225-1,242. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article)

McCleskey, R.B., Ball, J.W., Nordstrom, D.K., Holloway, J.M., and Taylor, H.E., 2005, Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park Wyoming, 2001-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1316, 94 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 10 MB)

Merkel, B.J., Planer-Friedrich, Britta, 2005, Groundwater Geochemistry - A practical guide to modeling of natural and contaminated aquatic systems, Nordstrom, D.K., ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 200 p.

Naus, C.A., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Donohoe, L.C., Hunt, A. G., Morin, R.H., Paillet, F., and Verplanck, P.L., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water chemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5088, 220 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 29.6 MB)

Nimick, D.A., Cleasby, T.E., and McCleskey, R.B., 2005, Seasonality of diel cycles of dissolved metal concentrations in a Rocky Mountain stream: Environmental Geology, v. 47, no. 5, p. 603-614. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2005, A river on the edge - Water quality in the Red River and the USGS background study, in Price, L.G., Bland, Douglas, McLemore, V.T., and Barker, J.M., eds., Mining in New Mexico, Decision-Makers Conference 2005, Taos region, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, New Mexico, p. 64-67.

Nordstrom, D.K., Ball, J.W., and McCleskey, R.B., 2005, Ground water to surface water - Chemistry of thermal outflows in Yellowstone National Park , in Inskeep, W. and McDermott, T.R., eds., Geothermal Biology and Geochemistry in Yellowstone National Park: Bozeman, Mont., Thermal Biology Institute, Montana State University, p. 73-94.

Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., Hunt, A.G., and Naus, C.A., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water quality in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5050, 84 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 2 MB)

Verplanck, P.L., Taylor, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K., and Barber, L.B., 2005, Aqueous stability of gadolinium in surface waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluent, Boulder Creek, Colorado: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 39, p. 6923-6929. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ball, J.W., and Izbicki, J.A., 2004, Occurrence of hexavalent chromium in ground water in the western part of the Mojave Desert, California: Applied Geochemistry, v. 19, no. 7, p. 1123-1135. (on-line abstract)

Ball, J.W., Runkel, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Alamosa River and Wightman Fork, near the Summitville Mine, Colorado-- Application of a reactive-transport model to low- and high-flow simulations, in Zanetti, P., ed., Environmental sciences and environmental computing: The EnviroComp Institute. v. II, Chap. 3, p. 1-54.

Chudaev, O.V., Chudaeva, V.A., Sugimori, K., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, Chemical composition and formation of thermal waters in Kuril's Islands (Far East Russia), in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water - Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, p. 105-108.

Holloway, J.M., Smith, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, Nitrogen transformations in hot spring runoff, Yellowstone National Park, USA, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water - Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, p. 145-148.

Jones, C.A., Nimick, D.A., and McCleskey, R.B., 2004, Relative effect of temperature and pH on diel cycling of dissolved Zn and As in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, v. 153, p. 95-113. (on-line abstract)

LoVetere, S.H., Nordstrom, D.K., Maest, A.S., and Naus, C.A., 2004, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 3, Historical ground-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4186, 49 p. (on-line report in pdf format)

Maest, A.S., Nordstrom, D.K., and Lovetere, S.H., 2004, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation, 4. Historical Surface-Water Quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5063, 150 p. (on-line report or on-line report in pdf format, 2041 kb)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Maest, A.S., 2004, Preservation of water samples for arsenic(III/V) determinations--An evaluation of the literature and new analytical results: Applied Geochemistry, v. 19, no. 7, p. 995-1009. (on-line abstract)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., and Naus, C.A., 2004, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water-quality investigation. 16. Quality assurance and quality control for water analyses: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1341, 105 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1MB)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, Modeling low-temperature geochemical processes, in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and Ground Water, Weathering and Soils, Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5, chapt. 2: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 37-72.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, From research to remediation: Application of hydrogeochemical research for effective mine site remediation, in Jarvis, A.P., Dudgeon, B.A., and Younger, P.L., eds., Mine Water 2004, Process, Policy, and Progress, International Mine Water Association Symposium, Proceedings, Sept. 19-23, 2004, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: International Mine Water Association, v. 1, p. 141-148.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and the challenge of environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund mine site, or why not to plug a mine: GIS - Geoscience Applications and Developments/ Treatment technologies for mining impacted water, Proc. Workshop at the Geological Institute of the Technical University of the Mining Academy at Freiberg, June 18, 2004, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, v. 25, p. 125-131.

Nordstrom, D.K., Ball, J.W., and McCleskey, R.B., 2004, Oxidation reactions for reduced Fe, As, and S in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: biotic or abiotic, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water - Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, p. 59-62.

Verplanck, P.I., Nordstrom, D.K., Taylor, H.E., and Kimball, B.A., 2004, Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation: Applied Geochemistry, v. 19, p. 1339-1354. (on-line abstract)

Zhang, M., Hobbs, M.Y., Frape, S.K., Nordstrom, D.K., Ball, J.W., and McCleskey, R.B., 2004, Stable chlorine isotope composition of goethermal waters from Yellowstone National Park, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water - Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, p. 233-236.

Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Spitzley, J., 2003, Extreme acid mine drainage from a pyritic massive sulfide deposit, The Iron Mountain end-member, in Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes: Mineralogical Association of Canada, v. 31, p.407-430.

Ball, J.W., and McCleskey, R.B., 2003, A new cation-exchange method for accurate field speciation of hexavalent chromium: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4018, 17 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1 MB)

Ball, J.W., and McCleskey, R.B., 2003, New cation-exchange method for accurate field speciation of hexavalent chromium: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS 006-03. (on-line fact sheet in pdf format)

Ball, J.W., and McCleskey, R.B., 2003, A new cation-exchange method for accurate field speciation of hexavalent chromium: Talanta, v. 61, no. 3, p. 305-313. (on-line abstract)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Ball, J.W., 2003, Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4117, 14 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1 MB)

McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Steiger, J.I., Kimball, B.A., and Verplanck, P.L., 2003, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 2. Low-flow (2001) and snowmelt (2002) synoptic/tracer water chemistry for the Red River, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-148, 152 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 13 MB)

Mueller, S.H., Goldfarb, M.L., Munk, L.A., Sanzolone, R., Lamothe, P., Adams, M., Briggs, P.H., McCleskey, R.B., and Theodorakos, P.M., 2003, Surface and ground water geochemistry near the Donlin Creek gold deposit, southwestern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-492, 37p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1.04 MB)

Murphy, S.F., Barber, L.B., Verplanck, P.L., and Kinner, D.A., 2003, Environmental setting and hydrology of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Chapter 1 in Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., and Barber, L.B., eds., Comprehensive water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4045, p. 5-26. (on line chapter in pdf format)

Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., and Barber, L.B., eds., 2003, Comprehensive water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4045, 198 p. (on-line report)

Nordstrom, D.K., 2003, Effects of microbiological and geochemical interactions in mine drainage, in Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes: Mineralogical Association of Canada, v. 31, p. 227-238.

Ortiz, R.F, and Ball, J.W., 2003, Summary of Synoptic Sampling and Tracer-Injection Tests in the Alamosa River Basin, June 1999: A Sampling Analysis Report for Modeling Reactive Transport of Metals for the Summitville Mine: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-466, 55 p.

Ortiz, R.F, and Ball, J.W., 2003, Summary of Synoptic Sampling and Tracer-Injection Tests in the Alamosa River Basin, June 1998: A Sampling Analysis Report for Modeling Reactive Transport of Metals for the Summitville Mine: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-467, 60 p.

Verplanck, P.L., McCleskey, R.B., and Roth, D.A., 2003, Inorganic water chemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000, Chapter 4 in Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., and Barber, L.B., eds., Comprehensive water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4045, p. 71-102. (on-line chapter in pdf format)

Verplanck, P.L., Mueller, S.H., Youcha, E.K., Goldfarb, R.J., Sanzolone, R.F., McCleskey, R.B., Briggs, P.H., Roller, M., Adams, M., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2003, Chemical analyses of ground and surface waters, Ester Dome, Central Alaska, 2000-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-244. (on-line abstract or on line report in pdf format, 12.38 MB)

Verplanck, P.L., Murphy, S.F., and Barber, L.B., 2003, Water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 043-03. (on-line fact sheet)

Webster, J.G., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2003, Geothermal Arsenic, in Welch, A.H., and Stollenwerk, K.G., eds., Arsenic in Ground Water: Geochemistry and Occurrence: Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 101-126.

Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., Verplanck, P.L., and Wirt, L., 2003, Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map, MF-2406. (on-line map)


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THIS PROJECT, CONTACT:
Darrell K. Nordstrom (on-line profile)
U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303
Email: dkn@usgs.gov
Telephone: 303-541-3037

Blaine McCleskey (on-line profile)
U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303
Email: rbmccles@usgs.gov
Telephone: 303-541-3079

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