National Research Program


Physical Chemistry of Stable Isotope Fractionation in Hydrologic Processes

Several light stable isotopes (H, C, N, O, Si, and S) show variations in their isotope abundances and can be used for the study of evaporation, ground-water mixing, biotransformations, lake or reservoir circulation and stratification and associated hydrochemical phenomena. These isotope fractionations are related to: (1) purely physical processes; (2) heterogeneous chemical equilibria; and (3) reaction kinetics. Many of these processes are not sufficiently understood or quantified to make the most effective use of stable isotope techniques in hydrologic research. Objectives of this project are to develop theoretical and instrumental mass spectrometric techniques through experimental investigation and to test techniques in suitable field locations, to aid in more complete utilization of light stable- isotope phenomena in hydrologic studies. For additional information, including research highlights, see the home page for the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2012

Eberts, S.M., Böhlke, J.K., Kauffman, L.J., and Jurgens, B.C., in press (web publication 1/4/12), Comparison of particle-tracking and lumped-parameter age-distribution models for evaluating vulnerability of production wells to contamination: Hydrogeology Journal. (on-line abstract or on-line preprint in pdf format, 6.2 MB)

Révész, K., Buck, B., and Coplen, T. B., in press, Determination of the δ2H and δ18O of Soil Water and Plant Matter: RSIL Lab Code1700  chap. C19 of Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, 10-C19, 25 p.

Singleton, G.L., Révész, K., Coplen, T., in press, Determination of the δ(13C/12C15) of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in Water: RSIL LAB 1710 , Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, 10-C18,  28 p.

Coplen, T. B., and Qi, H., 2012, USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results: Forensic Science International, v. 214, p. 135-141. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.07.035 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Liao, L., Green, C.T., Bekins, B.A., and Böhlke, J.K., 2012 (web publication 12/30/11), Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas. Water Resources Research, v. 48, W00L09, doi:10.1029/2011WR011008. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 858 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Coplen, T.B., 2011, Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 25, p. 2538-2560, doi:10.1002/rcm.5129, (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 1.7 MB, published by Wiley, U.S. Government work, not copyright protected in U.S.)

Coplen, T.B., and Holden, N.E., 2011, Atomic weights - No longer constants of nature: Chemistry International, v. 33, no. 2, p. 10-15. (on-line article, open-access journal).

Cozzarelli, I.M., Böhlke, J.K., Masoner, J., Breit, G.N., Lorah, M.M., Tuttle, M.L.W., and Jaeschke, J.B., 2011, Biogeochemical evolution of a landfill leachate plume, Norman, Oklahoma: Ground Water, v. 49, no. 5, p. 663-687. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 3451 KB, published by the National Ground Water Association, no claim to original U.S. Government works.)

Gu, B., Böhlke, J.K., Sturchio, N.C., Hatzinger, P.B., Jackson, W.A., Beloso, A.D., Heraty, L.J., Bian, Y., Jiang, X., and Brown, G.M., 2011, Applications of selective ion exchange for perchlorate removal, recovery, and environmental forensics, in SenGupta, A.K., ed., Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: A Series of Advances: v. 20. Taylor & Francis, p. 117-144.

Holden, N.E., Coplen, T.B., Böhlke, J.K., Wieser, M.E., Singleton, G., Walczyk, T.R., Yoneda, S., Mahaffy, P.G., and Tarbox, L.V., 2011, IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes: Chemistry International, v. 33, no. 4 Supplement. (on-line article and on-line supplement in pdf format, 1439 KB open-access journal)

Holloway, J.M., Nordstrom, D.K., Böhlke, J.K., McCleskey, R.B., and Ball, J.W., 2011, Ammonium in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: Processes affecting speciation and isotope fractionation: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 75, no. 16, p. 4611-4636, (on-line abstract of journal article)

Landwehr, J.M., Sharp, W.D., Coplen, T.B., Ludwig, K.R., and Winograd, I.J., 2011, The chronology for the δ18O record from Devils Hole, Nevada, extended into the Mid-Holocene: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1082, 5 p. (on-line abstract or on line-report in pdf format, 180 KB; see abstract to download data in excel format)

McMahon, P.B., Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., Shapiro, S.D., and Hinkle, S.R., 2011, A comparison of recharge rates in aquifers of the United States based on groundwater-age data: Hydrogeology Journal, v, 19, no. 4, p. 779-800. DOI: 10.1007/s10040-011-0722-5. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 2.4 MB, U.S. Government work, not copyright protected in the U.S.)

Peters, N.E., Böhlke, J.K., Brooks, P.D., Burt, T.P., Gooseff, M.N., Hamilton, D., Mulholland, P.J., Roulet, N.T., and Turner, J., 2011, Linkages between hydrology and biogeochemistry, in Wilderer, P., ed., Treatise on Water Science: Elsevier Science, v. 2, p. 271-304. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53199-5.00038-5 (on-line abstract of chapter)

Qi, H., and Coplen, T.B., 2011, Investigation of preparation techniques for δ2H analysis of keratin materials and a proposed analytical protocol: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 25, no. 15, p. 2209-2222. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Qi, H., and Coplen, T.B., 2011, Erratum for Investigation of preparation techniques for δ2H analysis of keratin materials and a proposed analytical protocol, v. 25, no. 18, p. 2672.

Qi, H., Coplen, T.B., and Wassenaar, L.I., 2011. Improved online δ18O measurements of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing organic materials and a proposed analytical protocol: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 25, p. 2049-2058. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Sturchio, N.C., Böhlke, J.K., Gu, B., Hatzinger, P.B., and Jackson, W.A., 2011, Isotopic tracing of perchlorate in the environment, in Baskaran, M., ed., Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Springer-Verlag, p. 437-452

Tobias, C. , and Böhlke, J.K., 2011, Biological and geochemical controls on diel dissolved inorganic carbon cycling in a low-order agricultural stream: Implications for reach scales and beyond: Chemical Geology, v. 283, no. 1-2, 7 p. 18-30 (on-line abstract of journal article).

Wieser, M.E., and Coplen, T.B., 2011, Atomic weights of the elements 2009 (IUPAC Technical Report): Pure and Applied Chemistry, v. 83,no. 2, p. 359-396. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 1795 KB, U.S. government work in the public domain)

Brand, W.A., Assonov, S.S., and Coplen, T.B., 2010, Correction for the 17O interference in δ(13C) measurements when analyzing CO2 with stable isotope mass spectrometry (IUPAC Technical Report): Pure and Applied Chemistry, v. 82, no. 8, p. 1719-1733. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Coplen, T.B., 2010, Isotopic reference materials, in Beauchemin. D, and Matthews, D.E., eds., Elemental and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, Gross, M. L. and Caprioli, R. M., series eds., Oxford, U.K., Elsevier, v. 5, p. 774-783.

Coplen, T.B., 2010, Sequential, time-integrated collector of precipitation, ground water, and surface water for analysis of isotopes: U.S. Patent No. 7,687,028. (on-line patent)

Coplen, T.B. and Qi, H., 2010, Caution on the use of liquid nitrogen traps in stable hydrogen isotope-ratio mass spectrometry: Analytical Chemistry, v. 82, no. 18, p. 7849–7851, DOI: 10.1021/ac101570f. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 4.54 MB, published by the American Chemical Society, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Coplen, T.B. and Qi, H., 2010, Applying the silver-tube introduction method for thermal conversion elemental analyses and a new δ2H value for NBS 22 oil: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 24, no. 15, p. 2269-2276, DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4638. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 432 KB, published by John Wiley Interscience as a U.S. Government work in the public domain)

Evans, W.C., Mariner, R.H., Bergfeld, D., Revesz, K.M. and McGeehin, J.P. 2010, Carbon isotope composition of CO2 at Cascade Arc volcanoes, in Birkle, P., and & Torres-Alvarado, I.S., eds., Water-Rock Interaction XIII: Taylor & Francis Group, London, p. 195-198. ISBN 978-0-415-60426-0

Green, C.T., Böhlke, J.K., Bekins, B.A., and Phillips, S.P., 2010, Mixing effects on apparent reaction rates and isotope fractionation during denitrification in a heterogeneous aquifer: Water Resources Research, v. 46, W08525, doi:10.1029/2009WR008903 (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 1707 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright.)

Jackson, W.A., Böhlke, J.K., Gu, B., Hatzinger, P.B., and Sturchio, N.C., 2010, Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern united states: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 44, no. 13, p. 4869-4876. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mack, T.J., Akbari, M.A., Ashoor, M.H., Chornack, M.P., Coplen, T.B., Emerson, D.G., Hubbard, B.E., Litke, D.W., Michel, R.L., Plummer, L.N., Rezai, M.T., Senay, G.B., Verdin, J.P., and Verstraeten, I.M., 2010, Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5262, 240 p. (on-line abstract and access to on-line report in pdf format)

Mack, T.J., Chornack, M.P., Coplen, T.B., Plummer L.N., Rezai, M.T., and Verstraeten, I.M., 2010, Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan.  U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, FS 2010-3037, 4p. (on-line abstract or on-line fact sheet in pdf format, 2.84 MB)

Qi, H., Gröning, M., Coplen, T.B., Buck1y, B., Mroczkowski, S.J., Brand, W.A., Geilmann, H., and Gehre, M., 2010, Novel silver-tubing method for quantitative introduction of water into high-temperature conversion systems for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic measurements: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 24, p. 1821-1827, DOI: 10.1002/rcm. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Rao, B., Hatzinger, P.B., Böhlke, J.K., Sturchio, N.C., Andraski, B., and Jackson, W.A., 2010, Natural chlorate in the environment: Application of a new IC-ESI/MS/MS method with a Cl18O3- internal standard. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 44, no. 22, p. 8429-8434. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Révész, K.M., Breen, K.J., Baldassare A.J., and Burruss , R.C., 2010, Carbon and hydrogen isotopic evidence for the origin of combustible gases in water-supply wells in north-central Pennsylvania: Applied Geochemistry, v. 25, no. 12, p. 1845–1859. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Alexander, R.B., Böhlke, J.K., Boyer, E.W., David, M.B., Harvey, J.W., Mulholland, P.J., Seitzinger, S.P., Tobias, C.R., Tonitto, C., Wollheim, W.M., 2009 Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes: Biogeochemistry, v. 93, p. 91-116. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 850 KB, published at Springerlink.com with open access)

Böhlke, J.K., Antweiler, R.C., Harvey, J.W., Laursen, A.E., Smith, L.K., Smith, R.L., and Voytek, M.A., 2009, Multi-scale measurements and modeling of denitrification in streams with varying flow and nitrate concentration in the upper Mississippi River basin, USA: Biogeochemistry, v. 93, p. 117-141. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 959 KB, published at Springerlink.com with open access)

Böhlke, J.K., Hatzinger, P., Sturchio, N.C., Gu, B., Abbene, I.J., and Mroczkowski, S.J., 2009, Atacama perchlorate as an agricultural contaminant in groundwater: Chemical and isotopic evidence from Long Island, New York, USA: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 15, p. 5619–5625. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Böhlke, J.K., and Michel, R.L., 2009, Contrasting residence times and fluxes of water and sulfate in two small forested watersheds in Virginia, USA: Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, no. 14, p. 4363-4377. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Brand, W.A., Coplen, T.B., Aerts-Bijma, A.T.A., Böhlke, J.K., Gehre, M., Geilman, H., Gröning, M., Jansen, H.G., Meijer, H.A.J., Mroczkowski, S.J., Qi, H., Soergel, K., Stuart-Williams, H., Weise, S.M., and Werner, R.A., 2009, Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 23, no. 7, p. 999-1019. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bratton, J.F., Böhlke, J.K., Krantz, D.E., and Tobias, C.R., 2009, Flow and Geochemistry of Groundwater Beneath a Back-Barrier Lagoon: The Subterranean Estuary at Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, Marine Chemistry, v. 113, p. 78-92. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Coplen, T.B., and Qi, H., 2009, Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, v. 45, no. 2, p.126-134. (on-line abstract of journal article)

De Laeter, J.R., Böhlke, J.K., De Bièvre, P., Hidaka, H., Peiser, H.S., Rosman, K.J.R., and Taylor, P.D.P., 2009, Erratum: Atomic weights of the elements: Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report) (Pure and Applied Chemistry (2003) 75 (683-800) DOI: 10.1351/pac200375060683)): Pure and Applied Chemistry, v. 81, no. 8, p. 1535-1536.

Hatzinger, P., Böhlke, J.K., Sturchio, N.C., Gu, B., Heraty, L.J., and Borden, R.C., 2009, Fractionation of stable isotopes in perchlorate and nitrate during in situ biodegradation in a sandy aquifer, Environmental Chemistry, v. 6, p. 44-52. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Lorah, M.M., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Böhlke, J.K., 2009, Biogeochemistry at a wetland sediment-alluvial aquifer interface in a landfill leachate plume: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 105, no. 3-4, p. 99-117. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Schimmelmann, A., Albertino, A., Sauer, P.E., Qi, H., Molinie, R., and Mesnard, F., 2009, Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2H, 13C and 15N-abundance reference materials for continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 23, p. 3513-3521. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article, 345 KB, published by John Wiley Interscience as a U.S. Government work in the public domain)

Scholl, M.A., Shanley, J.B., Zegarra, J.P., and Coplen, T.B., 2009, The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops: Water Resources Research, v. 45, 45, W12407, doi. 10.1029/2008WR007515. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 388 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Smith, R.L., Böhlke, J.K., Repert, D.A., Hart, C.P., 2009, Nitrification and denitrification in a midwestern stream containing high nitrate: in situ assessment using tracers in dome-shaped incubation chambers: Biogeochemistry, v. 96, p. 189-208. (on-line abstract of journal article

Sturchio, N.C., Caffee, M., Beloso Jr., A.D., Heraty, L.J., Böhlke, J.K., Hatzinger, P.B., Jackson, W.A., Gu, B., Heikoop, J.M. and, Dale, M., 2009, Chlorine-36 as a tracer of perchlorate origin: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 18, p. 6934-6938. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Tobias, C.R., Böhlke, J.K., Harvey, J.W., and Busenberg, E., 2009, A simple technique for continuous measurement of time-variable gas transfer in surface waters: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, v. 7, p. 185-195. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Campbell, D.H., Nanus, L., Böhlke, J.K., Harlin, K., and Collett, J., 2008, Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains: Linking emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects using stable isotopes of nitrogen compounds: Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA 3, p. 2138-2144.

Coplen, T. B., Neiman, P.J., White, A.B., Landwehr, J.M., Ralph, F.M., and Dettinger, M.D., 2008, Extreme changes in stable hydrogen isotopes and precipitation characteristics in a landfalling Pacific storm: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 35, L21808, doi:10.1029/2008GL035481. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 636 KB, published by American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Gates, J.B., Edmunds, W.M., and Böhlke, J.K., 2008, Ecohydrological factors affecting nitrate concentrations in a phreatic desert aquifer in Northwest China: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 42, p. 3531 - 3537. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Green, C.T., Puckett, L.J., Böhlke, J.K., Bekins, B.A., Phillips, S.P., Kauffman, L.J., Denver, J.M., and Johnson, H.M., 2008, Limited occurrence of denitrification in four shallow aquifers in agricultural areas of the United States: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 37, p. 994-1009. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hannon, J.E., and Böhlke, J.K., 2008, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) of ammonium (NH4+) in water: RSIL Lab Code 2898, in Révész, K., and Coplen, T. B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 10 chap C15, 30 p. (on-line abstract of on-line publication in pdf format, 711 KB)

Hannon, J.E., Böhlke, J.K., and Mroczkowski, S.J., 2008, Effects of nitrate and water on the oxygen isotopic analysis of barium sulfate precipitated from solution : Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 22, p. 4109-4120. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 305 KB, published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd as a U.S. Government work in the public domain)

Hinkle, S.R. , Böhlke, J.K., and Fisher, L.H., 2008, Mass balance and isotope effects during nitrogen transport through septic tank systems with packed-bed (sand) filters: Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, p. 324-332. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McMahon, P.B., Böhlke, J.K., Kauffman, L.J., Kipp, K.L., Landon, M.K., Crandall, C.A., Burow, K.R., and Brown, C.J., 2008, Source and transport controls on the movement of nitrate to public supply wells in selected principal aquifers of the United States , Water Resources Research, v. 44, W04401, doi:10.1029/2007WR006252. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 1157 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

McMahon, P.B., Burow, K.R., Kauffman, L.J., Eberts, S.M., Böhlke, J.K., and Gurdak, J.J., 2008, Simulated response of water quality in public-supply wells to land-use change: Water Resources Research, v. 44, p. 1-16, W00A06, doi:10.1029/2007WR006731. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 895 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, T. B., 2008, Determination of the δ(18O/16O) of Water: RSIL Lab Code 489, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, T.B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 10, chapt. C2, 28 p.

Böhlke, J.K, O'Connell, M.E., and Prestegaard, K.L., 2007, Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 36, p. 664-680. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Böhlke, J.K., Smith, R.L., and Hannon, J.E., 2007 Analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrite and nitrate by sequential selective bacterial reduction to N2O: Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 15, p. 5888-5895. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 149 KB, published by American Chemical Society; not subject to U.S. copyright)

Böhlke, J.K., Verstraeten, I.M., and Kraemer, T.F., 2007, Effects of surface-water irrigation on the sources, fluxes, and residence times of water, nitrate, and uranium in an alluvial aquifer: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 1, p. 152-174. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Breen,K. J., Révész, K., Baldassare, F. J. , and McAuley1, S. D., 2007, Natural Gases in Ground Water near Tioga Junction, Tioga County, Northcentral Pennsylvania - Occurrence and Use of Isotopes to Determine Origins, 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report Series 2007-5085, 65 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 10.2 MB)

Casciotti, K.L., Böhlke, J.K., McIlvin, M.R., Mroczkowski, S.J., and Hannon, J.E., 2007, Oxygen isotopes in nitrite: analysis, calibration, and equilibration: Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 6, p. 2427-2436. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Coplen, T.B., 2007, Calibration of the calcite–water oxygen-isotope geothermometer at Devils Hole, Nevada, a natural laboratory: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 71, no. 16, p. 3948-3957. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hinkle, S.R., Böhlke, J.K., Duff, J.D., Morgan, D.S., and Weick, R.J., 2007, Aquifer-scale controls on the distribution of nitrate and ammonium in ground water near La Pine, Oregon, USA: Journal of Hydrology, v. 333, p. 486-503. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McMahon, P.B. and Böhlke, J.K., 2007, Transport -- Linking the chemistry of recharge and the used resource in the High Plains Aquifer in McMahon, P.B., Dennehy, K.F., Bruce, B.W., Gurdak, J.J., and Qi, S.L., Water-quality assessment of the High Plains Aquifer, 1999-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1749, chapter 2, p. 49-72. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 2.2 MB)

McMahon, P.B., Böhlke, J.K., and Carney, C.P., 2007, Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003 , U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5294, 58 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 4.5 MB)

Révész, K., and Casciotti, K., 2007, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) of Nitrate in Solids: RSIL Lab Code 2894, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S.Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C12, 24 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 495 KB)

Révész, K., and Casciotti, K., 2007, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) and δ(18O/16O) of Nitrate in Solids: RSIL Lab Code 2897, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S.Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C14, 24 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 475 KB)

Révész, K., and Casciotti, K., 2007, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) of Nitrate in Water: RSIL Lab Code 2899, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S.Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C16, 24 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 629 KB)

Révész, K., and Casciotti, K., 2007, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) and δ(18O/16O) of Nitrate in Water: RSIL Lab Code 2900, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C17, 24 p. (on-line abstact or on-line report in pdf format, 479 KB)

Sturchio, N.C., Böhlke, J.K., Beloso, A.D.Jr., Streger, S.H., Heraty, L.J., and Hatzinger, P.B., 2007, Oxygen and chlorine isotopic fractionation during perchlorate biodegradation: laboratory results and implications for forensics and natural attenuation studies: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, p. 2796-2802. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Tobias, C.R., Böhlke, J.K., and Harvey, J.W., 2007, The oxygen-18 isotope approach for measuring aquatic metabolism in high-productivity waters: Limnology and Oceanography , v. 52, p. 1439-1453. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 1217 KB - published by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography with open access)

Walker, R.J., Böhlke, J.K., McDonough, W.F., and Li, J., 2007, Effects of Mother Lode-Type Gold Mineralization on 187Os/188Os and Platinum Group Element Concentrations in Peridotite: Alleghany District, California: Economic Geology, v. 102, no. 6, p. 1079-1089. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Böhlke, J. K., 2006, Tracermodel1- Excel workbook for calculation and presentation of environmental tracer data for simple groundwater mixtures: Use of chlorofluorocarbons in hydrology - a guidebook, Section III.10.3, Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency STI/PUB/1238, p. 239-243. (on-line article)

Böhlke, J.K., Smith, R.L., and Miller, D.N., 2006, Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater - Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies: Water Resources Research, v. 42, W05411, doi:10.1029/2005WR004349. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 1852 kb, published 2006 by American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Coplen, T.B., Brand, W.A., Gehre, M., Gröning, M., Meijer, H.A.J., Toman, B., and Verkouteren, R.M., 2006, New guidelines for δ13C measurements: Analytical Chemistry, v. 78, p. 2439-2441. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Coplen, T.B., Brand, W.A., Gehre, M., Gröning, M., Meijer, H.A.J., Toman, B., and Verkouteren, R.M., 2006, After two decades a second anchor for the VPDB δ13C scale: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 20, no. 21, p. 3165-3166. (on-line guest editorial in pdf format, 121 kb, published on-line in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons as a U.S. government work in the public domain)

Evans, W.C., Bergfeld, D., van Soest, M.C., Huebner, M.A., Fitzpatrick, J., and Revesz, K.M., 2006, Geochemistry of low-temperature springs northwest of Yellowstone caldera: Seeking the link between seismicity, deformation, and fluid flow: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 154, p. 169 – 180, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.01.001. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Groffman, P.M., Altabet, M.A., Böhlke, J.K., Butterbach-Bahl, K., David, M.B., Giblin, A.E., Kana, T.M., Nielsen, L.P., Firestone, M.K., and Voytek, M.A., 2006, Methods for measuring denitrification: Diverse approaches to a difficult problem: Ecological Applications, v. 16, no. 6, p. 2091-2122. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Landwehr, J.M. and Coplen, T.B., 2006, Line-conditioned excess: a new method for characterizing stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in hydrologic systems: Isotopes in Environmental Studies, Aquatic Forum 2004, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-CSP-26, p. 132-135.

McMahon, P.B., and Böhlke, J.K., 2006, Regional patterns in the isotopic composition of natural and anthropogenic nitrate in groundwater, High Plains, USA: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 40, p. 2965-2970. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 180 KB, published by American Chemical Society, not subject to U.S. copyright)

McMahon, P.B., K.F. Dennehy, B.W. Bruce, J.K. Böhlke, R.L. Michel, J.J. Gurdak, and D.B. Hurlbut, 2006, Storage and transit time of chemicals in thick unsaturated zones under rangeland and irrigated cropland, High Plains, United States: Water Resources Research, 42, W03413, doi:10.1029/2005WR004417. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., and Doughten, M.W., 2006, Perchlorate in Pleistocene and Holocene groundwater in North-Central New Mexico: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, no. 6, p. 1757-1763. (on-line abstract or on-line journal article in pdf format, 409 KB, published by American Chemical, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Révész, K., and Coplen, T.B., eds., 2006, Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 10.

Révész, K., and Qi, H., 2006, Determination of δ(34S/32S) of low concentration sulfate in water, RSIL Lab Code 1949, in Révész, K., and Coplen, T.B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C8, 44 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 983KB)

Révész, K., and Qi, H., 2006, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) and δ(13C/12C) of Total N and C in Solids: RSIL Lab Code 1832, in Révész, K., and Coplen, T.B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C5, 31 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 708KB)

Révész, K., and Qi, H., 2006, Determination of the δ(34S/32S) of Sulfate in Water: RSIL Lab Code 1951, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C10, 33 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 988 KB)

Révész, K., Qi, H., 2006, Determination of the δ(34S/32S) of Total Sulfur in Solids: RSIL Lab Code 1800, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C4, 31 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 550 KB)

Révész, K., and Qi, H., 2006, Determination of the δ(15N/14N) of Total Nitrogen in Solids: RSIL Lab Code 2893, in Révész, Kinga, and Coplen, Tyler B., eds., Methods of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods, book 10, chap. C11, 31 p. (on-line abstract or on-line chapter in pdf format, 817 KB)

Seitzinger, S., Harrison, J.A., Böhlke, J.K., Bouwman, A.F., Lowrance, R., Peterson, B., Tobias, C., and Van Drecht, G., 2006, Denitrification across landscapes and waterscapes: A synthesis: Ecological Applications, v. 16, p. 2064-2090. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Smith, L.K., Voytek, M.A., Böhlke, J. K., and Harvey, J.W., 2006, Denitrification in nitrate-rich streams: application of N2:Ar and 15N-tracer methods in intact cores: Ecological Applications, v. 16, p. 2191-2207. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Smith, R.L., Baumgartner, L.K., Miller, D.N., Repert, D.A., and Böhlke, J.K., 2006, Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short-term, sincle-well injection experiments: Microbial Ecology, v. 51, no. 1, p. 22-35. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Sturchio, N.C., Böhlke, J.K., Gu, B., Horita, J., Brown, G.M., Beloso, A. Jr., Patterson, L.J., Hatzinger, P.B., Jackson, W.A. and Batista, J.R., 2006, Stable isotopic composition of chlorine and oxygen in synthetic and natural perchlorate, Chapter 5 , in Gu, B. and Coates, J.D., eds., Perchlorate: Environmental Occurrence, Interactions and Treatment: New York, Springer, p. 93-109.

Antweiler, R.C., Smith, R.L., Voytek, M.A., and Böhlke, J.K., 2005, Water-quality data from two agricultural drainage basins in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois: II. Diel data, 1999-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1053, 114 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 8.1 MB)

Antweiler, R.C., Smith, R.L., Voytek, M.A., Böhlke, J.K., and Dupre, D.H., 2005, Water-quality data from two agricultural drainage basins in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois: III. Biweekly data, 2000-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1197, 66 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 18.1 MB)

Antweiler, R.C., Smith, R.L., Voytek, M.A., Böhlke, J.K., and Richards, K.D., 2005, Water-quality data from two agricultural drainage basins in Northwestern Indiana and Northeastern Illinois: I. Lagrangian and synoptic data, 1999-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1317, 216 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 4.9 MB)

Böhlke, J.K., de Laeter, J.R., De Bièvre, P., Hidaka, H., Peiser, H.S., Rosman, K.J., and Taylor, P.D., 2005, Isotopic compositions of the elements, 2001: Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, v. 34, p. 57-67. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Böhlke, J.K., Sturchio, N.C., Gu, B., Horita, J., Brown, G.M., Jackson, W.A., Batista, J.R., and Hatzinger, P.B., 2005, Perchlorate isotope forensics: Analytical Chemistry, v. 77, no. 23, p. 7,838 -7,842. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Hunt, R.J., Coplen, T.B., Haas, N.L., Saad, D.A., and Borchardt, M.A., 2005, Investigating surface water-well interaction using stable isotope ratios of water: Journal of Hydrology, v. 302, no. 1-4, p. 154-172. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format; 676 KB, a U.S. Government work published by the Journal of Hydrology, in the public domain in the USA)

McMahon, P., Böhlke, J.K., Brown, C., Burow, K., Crandall, C., and Landon, M., 2005, Use of isotopes, age-dating, and numerical simulation to evaluate source histories and transport of NO3- to public supply wells in principal aquifers of the United States: AIG-6, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Applied Isotope Geochemistry, Prague, Czech Republic, p. 157-158 (CD-ROM).

Vogel, J.R., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Coplen, T.B., Verstraeten, I.M., and Meyer, M.T., 2005, Occurrence of selected pharaceutical and non-pharmaceutical compounds and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2001 to 2003, volume 2: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 141. (on-line report)

Vogel, J.R., Harris, S.I., Coplen, T.B., Rice, E.W., and Verstraeten, I.M., 2005, Microbe concentrations, laser particle counts, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in samples from a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2002 to 2004: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 133, p. 307-321.

Vogel, J.R., Verstraeten, I.M., Coplen, T.B., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., and Barber, L.B., 2005, Occurrence of selected pharaceutical and non-pharmaceutical compounds and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2001 to 2003, volume 1: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 117. (on-line report)

Böhlke, J.K, Harvey, J.W., and Voytek, M.A., 2004, Reach-scale isotope tracer experiment to quantify denitrification and related processes in a nitrate-rich stream, midcontinent United States: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 49, no. 3, p. 821-838. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format)

Böhlke, J.K., Mroczkowski, S.J., and Coplen,T.B., 2004, New reference materials for oxygen isotopes in nitrate: Isotope Hydrology and Integrated Water Resources Management, IAEA-CSP-23, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p. 477-478.

Bratton, J.F., Böhlke, J.K., Manheim, F.T., Krantz , D.E., 2004, Ground water beneath coastal bays of the Delmarva Peninsula: Ages and Nutrients: Ground Water, v. 42, no. 7, p. 1021-1034. (on-line abstract)

Coplen, T.B., Böhlke, J.K., and Casciotti, K.L., 2004, Using dual-bacterial denitrification to improve δ15N determinations of nitrates containing mass-independent 17O: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 18, no. 3, p. 245-250. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 133 KB)

Landwehr, J.M., and Coplen, T.B., 2004, The oxygen and hydrogen ratios in waters from the largest river systems of the United States: Isotope Hydrology and Integrated Water Resources Management, IAEA-CSP-23, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p.402-403.

McMahon, P., Böhlke, J.K., Brown, C., Burow, K., Crandall, C., and Landon, M., 2005, Use of isotopes, age-dating, and numerical simulation to evaluate source histories and transport of NO3- to public supply wells in principal aquifers of the United States: AIG-6, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Applied Isotope Geochemistry, Prague, Czech Republic, p. 157-158 (CD-ROM) (on-line article)

McMahon, P.B., Böhlke, J.K, and Christenson, S.C., 2004, Geochemistry, radiocarbon ages and paleorecharge conditions along a transect in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 19, no. 11, p. 1655-1686. (on-line abstract)

McMahon, P.B., Böhlke, J.K, and Lehman, T.M., 2004, Vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the sourthern High Plains Aquifer, Texas, 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5053. (on-line abstract and on-line report in pdf format, 2.46 MB)

Michalski, G., Böhlke, J.K., and Thiemens, M.H., 2004, Long term atmospheric deposition as the source of nitrate and other salts in the Atacama Desert, Chile: New evidence from mass-independent oxygen isotopic compositions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, no. 20, p. 4023-4038. (on-line abstract)

Oren, O., Yechieli, Y., Böhlke, J.K., Dody, A., 2004, Contamination of groundwater under cultivated fields in an arid environment, central Arava Valley, Israel: Journal of Hydrology, v. 290, no. 3-4, p. 312-328 (on-line abstract)

Revesz, K., and Landwehr, J.M., 2004, Measurement of δ13C and δ18O isotopic ratios of CACO3 by Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II and Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer with application to Devils Hole Core DH-11 calcite: Isotope Hydrology and Integrated Water Resources Management, IAEA-CSP-23, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p.485.

Smith, R.L., Böhlke, J.K., Garabedian, S.P., Revesz, K.M., and Yoshinari, T., 2004, Assessing denitrification in groundwater using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N: In situ measurement of a sequential multistep reaction: Water Resources Research, v. 40, No. 7, W07101, doi:10.1029/2003WR002919. (on-line abstract)

Böhlke, J.K., 2003, Sources, transport, and reaction of nitrate in ground water, in Lindsey and others, eds., Residence Times and Nitrate Transport in Ground Water Discharging to Streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4035, p. 25-38.

Böhlke, J.K., and Krantz, D.E., 2003, Isotope geochemistry and chronology of offshore ground water beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4192 (on-line abstract or to download report in pdf format)

Böhlke, J.K., Mroczkowski, S.J., and Coplen, T.B., 2003, Oxygen isotopes in nitrate: new reference materials for 18O:17O:16O measurements and observations on nitrate-water equilibration: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 17, p. 1835-1846. (on-line abstract)

Coplen, T.B., 2003, Erratum: "Atomic Weights of the Elements 1999" [Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 30, 701 (2001)]: Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, v. 32, p. 919.

de Laeter, J.R., Böhlke, J.K., Bievre, P. de, Hidaka, H., Peiser, H.S., Rosman, K.J.R., and Taylor, P.D.P., 2003, Atomic weights of the elements: Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report): Pure and Applied Chemistry, v. 75, no. 6, p. 683-800. (on-line abstract)

de Laeter, J.R., and Peiser, H.S., 2003, A Century of Progress in the Sciences due to Atomic Weight and Isotopic Composition Measurements, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, v. 375, p. 62-72. (on-line abstract)

Griggs, E.M., Kump, L.R., Böhlke, J.K., 2003, The fate of wastewater-derived nitrate in the subsurface of the Florida Keys: Key Colony Beach, Florida: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 58, no. 3, p. 517-539. (on-line abstract)

Lindsey, B.D., Phillips, S.W., Donnelly, C.A., Speiran, G.K., Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., Focazio, M.J.,. Burton, W.C., and Busenberg, E., 2003, Residence Times and Nitrate Transport in Ground Water Discharging to Streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4035, 201 p. (on-line report, in pdf format)

Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., and Busenberg, E., 2003, Approaches for ground-water dating, in Lindsey and others, eds., Residence Times and Nitrate Transport in Ground Water Discharging to Streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4035, p. 12-24.

Qi, H.P., and Coplen, T.B., 2003, Evaluation of the 34S/32S ratio of Soufre de Lacq elemental sulfur isotopic reference material by continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry: Chemical Geology, v. 199, p. 183-187. (on-line abstract)

Qi, H., Coplen, T.B., Geilmann, H., Brand, W.A., Böhlke, J.K., 2003, Two new organic reference materials for δ13C and δ15N measurements and a new value for the δ13C of NBS 22 oil: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 17, no. 22, p. 2483-2487. (on-line abstract)


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Tyler B. Coplen
U.S. Geological Survey, 431 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 22092
Email: tbcoplen@usgs.gov
Telephone: 703-648-5862

  • John Karl Böhlke (professional profile)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 431 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 22092
    Email: jkbohlke@usgs.gov
    Telephone: 703-648-6325
  • Kinga M Revesz (professional profile)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 431 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 22092
    Email: krevesz@usgs.gov
    Telephone: 703-648-5865

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