National Research Program


Geochemistry of Water in Fine Grained Sediments

The energy potential of geothermal waters from geopressured systems is enormous. Geochemical data are necessary for delineating favorable exploration areas, estimating the recoverable geothermal resources from a given reservoir, and identifying potential pollution, waste disposal, and corrosion problems. The project's objectives are to study the chemistry and controls on the chemistry of water in geothermal and other subsurface systems; to provide basic data needed to estimate the geothermal energy and other resources; and to identify potential pollution, waste disposal, and corrosion problems associated with extraction of energy and other resources from these systems.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2011

Lu, J., Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Horita, J., Karamalidis, A., Griffith, C., Alexandra, J.H., Ambats, G., Cole, D. R., Phelps, T.J., Manning, M.A., Cook, P.J., and Hovorka, S.D., 2012, CO2–rock–brine interactions in Lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Cranfield CO2 sequestration site, Mississippi, U.S.A.: Chemical Geology, v. 291, p. 269-277. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.10.020. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Zheng, L., Apps, J.A., Spycher, N., Birkholzer, J.T., Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J., Beers, S.R., Herkelrath, W.N., Kakouros, E., and Trautz, R.C., 2012, Geochemical modeling of changes in shallow groundwater chemistry observed during the MSU-ZERT CO2 injection experiment: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, v. 7, p. 202-217. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kharaka, Y. K., and Cole, D. R., 2011, Geochemistry of Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide, in Harmon, R.S., and Parker, A., eds., Frontiers in Geochemistry: Contribution of Geochemistry to the Study of the Earth: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., p. 136-174

Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Bullen, T.D., Cole, D.R., Phelps, T. J., Birkolzer, J.T., and Hovorka, S.D., 2010. Near surface and deep subsurface monitoring for successful geologic sequestration of CO2, in P. Birkle and I. S. Torres-Alvarado, eds., Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Water-Rock Interaction (WRI-13: Taylor and Francis Group, p. 867-870.

Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Kakouros, E., Ambats, G. Herkelrath, W.N., Beers, S.R., Birkholzer, J.T., Apps, J.A., Spycher, N.F., Zheng, L., Trautz, R.C., Rauch, H.W., and Gullickson, K.S., 2010, Changes in the chemistry of shallow groundwater related to the 2008 injection of CO2 at the ZERT field site, Bozeman, Montana: Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 60, no. 2, p. 273-264. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-009-0401-1 (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 707 KB, published by Springer with Open Access)

Spangler, L.H., Dobeck, L.M., Repasky, K.S., Nehrir, A.R., Humphries, S.D., Barr, J.L., Keith, C.J., Shaw, J.A., Rouse, J.H., Cunningham, A.B., Benson, S.M., Oldenburg, C.M., Lewicki, J.L., Wells, A.W., Diehl, J.R., Strazisar, B.R., Fessenden, J.E., Rahn, T.A., Amonette, J.E., Barr, J.L., Pickles, W.L., Jacobson, J.D., Silver, E.A., Male, E.J., Rauch, H.W., Gullickson, K.S., Trautz, R., Kharaka, Y., Birkholzer, J., and Wielopolski, L., 2010, A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models: Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 60, no. 2, p. 227-239. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-009-0400-2 (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 967 KB, published by Springer with Open Access)

Xu, T., Kharaka, Y.K., Doughty, C., Freifeld, B.M., and Daley, T.M., 2010, Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Chemical Geology, v. 271-no. 3-4, p. 153-164. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Burruss, R.C., Brennan, S.T., Freeman, P.A., Merrill, M.D., Ruppert, L.F., Becker, M.F., Herkelrath, W.N., Kharaka, Y.K., Neuzil, C.E., Swanson, S.M., Cook, T.A., Klett, T.R., Nelson, P.H., and Schenk, C.J., 2009, Development of a probabilistic assessment methodology for evaluation of carbon dioxide storage: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009–1035, 81 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 2156 KB)

Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Hovorka, S.D., Nance, H.S., Cole, D.R., Phelps, T.J., Knauss, and K.G., 2009. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA. Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 6, p. 1106-1112. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Sundquist, E.T., Burruss, R.C., Faulkner, S.P., Gleason, R.A., Harden, J.W., Kharaka, Y.K., Tieszen, L.L., and Waldrop, M.P., 2008, Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change: U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2008–3097, 4p. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 2.3 MB)

Herkelrath, W.N., Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., and Abbott, M.M., 2007, Hydrology and subsurface transport of oil-field brine at the U.S. Geological Survey OSPER site “A”, Osage County, Oklahoma: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 2,155-2,163. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kharaka, Y.K., and Hanor, J.S., 2007, Deep fluids in the continents: I. Sedimentary basins, in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and Ground Water, Weathering and Soils, Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5: Elsevier, p. 1-48.

Kharaka, Y.K., Kakouros, E., Thordsen, J.J., Ambats, G., and Abbott, M.M., 2007, Fate and groundwater impacts of produced water releases at OSPER "B" site, Osage County, Oklahoma: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 2,164-2,176. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., 2007, Preface to Special Issue on Environmental Issues Related to Oil and Gas Production: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 2,095-2,098.

Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Hovorka, S.D., Nance, S.H., Cole, D.R., Phelps, T.J., and Knauss, G.K., 2007, Subsurface monitoring of anthropogenic CO2 injected in sedimentary basins: Results from the Frio-I brine test, Texas, USA, in Bullen, T.D., and Wang, Y., eds., Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Kunming, China, 31 July - 5 August, 2007, v. 1: CRC Press, p. 597-601.

Thordsen, J.J., Kharaka, Y.K., Ambats, G., Kakouros, E., and Abbott, M.M., 2007, Geochemical data from produced water contamination investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1055, 15 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1.27 MB)

Hovorka, S.D., Benson, S.M., Doughty, C., Freifeld, B.M., Sakurai, S., Daley, T.M., Kharaka, Y.K., Holtz, M.H., Trautz, R.C., Nance, H.S., Myer, L.R., and Knauss, K.G., 2006, Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations -the Frio experiment: Environmental Geosciences, v. 13, p. 105-121. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kakouros, E., Kharaka, Y.K., and Oberdorfer, J.A., 2006, Leaching rates and forms of selenium in cores from an agricultural area in Middle Green River basin, Utah, USA: Earth Science Frontiers, v. 13, p. 86-97.

Kharaka, Y.K., Cole, D.R., Hovorka, S.D., Gunter, W.D., Knauss, K.G., and Freifeld, B.M., 2006, Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins: Geology, v. 34, p. 577-580. on-line abstract of journal article

Kharaka, Y.K., Cole, D.R., Thordsen , J.J., Kakouros, E., and Nance, H.S., 2006, Gas-water-rock interactions in sedimentary basins: CO2 sequestration in the Frio Formation, Texas, USA: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 89, p. 183-186. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kharaka, Y.K., Cole, D.R., Thordsen, J.J., Kakouros, E., Pfiffner, S., and Hovorka, S.D., 2006, Environmental implications of toxic metals and dissolved organics released as a result of CO2 injection into the Frio Formation, Texas, USA: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geologic Storage, March 20-22, 2006, Berkeley, California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories Report LBNL-59726, p. 214-218.

Freifeld, B. M., R. C. Trautz, R.C., Y. K. Kharaka, Y.K., T. J. Phelps, T.J., L. R. Myer, L.R., S. D. Hovorka, S.D., and D. J. Collins, D.J., 2005, The U-tube: A novel system for acquiring borehole fluid samples from a deep geologic CO2 sequestration experiment: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JB003735. (on-line abstract)

Kharaka, Y.K., 2005, 30+ years of water-rock-human interactions: Newsletter of the International Association of GeoChemistry, v. 42, p. 22-26. (on-line Newsletter in pdf format)

Kharaka, Y.K., and Mariner, R.H., 2005, Geothermal systems, in Aggarwal, P.K., Gat, J.R., and Froehlich, K.F.O., eds., Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present, and Future of a Developing Science: Springer, Dordrecht, p. 243-270.

Kharaka, Y.K., and Dorsey, N.S., 2005, Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction (to special issue): Environmental Geosciences, v. 12, p. 61-63.

Kharaka, Y.K., and Mariner, R.H., 2005, Geothermal systems in Aggarwal, P.K., Gat, J.R., and Froehlich, K.F.O., eds., Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present, and Future of a Developing Science: Springer, Dordrecht, p. 243-270.

Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Kakouros, E., and Herkelrath, W.N., 2005, Impact of petroleum production on ground and surface waters: Results from the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research site A, Osage County, Oklamoma: Environmental Geosciences, v. 12, p. 127-138. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Palandri, J.L., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2005, Ferric iron-bearing sediments as a mineral trap for CO2 sequestration: Iron reduction using sulfur-bearing waste gas: Chemical Geology, v. 217, p. 351-364. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Palandri, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2005, Ferric iron in sediments as a novel CO2 mineral trap - CO2-SO2 reaction with hematite: Applied Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 2,038-2,048. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kharaka, Y.K., and Hanor, J.S., 2004, Deep fluids in the continents: I. Sedimentary basins, in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and Ground Water, Weathering and Soils, Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5, chapter 16, p. 499-540.

Kharaka, Y.K., Otton, J.K., and Abbott, M.M., 2004, Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Results from the OSPER "A" site, Osage County, OK, USA, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, v. 2, p. 1,601-1,605.

Otton, J.K., Zielisnski, R.A., Herkelrath, W.N.and Kharaka, Y.K., 2004, Impacts of oil production fluid releases at the USGS OSPER "B" site, Osage County, Oklahoma, USA, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, v. 2, p. 1,547-1,551.

Palandri, J.K. and Kharaka, Y.K., 2004, Sequestration of CO2 in redbeds: Siderite precipitation from CO2 and SO2 waste gas, in Wanty, R.B., and Seal, R.R., II, eds., Water-Rock Interaction, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Saratoga Springs, New York, July 2004: New York, A.A. Balkema, v. 1, p. 567-571.

Palandri, J.L., and Kharaka, Y.K, 2004, A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 04-1068 (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format - 2.5MB)

Palandri, J.L., and Reed, M.H., 2004, Geochemical models of metasomatism in ultramafic systems - Serpentinization, rodingitization, and sea floor carbonate chimney precipitation: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. 1115-1133. (on-line summary plus)

Palandri, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2004, Experimental studies of CO2 sequestration in ferric iron-bearing sediments - CO2-SO2 reaction with hematite: Proceedings, National Energy Technology Laboratory Third Annual Congerence on Carbon Sequestration, May 3-6, 2004, Alexandria, VA, 10 p. on CD-ROM.

Godsy, E.M., Hostettler, F.D., Warren, E., Paganelli, V.V., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2003, The fate of petroleum and other organics associated with produced water from the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research sites, Osage County, Oklahoma in Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Initial results from the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4260, p. 84-102. (access to on-line report in pdf format - 7MB)

Herkelrath, W.N., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2003, Hydrologic controls on the subsurface transport of oil-field brine at the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental "B" site, Oklahoma in Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Initial results from the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4260, p. 113-123. (access to on-line report in pdf format - 7MB)

Kharaka, Y.K., 2003, Thirty years of water-rock-human interactions: The Geochemical News, no. 116, p. 22-26.

Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., 2003, Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Initial results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4260, 155 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format - 7MB)

Kharaka, Y. K., Schroeder, R.A., and Setmire, J.G., 2003, Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA in Wang, Y., ed., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Water Resources and the Urban Environment, November 9-10, 2003, Wuhan, China, p. 14-20

Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Kakouros, E., and Abbott, M.M., 2003, The fate of inorganic and organic chemicals in produced water from the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research sites, Osage County, Oklahoma, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Initial results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resouces Investigations Report 03-4260.

Palandri, J.L., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2003, Ferric iron-bearing sediments as a mineral trap for CO2 sequestration: Iron reduction using sulfur-bearing waste gas: Proceedings, 2nd Annual International Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 5-8, 2003, Alexandria, VA, 12p. CD-ROM format

Palandri, J.L., Kharaka, Y.K., and Rosenbauer, R.J., 2003, Chemical composition of oil-field brines in the USA: Implications for CO2 sequestration: Proceedings, Air and Waste Management Association, 96th Annual Conference and Exhibition, June 22-26, 2003 San Diego, CA, 17p. CD-ROM format.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFOMATION ABOUT THIS PROJECT, CONTACT
Yousif K. Kharaka
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS472, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Internet: ykharaka@usgs.gov
Telephone: 650-329-4535

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