National Research Program


Hydrologic Studies of Heat and Mass Transport

The presence and circulation of fluids profoundly affect volcanic processes and landforms. Eruption styles and cycles are influenced by volatiles dissolved in magma and by pressure- temperature-fluid saturation conditions in the surrounding rock. The presence of magma in turn influences ground-water pressures, temperatures, and chemistry. Advective heat and mass transport effect and locally dominate the thermal and chemical regimes of volcanos. Linkages between fluid flow and mechanical deformation are suggested by observations that subaerial volcanoes deform in response to changes in water- table elevation and that microseismicity can be related to boiling. The general objective is to characterize selected volcanogenic hydrothermal systems by ascertaining probable recharge and discharge areas; determining modes and quantities of recharge and discharge; interpreting geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data in terms of the size, shape, and hydraulic characteristics of hydrothermal systems; and using analytical and numerical modeling techniques to develop quantitative conceptual models. Research questions include (1) What are the modes of heat and mass transfer from magma to the shallow subsurface? (2) What are the pressure, temperature, and fluid- saturation conditions between magma and the land surface? (3) What controls the permeability of volcanoes? How does it vary in space and time? What role do temporal variations in permeability play in the evolution of volcanogenic hydrothermal systems? (4) How well-coupled are various fluid flow, transport, and mechanical deformation processes? Do relatively simple models that simulate a subset of these processes provide useful insight into transport processes? (5) How can we evaluate hydrothermal systems in composite cones dominated near the surface by cold- water recharge?

Also see project home page, Dynamics of volcano-hydrothermal systems, and for additional information, including data sets, Hydrothermal discharge in the western United States. Other useful links are the List of publications based on HYDROTHERM simulations and geyser-frequency data from Upper Geyser Basin in PDF format or in Microsoft Excel format for data supporting Rojstazcer and others, GRL, 2003.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003- 2012

Gundersen, L.C.S., Belnap, J., Goldhaber, M., Goldstein, A., Haeussler, P.J., Ingebritsen, S.E., Jones, J.W., Plumlee, G.S., Thieler, E.R., Thompson, R.S., and Back, J.M., 2011, Geology for a changing world 2010-2020 - Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1369, 68 p. (on-line abstract or on-line circular in pdf format, 14.8 MB)

Ingebritsen, S.E., and Manning, C.E., 2011, Permeability of the continental crust: Dynamic variations inferred from seismicity and metamorphism, in Yardley, B., Manning, C., and Garven, G., eds., Frontiers in Geofluids: Chichester, United Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 193-205.

Ingebritsen, S.E., Worden, R., and Yardley, B., 2011, Biographical profile of incoming editor Mark Person: Geofluids, v. 11, p. 1-2.

Palguta, J., Williams, C.F., Ingebritsen, S.E., Hickman, S.H., and Sonnenthal, E., 2011, An approach to modeling coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical processes in geothermal sytems: Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford Geothermal Program Technical Report SGP-TR-191, 14 p. (on-line abstract)

Fairley, J.P., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Podgorney, R.K., 2010, Challenges for numerical modeling of enhanced geothermal systems: Ground Water, v. 48, no. 4, p. 482-483.

Farrar, C., DeAngelo, J., Williams, C., Grubb, F., and Hurwitz, S., 2010, Temperature data from wells in Long Valley Caldera, California: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 523. (on-line introduction and to download data)

Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., and Lowenstern, J.B., 2010, River solute fluxes reflecting active hydrothermal chemical weathering of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA: Chemical Geology, v. 276, no. 3-4, p. 331-343. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.07.001 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hurwitz, S., Farrar, C.D., and Williams, C.F., 2010, The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, California: Inferences from temperature logs in deep wells: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 198, p. 233-240. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ingebritsen, S.E., 2010, Book review: Geological Fluid Dynamics - Sub-surface Flow and Reactions: American Journal of Science, v. 310, p. 128-129.

Ingebritsen, S.E., Geiger, S., Hurwitz, S., and Driesner, T., 2010, Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems: Reviews of Geophysics, v. 48, RG1002, doi:10.1029/2009RG000287. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ingebritsen, S.E., and Manning, C.E., 2010, Permeability of the continental crust: Dynamic variations inferred from seismicity and metamorphism: Geofluids, v. 10, p. 193-205. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ingebritsen, S.E., and Mariner, R.H., 2010, Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range, northwestern United States: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 196, no. 3-4, p. 208-218, doi:10.1016/j.volgeores.2010.07.023. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hutnak, M., Hurwitz, S., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Hsieh, P.A., 2009 , Numerical models of caldera deformation: Effects of multi-phase and multi-component hydrothermal fluid flow: Journal of Geophysical Research , v. 114, B04411, doi:10.1029/2008JB006151. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 977 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright.)

Ingebritsen, S.E., Worden, R., and Yardley, B.W.D., 2009, Editorial: Geofluids, v. 9, p. 1.

Ingebritsen, S.E., 2009, Book review: Tectonic Faults - Agents of Change on a Dynamic Earth: Geofluids, v. 9, p. 75-76. (on-line review in pdf format, 35 KB, a US Government work in the public domain)

Hurtwitz, S., Kumar, A., Taylor, R., and Heasler, H., 2008, Climate-induced variations of geyser periodicity in Yellowstone National Park, USA: Geology, v. 36, p. 451-454. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ingebritsen, S.E., Hurwitz, S., and Brodsky, E.E., 2008, Note from the Hubbert Quorum: Geofluids, v. 8, p. 1-2.

Lowenstern, J.B., and Hurwitz, S., 2008, Monitoring a supervolcano in repose: Heat and volatile flux at the Yellowstone Caldera: Elements, v. 4, no. 1, p. 35-40, doi: 10.2113/GSELEMENTS.4.1.35. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Rojstaczer, S.A., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Hayba, D.O., 2008, Permeability of continental orogenic belts influenced by internal and external forcing: Geofluids, v. 8, p. 128-139. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 651KB, Blackwell Publishing, no claim to original U.S. Government works)

Werner, C., Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Bergfeld, D., Heasler, H., Jaworowski, C., and Hunt, A., 2008, Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 178, p. 751-762, DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.016. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Christiansen, L.B., Hurwitz, S., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2007, Annual modulation of seismicity along the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 34, L04306, doi:10.1029/2006GL028634 (on-line abstract or on-line journal letter in pdf format, 194 kb, published 2007 by American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Farrar, C.D., Evans, W.C., Venezky, D.Y., Hurwitz, S., and Oliver, L.K., 2007, Boiling water at Hot Creek -- The dangerous and dynamic thermal springs in California's Long Valley Caldera: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3045. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 5 MB)

Hurwitz, S., Christiansen, L.B., and Hsieh, P.A., 2007, Hydrothermal fluid flow and deformation in large calderas: Inferences from numerical simulations: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 112, B02206, doi:10.1029/2006JB004689. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 703 kb, published 2007 by American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Hurwitz, S., Eagan, S., Heasler, H., and Lowenstern, J.B., 2007, River chemistry and solute flux in Yellowstone National Park: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 278. (on-line publication and data)

Hurwitz, S., Evans, W.C., Lowenstern, J.B., Bergfeld, D., Werner, C., Heasler, H., and Jaworowski, C., 2007, Extensive hydrothermal rock alteration in a low pH, steam-heated environment: Hot Springs Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in Bullen, T.D., and Wang, Y., eds., Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Kunming, China, 31 July - 5 August, 2007: London, Taylor and Francis, p. 81-85.

Hurwitz, S., Lowenstern, J.B., and Heasler, H., 2007, Spatial and temporal geochemical trends in the hydrothermal system of Yellowstone National Park: Inferences from river solute fluxes: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 162, p. 149-171. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Abedini, A.A., Hurwitz, S., and Evans, W.C., 2006, USGS-NoGaDat -- A global dataset of noble gas concentrations and their isotopic ratios in volcanic systems: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 202. (on-line report).

Ingebritsen, S.E., Sanford, W.E., and Neuzil, C.E., 2006, Groundwater in Geologic Processes, 2nd edition: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 536 p. (on-line book information)

Mariner, R.H., Venezky, D.Y., and Hurwitz, S., 2006, Chemical and isotopic database of water and gas from hydrothermal systems with an emphasis for the western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 169. (on-line data report)

Christiansen, L.B., Hurwitz, S., Saar, M.A., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Hsieh, P.A., 2005, Seasonal seismicity at western United States volcanic centers: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 240, no. 2, p. 307-321. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hogeweg, N., Keith, T.E.C., Colvard, E.M., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2005, Ongoing hydrothermal heat loss from the 1912 ash-flow sheet, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 143, no. 4, p. 279-291. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hurwitz, S., Mariner, R.H., Fehn, U., and Snyder, G.T., 2005, Systematics of halogen elements and their radioisotopes in thermal springs of the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon, USA: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 235, p. 700-714.(on-line abstract of journal article)

Kipp, K.L., Hsieh, P.A., Hayba, D.O., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2005, HYDROTHERM: A simulator of two-phase ground-water flow and heat transport: International Ground Water Modeling Center Newsletter, v. 23, no. 3, p. 3.

Evans, W.C., van Soest, M.C., Mariner, R.H., Hurwitz, S., Ingebritsen, S.E., Wicks, C.W., Jr., and Schmidt, M.E., 2004, Magmatic intrusion west of Three Sisters, central Oregon, USA: The perspective from spring chemistry: Geology, v. 32, p. 69-72. (on-line abstract)

Galloway, D.L., Coplin, L.S., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2003, Effects of land subsidence in the greater Houston area, in Agthe, D.E., Billings, R.B., and Buras, N., eds. Managing Urban Water Supply: Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 187-203.

Hurwitz, S., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2003, Good news or bad?: New study of temperature inversions in NSF deep geothermal well at Kilauea volcano: Geothermal Resources Council Bulletin, v. 32, p. 111-115.

Hurwitz, S., Goff, F., Janik, C.J., Evans, W.C., Counce, D.A., Sorey, M.L., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 2003, Mixing of magmatic volatiles with groundwater and interaction with basalt on the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, no. B1, 2028, doi:10.1029/2001JB001594. (on-line abstract)

Hurwitz, S., and Johnston, M.J.S., 2003, Groundwater level changes in a deep well in response to a magma intrusion event on Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, no. 22, 2173, doi:10.1029/2003GL018676. (on-line abstract)

Hurwitz, S., Kipp, K.L., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Reid, M.E., 2003, Groundwater flow, heat transport, and water table position within volcanic edifices: Implications for volcanic processes in the Cascade Range: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, no. B12, 2557, doi:10.1029/2003JB002565. (on-line abstract)

Rojstaczer, S.A., Galloway, D.L., Ingebritsen, S.E., and Rubin, D.M., 2003, Variability in geyser eruptive timing and its causes: Yellowstone National Park: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, no. 18, 1953, doi:10.1029/2003GL017853. (on-line abstract. Also see Geyser-frequency data from Upper Geyser Basin in PDF format or in Microsoft Excel format for supporting data)

Ingebritsen, S.E., and Manning, C.M., 2003, Implications of crustal permeability for fluid movement between terrestrial fluid reservoirs: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 78-79, p. 1-6.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFOMATION ON THIS PROJECT, CONTACT
Steven E. Ingebritsen (professional profile)
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS 439, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Email: seingebr@usgs.gov
Phone: 650-329-4422

Shaul Hurwitz
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS 439, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Email: shaulh@usgs.gov
Phone: 650-329-4441

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