National Research Program


Isotope Tracers of Biogeochemical and Hydrologic Processes

Stable and radioactive isotopes such as oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur have proved to be extremely useful tracers of hydrologic pathways, biogeochemical processes, and residence times of waters and solutes. However, use of these isotopes as tracers is presently hampered by our limited understanding of the physical processes and chemical reactions influencing isotopic compositions. The unsaturated zone, particularly the soil zone and the top of the water table, is probably the portion of the hydrologic system most responsible for alteration of the isotopic compositions of potential isotope tracers; this environmental component is also one of the least studied. The overall goal of this project is to increase our understanding of reactions involving stable isotopes and to evaluate the significance of these reactions in geochemical and hydrologic modeling. This will be accomplished by field and laboratory investigations of processes and reactions which may fractionate isotopes and affect their utilization as tracers of processes, flowpaths, and sources of water and solutes. For additional information related to isotopes, see the Isotope Interest Group Home page

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2012

Kaushal , S.S., Groffman , P.M., Band , L.E., Elliott , E.M., Shields, C.A., and Kendall , C., 2011, Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds: Environmental Sciences & Technology, v. 45, no. 19, p. 8225-8232. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Volkmar, E.C., Dahlgren, R.A., Stringfellow, W.T., Henson, S.S., Borglin, S.E., Kendall, C., and Van Nieuwenhuyse, E.E., 2011, Using Lagrangian sampling to study water quality during downstream transport in the San Luis Drain, California, USA: Chemical Geology, v. 283, no. 1-2, p. 68-77. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Gu, W.-Z., Shang, M.-T., Zhai, S.-Y., Lu, J.-J., Frentress, J., McDonnell, J., and Kendall, C., 2010, Rainfall-runoff paradox from a natural experimental catchment: Shuikexue Jinzhan/Advances in Water Science, v. 21, no. 4), p. 471-478.

Kendall, C., Young, M.B, and Silva, S.R., 2010, Applications of stable isotopes for regional to national-scale water quality monitoring programs, in West, J.B., Bowen, G.J., Dawson, T.E., and Tu, K.P., eds., Isoscapes: Understanding movement, pattern, and process on Earth through isotope mapping: Springer, chapt 5, p. 89-111.

Mack, T.J., Akbari, M.A., Ashoor, M.H., Chornack, M.P., Coplen, T.B., Emerson, D.G., Hubbard, B.E., Litke, D.W., Michel, R.L., Plummer, L.N., Rezai, M.T., Senay, G.B., Verdin, J.P., and Verstraeten, I.M., 2010, Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5262, 240 p. (on-line abstract and access to on-line report in pdf format)

Michel, R.L., Izbicki, J.A., McMahon, P.B., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2009, Use of isotopes for the study of pollutant behaviour in the unsaturated zone at three semi-arid sites in the USA, in Aggarwal, P.K., and Kulkarni, K.M., eds., Application of Isotopes to the Assessment of Pollutant Behaviour in the Unsaturated Zone for Groundwater Protection: IAEA-TECDOC-1618: Vienna, Austria, International Atomic Energy Agency, p. 205-218. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 5.6 MB)

Michel, R.L., Kraemer, T.F., and Cecil, L.D., 2009, Radionuclides and Transient Gas Tracers in Studies of Lakes and Inland Seas, in Froelich, H., ed., Environmental Radionuclides: Tracers and Timers of Terrestrial Processes: Amsterdam: Radioactivity in the Environment, v. 16, Elsevier Science, Chapt. 5, p. 182-204.

Wankel, S.D., Chen, Y., Kendall, C., Post, A.F., Paytan, A., 2010, Sources of aerosol nitrate to the Gulf of Aqaba: Evidence from δ15N and δ18O of nitrate and trace metal chemistry: Marine Chemistry, v. 120, no. 1-4, p. 90-99. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Zohar, I. , Shaviv, A. , Young, M. , Kendall, C. , Silva, S., and Paytan, A., 2010, Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate: Geoderma, v. 159, no 1-2, p. 109-121. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Böhlke, J.K., and Michel, R.L., 2009, Contrasting residence times and fluxes of water and sulfate in two small forested watersheds in Virginia, USA: Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, no. 14, p. 4363-4377. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bowen, G.J., West, J.B., Vaughn, B.H., Dawson, T.E., Ehleringer, J.R., Fogel, M.L., Hobson, K., Hoogewerff, J., Kendall, C., Lai, C.-T., Miller, C.C., Noone, D., Schwarcz, H., and Still, C.J., 2009, Isoscapes to address large-scale earth science challenges: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 90, no.13, p.109-110. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Burns, D.A., Boyer, E.W., Elliott, E.M., and Kendall, C., 2009, Sources and transformations of nitrate from streams draining varying land uses: Evidence from dual isotope analysis: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 38, no. 3, p. 1149-1159. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Elsbury, K.E., Paytan, A., Ostrom, N.E., Kendall, C., Young, M.B., McLaughlin, K., Rollog, M.E., and Watson, S., 2009, Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to trace phosphorus sources and cycling in Lake Erie: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 9., p. 3108 - 3114. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Elliott, E.M., Kendall, C., Boyer, E.W., Burns, D.A., Lear, G.G., Golden, H.E., Harlin, K., Bytnerowicz, A.,. Butler, T.J., and Glatz, R., 2009, Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source contributions to landscape nitrogen deposition: Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences, v. 114, no. 4, G04020, doi:10.1029/2008JG000889. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Garcia, C.A., Andraski, B.J., Stonestrom, D.A., Cooper, C.A., Johnson, M.J., Michel, R.L., and Wheatcraft, S.W., 2009, Transport of tritium contamination from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere in an arid environment: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 8, no. 2, p. 450-461, doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0022. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hristov, A.N., Zaman, S., Vander Pol, M., Ndegwa, P., Campbell, L., and Silva, S., 2009, Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 38, no. 6, p. 2438-2448. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Michel, R.L., 2009, Chapter 5 Radionuclides as Tracers and Timers in Surface and Groundwater: Radioactivity in the Environment, v. 16, p. 139-230.

Pellerin, B.A., Downing, B.D., Kendall, C., Dahlgren, R.A., Kraus, T.E.C., Saraceno, J., Spencer, R.G.M., and Bergamaschi, B.A., 2009, Assessing the sources and magnitude of diurnal nitrate variability in the San Joaquin River (California) with an in situ optical nitrate sensor and dual nitrate isotopes: Freshwater Biology, v. 54, no. 2, p. 376-387. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Rosenbauer, R.J., Swarzenski, P.W., Kendall, C., Orem, W.H., Hostettler, F.D., and Rollog, M.E., 2009, A carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur elemental and isotopic study in dated sediment cores from the Louisiana Shelf: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 29, no. 6, 415-429. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Stringfellow, W., Herr, J., Litton, G., Brunell, M., Borglin, S., Hanlon, J., Chen, C., Graham, J. Burks, R., Dahlgren, R., Kendall, C., Brown, R., and Quinn, N., 2009, nvestigation of river eutrophication as part of a low dissolved oxygen total maximum daily load implementation: Water science and technology, v. 59, no. 1, p. 9-14. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Young, M.B. , McLaughlin, K. , Kendall, C. , Stringfellow, W. , Rollog, M., Elsbury, K., Donald, E., and Paytan, A., 2009, Characterizing the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate sources to aquatic ecosystems: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 14, p. 5190-5196. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., and Paytan, A., 2009, Using nitrate dual isotopic composition δ15N and (δ18O) as a tool for exploring sources and cycling of nitrate in an estuarine system: Elkhorn Slough, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 114, G01011, doi:10.1029/2008JG000729 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Christopher, S.F. Mitchell, M.J., McHale, M.R., Boyer, E.W., Burns, D.A., Kendall, C., 2008, Factors controlling nitrogen release from two forested catchments with contrasting hydrochemical responses: Hydrological Processes, v. 22, no. 1, p. 46-62. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Doctor, D.H., Kendall, C., Sebestyen, S.D., Shanley, J.B., Ohte, N., and Boyer, E.W., 2008, Carbon isotope fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) due to outgassing of carbon dioxide from a headwater stream: Hydrological Processes, v. 22, no. 14, p. 2410-2423. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ewing, S.A., Yang, W., DePaolo, D.J., Michalski, G., Kendall, C., Stewart, B., Thiemens, M., and Amundson, R., 2008, Non-biological fractionation of stable Ca isotopes in soils of the Atacama Desert, Chile: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72, p. 1,096-1,110. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hinckley, E.-L.S., Kendall, C., Loague, K., 2008, Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W00401, doi:10.1029/2007WR006672 (on-line abtract of journal article)

Kraus, T.E.C. , Bergamaschi, B.A. , Hernes, P.J. , Spencer, R.G.M. , Stepanauskas, R. , Kendall, C., Losee, R.F., Fujii, R.,2008, Assessing the contribution of wetlands and subsided islands to dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproduct precursors in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta: A geochemical approach: Organic Geochemistry, v. 39, no. 9, p. 1302-1318. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Naftz, D. , Angeroth, C. , Kenney, T. , Waddell, B. , Darnall, N. , Silva, S., Perschon, C., Whitehead, J., 2008, Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 23, no. 6, p. 1731-1744 . (on-line abstract of journal article)

Naftz, D. , Angeroth, C. , Kenney, T. , Waddell, B. , Darnall, N. , Silva, S., Perschon, C., Whitehead, J., 2008, Reply to the comment on "Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA", by Mae Gustin: Applied Geochemistry, v. 23, no. 12, p. 3854-3855.

Nanus, L., Williams, M.W., Campbell, D.H., Elliott, E.M., and Kendall, C., 2008, Evaluating regional patterns in nitrate sources to watersheds in national parks of the rocky mountains using nitrate isotopes: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 42, no. 17 , p. 6487-6493. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Sebestyen, S.D., Boyer, E.W., Shanley, J.B., Kendall, C., Doctor, D.H., Aiken, G.R., and Ohte, N., 2008, Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest: Water Resources Research, v. 44. no. 12, W12410, doi:10.1029/2008WR006983 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Kendall, C., Elliott, E.M., and Wankel, S.D. , 2007, Tracing anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to ecosystems, in Michener, R.H., and Lajtha. K., eds., Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, 2nd ed.: Blackwell Publishing, p. 375-499.

Ruehl, C., Fisher, A.T., Los Huertos, M., Wankel, S., Wheat, C.G., Kendall, C., Hatch, C., and Shennan, C., 2007, Nitrate dynamics within the Pajaro River, a nutrient-rich, losing stream: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v. 26, p. 191-206. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Derse E., Knee, K., Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., Berg, C.J., and Paytan, A., 2007, Identifying the sources of nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai utilizing the nitrogen isotope signature of macroalgae : Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, p. 5,217-5,223. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Elliott, E.M., Kendall, C., Wankel, S.D., Burns, D.A., Boyer, E.W., Harlin, K., Bain, D.J., & Butler, T.J., 2007, Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the midwestern and northeastern United States : Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, p. 7,661-7,667. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ewing, S.A., Michalski, G., Thiemens, M., Quinn, R.C., Macalady, J.L., Kohl, S., Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., McKay, C.P., and Amundson, R., 2007, The rainfall limit of the nitrogen cycle on earth : Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 21, GB3009, doi:10.1029/2006GB002838. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Finlay, J.C., and Kendall, C., 2007, Stable isotope tracing of temporal and spatial variability in organic matter sources to freshwater ecosystems, in Michener, R.H., and Lajtha. K., eds., Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, 2nd ed.: Blackwell Publishing, p. 283-333.

Ohte N., Dahlgren R.A., Silva S.R., Kendall C., Kratzer C.R. and Doctor, D.H., 2007, Sources and transport of algae and nutrients in a Californian river in a semi-arid climate : Freshwater Biology, v. 52, p. 2,476-2,493. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., Pennington, J.T., Chavez, F.P., and Paytan, A., 2007, Nitrification in the euphotic zone as evidenced by nitrate dual isotopic composition: Observations from Monterey Bay, California: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 21, GB2009, doi:10.1029/2006GB002723. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Doctor, D.H., Alexander, E.C., Jr., Petric, M., Kogovsek, J., Urbanc, J., Lojen, S., and Stichler, W., 2006, Quantification of karst aquifer discharge components through end-member mixing analysis using natural chemistry and stable isotopes as tracers: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 14, no. 7, p. 1,171, 1,191. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McLaughlin, K., Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Young, M., and Paytan, A., 2006, Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in north San Francisco Bay, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 111, G03003, doi:10.1029/2005JG000079. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McLaughlin, K., Paytan, A., Kendall, C., and Silva, S.R., 2006, Oxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds -- Application for marine particulate matter, sediments and soils: Marine Chemistry, v. 98, p. 148-155. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McMahon, P.B., K.F. Dennehy, B.W. Bruce, J.K. Böhlke, R.L. Michel, J.J. Gurdak, and D.B. Hurlbut, 2006, Storage and transit time of chemicals in thick unsaturated zones under rangeland and irrigated cropland, High Plains, United States: Water Resources Research, 42, W03413, doi:10.1029/2005WR004417. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mitchell, M.J. Piatek, K.B., Christopher, S., Mayer, B., Kendall, C., and McHale, P., 2006, Solute sources in stream water during consecutive fall storms in a northern hardwood forest watershed: A combined hydrological, chemical and isotopic approach: Biogeochemistry, v. 78, p. 217-246. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nardoto, G.B., Silva, S., Kendall, C., Ehleringer, J.R., Chesson, L.A., Ferraz, E.S.B., Moreira, M.Z., Ometto, J.P.H.B., and Martinelli, L.A., 2006, Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, v. 131, p. 137-146, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20409. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Paulson, A.J., Konrad, C.P., Frans, L.M., Noble, M.A., Kendall, C., Josberger, E.G., Huffman, R.L., and Olsen, T.D., 2006, Freshwater and saline loads of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, western Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5106, 91 p. (on-line report or on-line report in pdf format, 5.5 MB)

Reddy, M.M., Schuster, P., Kendall, C., and Reddy, M.B., 2006, Characterization of surface and ground water δ18O seasonal variation and its use for estimating groundwater residence times: Hydrological Processes, v. 20, no. 8, p. 1753-1772. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., Francis, C.A., and Paytan, A., 2006, Nitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition approach: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 51, no. 4, p. 1,654-1,664. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Andraski, B.J., Stonestrom, D.A., Michel, R.L., Halford, K.J., and Radyk, J.C., 2005, Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 4, p. 819-827. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Burns, D., Vitvar, T., McDonnell, J., Hassett, J., Duncan, J. and Kendall, C., 2005, Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River Basin, New York, USA: Journal of Hydrology, v. 311, p. 266-281. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Doctor, D.H., and Alexander, E.C., Jr., 2005, Interpretation of water chemistry and stable isotope data from a karst aquifer according to flow regimes identified through hydrograph recession analysis, in Kuniansky, E.L., ed.: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5160, p. 82-92. (on-line report in pdf format)

Mayers, C.J., Andraski, B.J., Cooper, C.A., Wheatcraft, S.W., Stonestrom, D.A., and Michel, R.L., 2005, Modeling tritium transport through a deep unsaturated zone in an arid environment: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 4, p. 967-976, doi:10.2136/vzj2004.0179. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McGuire, K.J., McDonnell, J.J., Weiler, M., Kendall, C., McGlynn, B.L., Welker, J.M., and Seibert, J., 2005, The role of topography on catchment-scale water residence time: Water Resources Research, v. 41, no. 5, W05002, doi:10.1029/2004WR003657. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Michalski, G., Bockheim, J.G., Kendall, C., and Thiemens, M., 2005, Isotopic composition of Antarctic Dry Valley nitrate: Implications for NOy sources and cycling in Antarctica: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 32, L13817, doi:10.1029/2004GL022121. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Michel, R.L., 2005, Tritium in the Hydrologic Cycle, in Aggarwal, P.K., Gat, J.R., and Froehlich, K.F.O., eds., Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present, and Future of a Developing Science: Springer, Dordrecht.

Piatek, K.B., Mitchell, M.J., Silva, S.R., and Kendall, C., 2005, Sources of nitrate in Adirondack surface waters during dissimilar snowmelt events: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v. 165, p.13-35. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Shanley, J.B., Mayer, B., Mitchell, M.J., Michel, R.L., Bailey, S.W., and Kendall, C., 2005, Tracing sources of streamwater sulfate during snowmelt using S and O isotope ratios of sulfate and 35S activity: Biogeochemistry, v. 76, p.161-185. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bemis, B.E., and Kendall, C., 2004, Isotopic views of food web structure in the Florida Everglades: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3138. (on-line fact sheet)

Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Michalski, G., Casciotti, K.L., and Wankel, S., 2004, Preparation and analysis of nitrogen-bearing compounds in water for stable isotope ratio measurement, in DeGroot, P.A., ed., Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques, v 1: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 305-347.

Horita, J., and Kendall, C., 2004, Stable isotope analysis of water and aqueous solutions by conventional dual-inlet mass spectrometr, in De Groot, P.A., ed., Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques, v. 1: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 1-37.

Izbicki, J.A., and Michel, R.L., 2004, Movement and age of ground water in the western part of the Mojave Desert, Southern California, USA: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4314. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 0.99 MB)

Kendall, C., and Doctor, D.H., 2004, Stable isotope applications in hydrologic studies, in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and ground water, weathering, and soils: Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5, p. 319-364.

Kratzer, C.R., Dileanis, P.D., Zamora, C., Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Bergamaschi, B.A., and Dahlgren, R.A., 2004, Sources and transport of nutrients, organic carbon, and Chlorophyll-a in the San Joaquin River Upstream of Vernalis, California, during Summer and Fall, 2000 and 2001: U.S. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4127. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 5.6MB)

McGlynn, B.L., McDonnell, J.J., Seibert, J., Kendall, C., 2004, Scale effects on headwater catchment runoff timing, flow sources, and groundwater-streamflow relations: Water Resources Research, v. 40, no. 7. (on-line abstract)

McLaughlin, K., Silva, S., Kendall, C., Stuart-Williams, H., and Paytan, A., 2004, A precise method for the analysis of δ18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate in seawater: Limnology and Oceanography, Methods, 2, p. 202-212. (on-line abstract)

Michel, R.L., 2004, Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River Valley: Hydrologic Processes, v. 18, no. 7, p. 1255-69. (on-line abstract)

Novak, M., Michel, R.L., Prechova, E., and Stepanova, M., 2004, The missing flux in a 35S budget for the soils of a small catchment: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution Focus, v. 4, p. 517-529. (on-line abstract)

Ohte, N., Sebestyen, S.D., Shanley, J.B., Doctor, D.H., Kendall, C., Wankel, S.D., and Boyer, E.W., 2004, Tracing sources of nitrate in snowmelt runoff using a high-resolution isotopic technique: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020908. (on-line abstract)

Pardo, L.H., Kendall, C., Pett-Ridge, J., and and Chang, C.C.Y., 2004, Evaluating the source of streamwater nitrate using δ15N and δ18O in nitrate in two watersheds in New Hampshire: Hydrologic Processes, v. 18, no. 14, p. 2699-2712. (on-line abstract)

Stonestrom, D.A., Abraham, J.D., Andraski, B.J., Baker, R.J., Mayers, C.J., Michel, R.L., Prudic, D.E., Striegl, R.G., and Wolvoord, M.A., 2004, Monitoring radionuclide contamination in the unsaturated zone - lessons learned at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada, Workshop on Long-term Performance Monitoring of Metals and Radionuclides in the Subsurface, Rston, VA, April 21-22, 2004: Tallahassee, Florida State University. (on-line paper in pdf format)

Amundson, A., Austin, A.T., Schuur, E.A.G., Yoo, K., Matzek, V., Kendall, C., Uebersax, A., Brenner, D., and Baisden, W.T., 2003, Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 17, p. 31-1 to 31-10. (on-line abstract)

Andraski, B.J., Sandstrom, M.W., Michel, R.L., Radyk, J.C., Stonestrom, D.A., Johnson, M.J., and Mayers, 2003, Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, p. 988-995 (on-line abstract)

Burns, D.A., Plummer, L.N., McDonnell, J.J., Busenberg, E., Casile, G.C., Kendall, C., Hooper, R.P., Freer, J.E., Peters, N.E., Beven, K., and Schlosser, P., 2003, The geochemical evolution of riparian ground water in a forested piedmont catchment: Ground Water, v. 41, p. 913-925. (on-line abstract)

Havens, K.E., Fry, B., Gu, B., and Kendall, C., 2003, Stable isotope food web analysis of a large subtropical lake-alternative explanations for 15N enrichment of pelagic vs. littoral fisheries: The Scientific World Journal, v. 3, p. 613-622.

Izbicki, J.A. Borchers, J.W., Leighton, D.A., Kulongoski, J., Fields, L., Galloway, D.L., and Michel, R.L., 2003, Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4259. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 3.1MB)

Kendall, C., and Doctor, D.H., 2003, Stable isotope applications in hydrologic studies, in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and Ground Water, Weathering and Soils, Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5, chap 4: New York, Elsevier.

Kuwabara, J.S., Chang, C.C.Y. and Pasilis, S.P., 2003, Effects of the benthic flora on arsenic transport in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota, in Kuwabara, J.S., and Fuller, C.C., eds., Toxic sustances in surface waters and sediments -- A study to assess the effects of arsenic-contaminated alluvial sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1681, p. 1-26.

McCutchan, J.H., Lewis, W.M., Jr., Kendall, C., and McGrath, C.C., 2003, Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur: Oikos, v. 102, p. 378-390. (on-line abstract)

McMahon, P.B., Dennehy, K.F., Michel, R.l., Sophocleous, M.A., Elllett, K.M., and Hurlbut, D.B., 2003, Water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the Central High Plains Aquifer, Southwestern Kansas, 2000- 2001: Water Resources Investigations Report 03-4171, p. 32. (on-line report)

Nathenson, M., Thompson, J.M., and White, L.D., 2003, Slightly thermal springs and nonthermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 121, p. 137-153. (on-line abstract)

Shanley, J.B., Hjerdt, K.N., McDonnell, J.J., and Kendall, C., 2003, Shallow Water Table Fluctuations in Relation to Soil Penetration Resistance: Ground Water, v. 41, no. 7, p. 964-972. (on-line abstract)

Sickman, J.O., Leydecker, A., Chang, C.C.Y., Kendall, C., Melack, J.M., Lucero, D.M., and Schimel, J., 2003, Mechanisms underlying export of N from high elevation catchments during seasonal transitions: Biogeochemistry, v. 64, p. 1-24. (on-line abstract)

Silva, S.R., and Kendall, 2003, Isotopic analyses of suspended sediments, in Schuster, P.F., ed., Water and sediment quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, during water year 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-427, p. 59-60.

Walker, J.F., Hunt, R.J., Bullen, T.D., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Kendall, C., 2003, Variability of Isotope and Major Ion Chemistry in the Allequash Basin, Wisconsin: Ground Water, v. 41, no. 7, p. 883-894. (on-line abstract)


FOR ADDITIONAL INFOMATION ABOUT THIS PROJECT, CONTACT
Carol Kendall
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS 434, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Internet: ckendall@usgs.gov
Telephone: 650-329-4576

Robert L Michel
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS 434, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Internet: rlmichel@usgs.gov
Telephone: 650-329-4547

Steven R Silva
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS 434, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Internet: srsilva@usgs.gov
Telephone: 650-329-4558

For information on additional projects in the National Research Program, see Indexes to NRP projects and bibliographies.

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