National Research Program


Hydrogeochemical and Biogeochemical Studies of Volcanic and Geothermal Systems

Reconnaissance and chemical and isotope sampling of thermal springs in the western United States has not generally provided information of sufficient detail to permit the geothermal potential of most individual areas to be determined with any certainty. This is especially true in the Cascade Mountain Range, where the chemical geothermometers indicate much lower temperatures of water-rock equilibrium than the sulfate-isotope geothermometer and the geologic setting seem to require. This discrepancy could be due to simple mixing of thermal and fresh water or rapid equilibration of water with the surrounding country rock as the fluids rise to the surface; alternatively, the sulfate-isotopic composition could be an artifact reflecting the original source. In this project, the origin of the dissolved constituents, water, and gases discharging in the hot springs will be investigated, their relationship to the fumaroles and cold mineral springs ascertained, and recharge areas for the thermal springs and the amount of mixing of thermal and nonthermal waters will be determined. For additional informaition, see the Dynamics of Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems web site.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2012

Bergfeld, D., and Evans, W.C., 2011, Monitoring CO2 emissions in tree kill areas near the resurgent dome at Long Valley Caldera, California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5038, 9 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 9.6 MB)

Bergfeld, D., Lowenstern, J.B., Hunt, A.G., Shanks, W.C.P, III, and Evans, W.C., 2011, Gas and isotope chemistry of thermal features in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5012, 26 p. and data files. (on-line abstract and to access appendices or on-line report in pdf format, 7.9 MB)

Evans, W.C., Bergfeld, D., McGeehin, J.P., King, J.C., and Heasler, H., 2010, Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone: Geology, v. 38, p. 1075-1078. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Evans, W.C., Mariner, R.H., Bergfeld, D., Revesz, K.M. and McGeehin, J.P. 2010, Carbon isotope composition of CO2 at Cascade Arc volcanoes, in Birkle, P., and & Torres-Alvarado, I.S., eds., Water-Rock Interaction XIII: Taylor & Francis Group, London, p. 195-198. ISBN 978-0-415-60426-0

Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., and Lowenstern, J.B., 2010, River solute fluxes reflecting active hydrothermal chemical weathering of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA: Chemical Geology, v. 276, no. 3-4, p. 331-343. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ingebritsen, S.E., and Mariner, R.H., 2010, Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range, northwestern United States: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 196, no. 3-4, p. 208-218, doi:10.1016/j.volgeores.2010.07.023. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Evans, W.C. , Bergfeld, D. , McGimsey, R.G. , and Hunt, A.G., 2009, Diffuse gas emissions at the Ukinrek Maars, Alaska: Implications for magmatic degassing and volcanic monitoring: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 4, p. 527-535. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Evans, W.C., Harmon, R. S., and Wanty, R.B., 2009, 12th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction (WRI-12): Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 4, p. 491-492. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Werner, C., Evans, W.C., Poland, M., Tucker, D.S., and Doukas, M.P., 2009, Long-term changes in quiescent degassing at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA; Evidence for a stalled intrusion in 1975 and connection to a deep magma source: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 186, no. 3-4, p. 379-386. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bergfeld, D., Evans, W.C., McGee, K.A. and Spicer, K.R., 2008, Pre- and post-eruptive investigations of gas and water samples from Mount St. Helens, Washington, 2002 to 2005, in Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A Volcano Rekindled: The Renewed Eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750, chapt 25, p. 523-542. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 3.5 MB)

Kusakabe, M., Ohba, T., Issa, Yoshida, Y., Satake, H., Ohizumi, T., Evans, W.C., Tanyileke, G., and Kling, G.W., 2008, Evolution of CO2 in lakes Monoun and Nyos, Cameroon, before and during controlled degassing: Geochemical Journal, v. 42, no. 1, p. 93-118. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mariner, R.H., Minor, S.A., King, A.P., Boles, J.R., Kellogg, K.S., Evans, W.C., Landis, G.A., Hunt, A.G., and Till, C.B., 2008, A landslide in Tertiary marine shale with superheated fumaroles, Coast Ranges, California: Geology, v. 36, no. 12, p. 959-962. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Schaefer, J.R., Scott, W.E., Evans, W.C., Jorgenson, J., McGimsey, R.G., and Wang, B., 2008, The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry result: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 9, Q07018, doi:10.1029/2007GC001900. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Werner, C., Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Bergfeld, D., Heasler, H., Jaworowski, C., and Hunt, A., 2008, Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 178, p. 751-762, DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.016. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Williams, C.F., Reed, M.J., and Mariner, R.H., 2008, A review of methods applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the assessment of identified geothermal resources: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2008-1296, 27 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1.8 MB)

Williams, C.F., Reed, M.J., Mariner, R.H., DeAngelo, J., and Galanis, S.P., jr., 2008, Assessment of moderate- and high- temperature geothermal resources of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008-2082, 4 p. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 7.6 MB)

Evans, W.C., Bergfeld, D., McGimsey, R.G., and Hunt, A.G., 2007, Magmatic gas efflux at the Ukinrek Maars, Alaska, in Bullen, T.D., and Wang, Y., eds., Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Kunming, China, 31 July - 5 August, 2007: London, Taylor and Francis, p. 65-69.

Farrar, C.D., Evans, W.C., Venezky, D.Y., Hurwitz, S., and Oliver, L.K., 2007, Boiling water at Hot Creek -- The dangerous and dynamic thermal springs in California's Long Valley Caldera: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3045. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 5 MB)

Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Bergfeld, D., Werner, C., Heasler, H., and Jaworowski, C., 2007, Extensive hydrothermal rock alteration in a low pH, steam-heated environment: Hot Springs Basin, Yellowstone National Park in Bullen, T.D., and Wang, Y., eds., Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Kunming, China, 31 July - 5 August, 2007: London, Taylor and Francis, p. 81-85.

Reed, M.J., and Mariner, R.H., 2007, Geothermometer calculations for geothermal assessments: Transactions of the 2007 Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, v. 31, p. 89-92.

Abedini, A.A., Hurwitz, S., and Evans, W.C., 2006, USGS-NoGaDat -- A global dataset of noble gas concentrations and their isotopic ratios in volcanic systems: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 202. (on-line report).

Bergfeld, D., Evans, W.C., Howle, J.F., and Farrar C.D., 2006, Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 152, p. 140-156. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Eby, N. and Evans, W.C., 2006, Taming the killer lakes of Cameroon: Geology Today, v. 22, no. 1, p. 18-22. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Engle, M.A.,Gustin, M.S., Goff, F., Counce, D.A., Janik, C.J., Bergfeld, D. and Rytuba, J.J., 2006, Atmospheric mercury emissions from substrates and fumaroles associated with three hydrothermal systems in the western United States: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 111, D17304, doi:10.1029/2005JD006563. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Evans, W.C., Bergfeld, D., van Soest, M.C., Huebner, M.A., Fitzpatrick, J., and Revesz, K.M., 2006, Geochemistry of low-temperature springs northwest of Yellowstone caldera: Seeking the link between seismicity, deformation, and fluid flow: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 154, p. 169 – 180, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.01.001. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mariner, R.H., Evans, W.C., and Young, H.W., 2006, Comparison of circulation times of thermal waters discharging from the Idaho batholith based on geothermometers temperatures, helium concentrations, and 14C: Geothermics, v. 35, no. 1, p. 3-25. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mariner, R.H., Venezky, D.Y., and Hurwitz, S., 2006, Chemical and isotopic database of water and gas from hydrothermal systems with an emphasis on the western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report DS-169. (on-line data-base report)

Presser, T.S. and Luoma, S.N. , 2006, Forecasting selenium discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Ecological effects of a proposed San Luis Drain extension: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1646, 196 p. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 5.5MB)

Hurwitz, S., Mariner, R.H., Fehn, U., and Snyder, G.T., 2005, Systematics of halogen elements and their radioisotopes in thermal springs of the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon, USA: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 235, p. 700-714.(on-line abstract of journal article)

Kharaka, Y.K., and Mariner, R.H., 2005, Geothermal systems, in Aggarwal, P.K., Gat, J.R., and Froehlich, K.F.O., eds., Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present, and Future of a Developing Science: Springer, Dordrecht, p. 243-270.

Kling, G. W., Evans, W.C., Tanyileke, G., Kusakabe, M., Ohba, T., Yoshida, Y., and Hell, J. V., 2005, Degassing Lakes Nyos and Monoun – Defusing certain disaster: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v. 102, p. 14,185-14,190. (on-line abstract)

Lewicki, J.L., Bergfeld, D., Cardellini, C., Chiodini, G., Granieri, D., Varley, N., and Werner, C., 2005, Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua: Bulletin of Volcanology, , v. 68, no. 1, p. 76-90. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bergfeld, D., Howle, J.F., and Schmidt, M.E., 2004, Diffuse CO2 degassing from summit areas on Mt. Hood, Oregon, USA, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction,Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, v. 1, p. 83-86.

Evans, W.C., Lorenson, T.D., Sorey, M.L., and Bergfeld, D., 2004, Transport of injected isobutane by thermal groundwater in Long Valley caldera, California, USA, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, v. 1, p. 125-129.

Evans, W.C., van Soest, M.C., Mariner, R.H., Hurwitz, S., Ingebritsen, S.E., Wicks, C.W., Jr., and Schmidt, M.E., 2004, Magmatic intrusion west of Three Sisters, central Oregon, USA: The perspective from spring chemistry: Geology, v. 32, p. 69-72. (on-line abstract)

Presser, T.S., Hardy, M.A., Huebner, M.A., and Lamothe, P., 2004, Selenium loading through the Blackfoot River watershed: linking sources to ecosystems, in Hein, J., ed., Life Cycles of the Phosphoria Formation: From Deposition to the Post-Mining Environment: Elsevier, New York, p. 437-466.

Presser, T.S., and Luoma, S.N., 2004, Linking Selenium Sources to Ecosystems: San Francisco Bay-Delta Model: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3091. (on-line fact sheet and on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 1 MB)

Presser, T.S., Piper, D.Z., Bird K.J., Skorupa, J.P., Hamilton, S.J., Detwiler, S.J., and Huebner, M.A., 2004, The Phosphoria Formation: a model for forecasting global selenium sources to the environment, in J. Hein, ed., Life Cycle of the Phosphoria Formation: From Deposition to the Post-Mining Environment: Elsevier, New York, p. 299-319.

Skorupa, J.P., Presser, T.S., Hamilton, S.J., Lemly, A.D., and Sample, B.E., 2004, EPA's draft tissue-based criterion: a technical review: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Report.

van Soest, M.C., Evans, W.C., Mariner, R.H., and Schmidt, M. E., 2004, Chloride in hot springs of the Cascade volcanic arc - The source puzzle, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction,Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, v. 1, p. 209-213.

Hurwitz, S., Goff, F., Janik, C.J., Evans, W.C., Counce, D.A., Sorey, M.L., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2003, Mixing of magmatic volatiles with groundwater and interaction with basalt on the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, no. 1, p. 8-1 to 8-12. (on-line abstract)

Lewicki, J.L., Evans, W.C., Hilley, G.E., Sorey, M.L., Rogie, J.D., and Brantley, S.L., 2003, Shallow soil CO2 flow along the San Andreas and Calaveras Faults, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, no. B4 (on-line abstract)

Mariner, R.H., Evans, W.C., Presser, T.S., and White, L.D., 2003, Excess nitrogen in selected thermal and mineral springs of the Cascade Range, in northern California, Oregon, and Washington - sedimentary or volcanic in origin?: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 121, no. 1-2, p. 99-114. (on-line abstract)

Symonds, R.B., Janik, C.J., Evans, W.C., Ritchie, B.E., Counce, D., Poreda, R.J., and Iven, M., 2003, Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade Range and Aleutian arc volcanoes: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-435, 22 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format - 1.9MB)

Symonds, R.B., Poreda, R.J., Evans, W.C., Janik, C.J., and Ritchie, B.E., 2003, Mantle and crustal sources of carbon, nitrogen, and noble gases in Cascade Range and Aleutian arc volcanic gases: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-436, 25 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format - 2.9MB)


FOR ADDITIONAL INFOMATION ABOUT THIS PROJECT, CONTACT
Robert H. Mariner
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS434, Menlo Park, CA 94025
email: rmariner@usgs.gov
Telephone: 650-329-4507

William C Evans
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS434, Menlo Park, CA 94025
email: wcevans@usgs.gov
Telephone: 650-329-4514

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