National Research Program


Environmental Fluid Dynamics

The morphology of alluvial river channels is determined by relatively complicated mutual interaction between the pattern of flow in the channel, the transport of sediment through the channel as suspended load and bedload, and the topography of the bed and banks of the channel. The local flow field is determined by the shape of the channel, the sediment transport is determined primarily by the flow and sediment particle characteristics, and the pattern of erosion and deposition produced by the sediment-transport field determines the morphology of the channel bed and banks. Thus, the flow, sediment transport, and the channel morphology are inextricably linked and, as a result, developing a mechanistic understanding of river channel behavior requires that the interactions among these three fields be adequately characterized in the precise terms of mathematics and physics. This project specifically addresses fluid and sediment-transport physics within the context of river channel morphodynamics. The broad goal of the project is to carry out theoretical, laboratory, and field investigations necessary to develop an accurate understanding of the various flow-sediment-bed interactions, and to use that understanding to develop predictive computational models for assessing the evolution and stability of river channels in various environments. The project focuses on fundamental research into small-scale flow and sediment-transport processes, and on incorporating the results of this research into techniques for addressing problems of practical importance. For additional information, see the home page for the Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2011

McDonald, R.R., Bennett, J.P., and Nelson, J.M., in press, Multi-dimensional surface water modeling system user's guide: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap.B2, 156 p.

Nelson, J.M., Logan, B.L., Kinzel, P.J., Shimizu, Y., Giri, S., Shreve, R.L., and McLean, S.R., in press, Bedform Response to Flow Variability: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

Nelson, J.M., Shimizu, Y. and McDonald, R.M., in press, Integrating bedform dynamics with large-scale computational models for flow and morphodynamics in river, IAHR 2010.

Nelson, J.M., Shimizu, Y., McDonald, R.M., and Logan, B., in press, Integrating computational models for bedform development with reach-scale flow and morphodynamics models for rivers: River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics.

Legleiter, C. J., Kinzel, P., and Overstreet, B.T., 2011, Evaluating the potential for remote bathymetric mapping of a turbid, sand-bed river: 1. Field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling: Water Resources Research, Water Resour. Res., v. 47, W09531. doi:10.1029/2011WR010591.(on-line abstract of journal article)

Legleiter, C. J., Kinzel, P., and Overstreet, B.T., 2011, Evaluating the potential for remote bathymetric mapping of a turbid, sand-bed river: 2. Application to hyperspectral image data from the Platte River: Water Resources Research, v. 47, W09532. doi:10.1029/2011WR010592 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Legleiter, C.J., Kyriakidis, P.C., McDonald, R.R., and Nelson, J.M., 2011, Effects of uncertain topographic input data on two-dimensional flow modeling in a gravel-bed river: Water Resources Research, v. 47, W03518, doi:10.1029/2010WR009618 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Logan, B.L., McDonald, R.R., Nelson, J.M., Kinzel, P.J., and Barton, G.J., 2011, Use of multidimensional modeling to evaluate a channel restoration design for the Kootenai River, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5213, 74 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 106 MB)

Nelson, J.M., Kinzel, P.J.,Thanh, M.D., Toan, D.D., Shimizu, Y. and McDonald, R.R., 2011, Mechanics of flow and sediment transport in delta distributary channels: Proceedings of The 1st EIT International Conference on Water Resources Engineering, Engineering  Institute of Thailand, Bangkok, p. 8-14. (on-line paper in pdf format, 1237 kB)

Simões, F.J.M., 2011, A finite-volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 137, no. 2, p. 173-182. (on-line abstract of journal article)  

Barton, G. Hoffman, G., McDonald, R., and Nelson, J., 2010, Kootenai River white sturgeon critical habitat with free flowing and backwater conditions, Boundary County, Idaho: Evaluation of water depth and flow velocity during 2006-09 spaning seasons: Proceedings of the 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference and of the 9th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 12 p. (on-line paper in pdf format, 1076 KB)

Kinzel, P., Nelson, J., McDonald, R., and Logan, B., 2010, Topographic evolution of sandbars: Flume emperiment and computational modeling: Proceedings of the 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference and of the 9th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 8 p. (on-line paper in pdf format, 213 KB)

Kinzel, P.J., Nelson, J.M., McDonald, R.R., and Logan, B.L. 2010. Science supporting management of water and ecological resources in the Central Platte River, USA: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Asia and Pacific Division of the International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research, February 22-24, 2010, Auckland, New Zealand, Digital Media, 8 p.

Kinzel, P.J., and Runge, J., 2010, Summary of bed sediment measurements along the Platte River, Nebraska 1931-2009: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3087, 4 p. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 528 kB)

Logan, B., Nelson, J., McDonald, R., and Wright, S., 2010, Mechanics and modeling of flow, sediment transport and morpholoigc change in riverine lateral separation zones:: Proceedings of the 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference and of the 9th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 12 p. (on-line paper in pdf format, 317 KB)

McDonald, R., Nelson, J., Paragamian, V., and Barton, G., 2010, Modeling the effect of flow and sediment transport on white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River, Idaho: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 136 no. 12, p. 1077-1092. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McDonald, R.R., Nelson, J.M.,  Paragamian, V.L., and Barton, G., 2010, A method for evaluating the effects of flow magnitude and duration on the management of spawning habitat, in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Asia and Pacific Division of the International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research, February 22-24, 2010, Auckland, New Zealand, Digital Media, 8 p.

Nelson, J.M., Shimizu, Y., Giri, S., and McDonald, R.R., 2010, Computational modeling of bedform evolution in rivers with implications for predictions of flood stage and bed evolution: Proceedings of the 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference and of the 9th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 9 p. (on-line paper in pdf format, 225 KB)

Pearse, A.T., Krapu, G.L., Brandt, D.A., and Kinzel, P.J., 2010, Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska: Journal of Wildlife Management, v. 74, no. 3, p. 479-488. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Simões, F.J.M., 2010, Flow resistance in open channels with fixed and movable bed: Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference on Sedimentation and Hydrologic Modeling, June 27-July 1, Las Vegas, Nevada, 11 p. (on-line paper in pdf format, 150 KB)

Kinzel, P.J., 2009, Advanced tools for River Science: EAARL and MD_SWMS, in Bayer, J.M., and Schei, J.L., eds., PNAMP Special Publication: Remote Sensing Applications for Aquatic Resource Monitoring: Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership, Cook, Washington, chap. 3, p. 17-26. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 1763 KB)

Kinzel, P.J., 2009, Channel morphology and bed sediment characteristics before and after habitat enhancement activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, water years 2005-2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1147. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 7 MB)

Kinzel, P.J., Nelson, J.M., and Heckman, A.K., 2009, Respones of sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) riverine roosting habitat to changes in stage and sandbar morphology: River Research and Applications, v. 25, no. 2, p. 135-152. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 726 KB, published by John Wiley as a U.S. government work in the public domain)

Paragamian, V.L., McDonald, R.R.,  Nelson, J.M., and Barton, G., 2009, Kootenai River velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - a mystery unraveled?, Journal of Applied Ichthyology, v. 25 , p. 640–646. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Shimizu, Y., Giri, S., Yamaguchi, S., and Nelson, J., 2009, Numerical simulation of dune-flat bed transition and stage-discharge relationship with hysteresis effect: Water Resources Research, v. 45, W04429. doi:10.1029/2008WR006830 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Simões, F.J.M., 2009, SToRM: a numerical model for environmental surface flows: 33rd IAHR Congress, August 9-14, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (available on CD-ROM only)

Draut, A.E., Rubin, D.M., Dierker, J.L., Fairley, H.C., Griffiths, R.E., Hazel, J.E., Jr., Hunter, R.E., Kohl, K., Leap, L.M., Nials, F.L., Topping, D.J., and Yeatts, M., 2008, Application of sedimentary-structure interpretation to geoarchaeology in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona: Geomorphology, v. 101, no. 3, p. 497-509. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Gray, J.R., and Simões, F.J.M., 2008, "Estimating sediment discharge,", in Garcia, M., ed., Sedimentation Engineering, Processes, Measurements, Modeling, and Practice: ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 110, p 1067-1088.

Kinzel, P.J. 2008. River channel topographic surveys prior to and following elevated flows in the central Platte River, Nebraska, Spring 2008. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 380, 10p. (on-line abstract and to download excel spreadsheets or on-line report in pdf format, 1.6 MB)

Nelson, J.M., Logan, B.L., Kinzel, P.J., Shimizu, Y., Giri, S., Shreve, R.L., and McLean, S.R., 2008, Bedform Response to Flow Variability, in Parsons, D.R., Garlan, T., and Best, J.L., eds., Marine Sandwave and River Dune Dynamics III, University of Leeds, p 241-248.

Simões, F.J.M., and Yang C.T., 2008, GSTARS computer models and their applications, part II: applications: International Journal of Sediment Research, v. 23, no. 4, p. 299-315. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Yang, C.T., and Simões, F.J.M., 2008, GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development: International Journal of Sediment Research, v. 23, no. 3, p. 197-211. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barton, G.J., McDonald, R.R., and Nelson, J.M., 2007, Simulation of Flow Using a Multidimensional Flow Model for White Sturgeon Habitat, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho-A Supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230.

Benson, L.V., Madole, R., Kubik, P., McDonald, R.R., 2007, Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 26, p.1,638-1,649. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Comiti, F., L. Mao, A. Wilcox, E.E. Wohl, and M.A. Lenzi., 2007, Field-derived relationships for flow velocity and resistance in step-pool streams: Journal of Hydrology, v. 340, p. 48-62. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Cui, Y. and Wilcox, A.C., 2007, Development and application of numerical modeling of sediment transport associated with dam removal, in Garcia, M., ed. ASCE Manual 110, Sedimentation Engineering: Theory, Measurements, Modeling and Practice: American Society of Civil Engineers, Chapter 23.

Giri, S., Yamaguchi, S., Shimizu, Y, and Nelson, J.M., 2007, Simulating temporal responses of bedforms to varying flows, in Dohmen-Janssen, C., and Hulscher, S., eds, River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics: London, CRC Press, p. 939-947.

Grams, P.E., Schmidt, J.C., and Topping, D.J., 2007, The rate and pattern of bed incision and bank adjustment on the Colorado River in Glen Canyon downstream from Glen Canyon Dam: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 119, no. 5, p. 556-575. (on-line abstract)

Hazel, J.E., Jr., Kaplinski, M., Parnell, R., Kohl, K., and Topping, D.J., 2007, Stage-discharge relations for the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona, 1990-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1243, 19 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 2.5 MB)

Kinzel, P.J., Wright, C.W., Nelson, J.M., and Burman, A.R., 2007, Evaluation of an experimental LiDAR for surveying a shallow, braided, sand-bedded river: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 133, no. 7, p. 838-842. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McLean, S.R., Nelson, J.M., and Gary, L., 2007, Suspended sediment in the presence of dunes, in Dohmen-Janssen, C., and Hulscher, S., eds., River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics: CRC Press, London, p. 611-618.

Rubin, D.M., Chezar, H., Topping, D.J., Melis, D.J., and Harney, J., 2007, Two new approaches for measuring spatial and temporal changes in bed-sediment grain size: Sedimentary Geology, v. 202, no. 3, p. 402-408, doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2007.03.020. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Schmeeckle, M.W., Nelson, J.M., and Shreve, R.L., 2007, Forces on stationary particles in near-bed turbulent flows: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 112, F02003m doi:1029/2006JF000536 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Topping, D.J., Rubin, D.M., and Melis, T.S., 2007, Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: Relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area: Sedimentary Geology, v. 202, no. 3, p. 538-561, doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2007.03.016. (on-line abstract of journal article)  

Topping, D.J., Wright, S.A., Melis, T.S., and Rubin, D.M., 2007, High-resolution measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using a multi-frequency acoustic system: Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on River Sedimentation, August 1-4, 2007, Moscow, Russia.

Wilcox, A.C. and Wohl, E.E., 2007, Field measurements of three-dimensional hydraulics in a step-pool channel: Geomorphology, v. 83, p. 215–231.

Barton, G.J., McDonald, R.R., Nelson, J.M., Donato, M., Van Metre, P., and Mahler, B., 2006, Altered dynamics of Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning habitat and flow modeling: CD-ROM Proceedings of the Joint 8th Federal Interagency Sedimentation and 3rd Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Reno, Nevada, April 2-6, 2006, ISBN 0-9779007-1-1.

Heckman A.K., Kinzel P.J, Nelson, J.M., 2006, Use of aerial infrared thermography to map emergent riverine sandbars: Proceedings of the 8th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, April 2-6, 2006, Reno, Nev: Subcommittee on Sedimentation, CD_ROM, 8 p.

Kinzel, P.J., Nelson, J.M., and Heckman, A.K., 2006, Channel morphology and bed sediment characteristics before and after riparian vegetation clearing in the Cottonwood Ranch, Platte River, Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5285, 25 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 9.46MB)

Kinzel, P.J., Nelson, J.M., Parker, R.S., and Davis, L.R., 2006, Spring census of mid-continent sandhill cranes using aerial infrared videography: Journal of Wildlife Management, v. 70, no. 1, p. 70-77. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kinzel, P.J., Nelson, J.M. and Wright, C.W., 2006, Monitoring changes in the Platte River riparian corridor with serial LiDAR surveys: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2006-3063, 4p. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 3 MB)

Kinzel, P.J., Wright, C.W., and Nelson, J.M., 2006, Application of an experimental airborne laser scanner for surveying a braided river channel, in Proceedings of the 8th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, April 2-6, 2006, Reno, Nev: Subcommittee on Sedimentation, CD_ROM, 8 p.

McLean, S.R., and Nelson, J.M., 2006, Sediment transport over ripples and dunes, in: Parker, G., and Garcia, M., River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, Taylor and Francis, London, p. 821-829.

McDonald, R.R., Nelson, J.M., Kinzel, P.J., and Conaway, J.S., 2006, Modeling surface-water flow and sediment mobility with the multi-dimensional surface water modeling system: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3078. (on-line fact sheet)

Nelson, J.M., Burman, A.R., Shimizu, Y., McLean, S.R., Shreve, R.L., and Schmeeckle, M.W., 2006, Computing flow and sediment transport over bedforms, in Parker, G., and Garcia, M., River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics: London, Taylor and Francis, p. 861-872.

Nelson, J.M., McDonald, R.R., and Kinzel, P.J., 2006, Morphologic evolution in the USGS surface-water modeling system: Proceedings of the 8th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, April 2-6, 2006, Reno, Nev: Subcommittee on Sedimentation, CD_ROM, 8 p.

Simões, F.J., and Yang, C.T., 2006, Sedimentation modeling for rivers and reservoirs, in Yang, C.T., ed., Erosion and Sedimentation Manual: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Technical Service Center, Denver, CO., chapter 5, p. 5-1 to 5-93. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 3281 KB)

Wilcox, A.C., Nelson, J.M., and Wohl, E.E., 2006, Flow resistance dynamics in step-pool channels: 2. Partitioning between grain, spill, and woody debris resistance: Water Resources Research, v. 42, W05419, doi:10.1029/2005WR004278. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barton, G.J., McDonald, R.R., Nelson, J.M., and Dinehart, R.L., 2005, Simulation of flow and sediment mobility using a multidimensional flow model for the white sturgeon critical-habitat reach, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230 64 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 4.6MB)

Draut, A.E., Rubin, D.M., Dierker, J.L., Fairley, H.C., Griffiths, R.E., Hazel, J.E., Jr., Hunter, R.E., Kohl, K., Leap, L.M., Nials, F.L., Topping, D.J., and Yeats, M., 2005, Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower, Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Science Investigations Report 2005-5072, 68 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 16.4 MB))

Gray, J.R., Melis, T.S., Patiño, E., Gooding, D.J., Topping, D.J., Larsen, M.C., and Rasmussen, P.P., 2005, U.S. Geological Survey suspended sediment surrogate research on optic, acoustic, and pressure difference technologies, in Gray, J.R., ed., Proceedings of the Federal Interagency Sediment Monitoring Instrument and Analysis Workshop, September 9-11, 2003, Flagstaff, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1276, 10 p. (on-line article, pdf format)

Kinzel, P.J., Nelson, J.M., and Parker, R.S., 2005, Assessing Sandhill Crane roosting habitat along the Platte River, Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3029. (on-line fact sheet or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 2.1 MB)

Kinzel, P.J., Parker, R.S., Nelson, J.M., Gyetvai, S., Burman, A., and Heckman, A., 2005, Geomorphic data collected within Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2004, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1090, 23 p. (on-line report available for download)

Mueller, E.R., Pitlick, J., and Nelson, J.M., 2005, Variation in the reference Shields stress for bed load transport in gravel-bed streams and rivers: Water Resources Research, v. 41, no. 4, W04006, doi:10.1029/2004WR003692. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Topping, D.J., Rubin, D.M., and Schmidt, J.C., 2005, Regulation of sand transport in the Colorado River by changes in the surface grain size of eddy sandbars over multi-timescales: Sedimentology, v. 52, Issue 5, Page 1133-1153. (on-line abstract of journal article)

White, M.A., Schmidt, J.C., and Topping, D.J., 2005, Application of wavelet analysis for monitoring the hydrologic effects of dam operation:Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado, River at Lees Ferry, Arizona: River Research and Applications, v. 21, no. 5, p. 551-565. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Wright, S.A., Melis, T.S., Topping, D.J., and Rubin, D.M., 2005, Influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on downstream sand resources of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, in Gloss, S.P., Lovich, J.E., and Melis, T.S., eds., The state of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1282, p.17-31. (on-line article in pdf format)

Yang, C.T., and Simões, F.J., 2005, Wash load and bed-material load transport in the Yellow River: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 131, no. 5, p. 413-418. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kinzel, P.J., Parker, R.S., Nelson, J.M., Gyetvai, S., Burman, A., and Heckman, A., 2004, Geomorphic data collected within Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2004, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1292, 25 p. (on-line report available for download)

Simões, F.J., and McDonald, R.R., 2004, A modeling system for 2D flow in surface waters: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Hydroscience and Hydroengineering, Brisbane, Austrailia, May 31-June3, 2004. (published on CD-ROM)

Kinzel, P., Parker, R., Nelson, J., Burman, R., and Heckman, A., 2003, Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-170, 19 p. (on-line report available for download; CD also available).

Kinzel, P., Parker, R., Nelson, J., Burman, R., and Heckman, A., 2003, Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-171, 19 p. (on-line report available for download; CD also available).

Maddux, T.B., Nelson, J.M., and McLean, S.R., 2003, Turbulent flow over three-dimensional dunes, 1: Free surface and flow response: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, No. F1 (on-line abstract)

Maddux, T.B., McLean, S.R., and Nelson, J.M., 2003, Turbulent flow over three-dimensional dunes, 2: Fluid and bed stresses: Journal of Geophysical Research,v. 108, No. F1. (on-line abstract)

Nelson, J. M., Bennett, J. P., and Wiele, S. M., 2003, Flow and sediment transport modeling, in M. Kondolph and H. Piegay, eds., Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology: Chichester, England, Wiley and Sons, p. 539-576.

Schmeeckle, M.W., and Nelson, J.M., 2003, Direct numerical simulation of bedload transport using a local dynamic boundary condition: Sedimentology, v. 50, no. 2, p. 279-302. (on-line abstract)


For bibliographic citations by Francisco Simões prior to 2005, see Mathematical Modeling Principles

FOR ADDITIONAL INFOMATION ABOUT THIS PROJECT, CONTACT:
Jonathan M Nelson
U.S. Geological Survey, 4620 Technology Drive, Golden, CO, 80401
IEmail: jmn@usgs.gov
Telephone: 303-278-7957

Francisco J. Simões
U.S. Geological Survey, 4620 Technology Drive, Golden, CO, 80401
Email: frsimoes@usgs.gov
Telephone: 303-278-7956

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