National Research Program


Environmental Tracers of Surface-Water / Ground-Water Interactions

A comprehensive understanding of the transport of water and chemicals between surface water, such as lakes and streams, and underlying ground water is essential for improved management of our Nation's water resources. Increases in surface-water diversions and ground-water pumping have clearly demonstrated that surface water and ground water are a single water resource, rather than separate components of the watershed. This realization mandates scientific investigation of surface water and ground water as a continuous system. Traditionally, separate tools were used to investigate and monitor surface water versus ground water. Now there is a pressing need to develop scientific tools to investigate surface water and ground water as a single continuum. Environmental tracers hold great potential for examining exchanges between surface water and ground water, since tracers migrate freely across the surface-water/ground-water interface, and can be monitored easily in both surface-water and ground-water bodies. Natural and anthropogenic environmental tracers are being comprehensively investigated as research tools to track the movement of water resources. This research is leading to advances in our hydrological understanding for watersheds with perennial or ephemeral surface water, and improvements in our predictive analysis of potential water-resources alternatives in these watersheds.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2012

Garcia, C.A. , Andraski, B.J. , Stonestrom, D.A. , Cooper, C.A. , Šimůnek, J. , and Wheatcraft, S.W., 2011, Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 10; no. 2; p. 552-564; DOI: 10.2136/vzj2010.0023 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Schulz, M., Stonestrom, D., Von Kiparski, C., Lawrence, C., Masiello, C., White, A., and Fitzpatrick, J., 2011, Seasonal dynamics of CO2 profiles across a soil chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California: Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, supplement 1 [Ninth International Symposium on the Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface (GES-9)], p. s132-134. (on-line abstract of article

Stonestrom, D.A., 2011, Estimating Groundwater Recharge, by Richard W. Healy [book review]: Eos Trans. AGU, v. 92, no. 32, doi:10.1029/2011EO320008. (on-line abstract of review)

Risley, J.C., Constantz, J., Essaid, H., and Rounds, S., 2010, Effects of upstream dams versus groundwater pumping on stream temperature under varying climate conditions: : Water Resources Research, v. 46, W06517, doi:10.1029/2009WR008587 (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 2.2 MB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to U.S. copyright)

Constantz, J., 2009, Solar Distillation Loop Evaporation Sleeve: U.S. Patent No. 7,501,046 - issued as continuation-in-part to US 7,1108,769. (on-line patent)

Garcia, C.A., Andraski, B.J., Stonestrom, D.A., Cooper, C.A., Johnson, M.J., Michel, R.L., and Wheatcraft, S.W., 2009, Transport of tritium contamination from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere in an arid environment: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 8, no. 2, p. 450-461, doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0022. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Maher, K., Steefel, C.I., White, A.F., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2009, The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73, no. 10, p. 2804-2831. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Michel, R.L., Izbicki, J.A., McMahon, P.B., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2009, Use of isotopes for the study of pollutant behaviour in the unsaturated zone at three semi-arid sites in the USA, in Aggarwal, P.K., and Kulkarni, K.M., eds., Application of Isotopes to the Assessment of Pollutant Behaviour in the Unsaturated Zone for Groundwater Protection: IAEA-TECDOC-1618: Vienna, Austria, International Atomic Energy Agency, p. 205-218. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 5.6 MB)

Scanlon, B.R., Stonestrom, D.A., Reedy, R.C., Leaney, F.W., Gates, J., and Cresswell, R.G., 2009, Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia: Water Resources Research, v. 45, doi:10.1029/2008WR006963. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Stonestrom, D.A., 2009, Assessing recharge across the southwest: Southwest Hydrology, v. 8, no. 1, p. 10-11. (on-line article in pdf format, 570 KB, published with free access)

Stonestrom, D.A., Scanlon, B.R., and Zhang, L., 2009, Introduction to special section on Impacts of Land Use Change on Water Resources: Water Resources Research, v. 45, doi:10.1029/2009WR007937. (on-line abstract of journal article)

White, A.F., Schulz, M.S., Stonestrom, D.A., Vivit, D.V., Fitzpatrick, J., Bullen, T.D., ,Maher, K., and Blum, A.E., 2009, Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73, no. 10, p. 2769-2803. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Constantz, J., 2008, Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges: Water Resources Research, vol. 44, W00D10, doi:10.1029/2008WR006996 . (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 5639 KB, published by the American Geophysical Union, not subject to US copyright)

Constantz, J. 2008 Heat as a tracer of stream exchanges with shallow ground water: Water Down Under, Australian Engineering Society Publication ISBN: 0-858-25735-I, p.1642-1652.

Constantz, J., 2008, Analysis of sediment-temperature gradients to determine stream exchanges with ground water, in Rosenberry, D.O. and LaBaugh, J.W., eds., Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes between Surface Water and Ground Water: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and. Methods 4-D2, Ch. 4, 115-128. (on-line chapter in pdf format, 606 KB)

Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., Fogg, G.E., Stonestrom, D.A., and Buckland, E.M., 2008, Method for estimating spatially variable seepage loss and hydraulic conductivity in intermittent and ephemeral streams: Water Resources Research, v. 44, doi:10.1029/2007WR006626. (on-line abstract of journal article)

White, A.F., Schulz, M.S., Stonestrom, D.A., Vivit, D.V., Fitzpatrick J., and Bullen, T., 2008, Solute profiles in soils, weathering gradients and exchange equilibrium/disequilibrium: Mineralogical Magazine, v. 72, p. 149-153. (on-line abstract of journal article)

White, A.F., Schulz, M.S., Vivit, D.V., Blum, A.E., Stonestrom, D.A., and Anderson, S.P., 2008, Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California I: Interpreting rates and controls based on soil concentration-depth profiles: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72, p. 36-68. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Blasch, K.W., Constantz, J., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2007, Thermal methods for investigating ground-water recharge, in Stonestrom, D.A., Constantz, J., Ferre, T.P.A., and Leake, S.A., eds., Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1703, Appendix 1, p. 351-373. (on-line abstract or on-line appendix in pdf format, 1.6 MB)

Constantz, J., Adams, K.S., and David A. Stonestrom, D.A., 2007, Overview of Ground-Water Recharge Study Sites, in Stonestrom, D.A., Constantz, J., Ferre, T.P.A., and Leake, S.A., eds., Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1703, chapt. C, 22 p. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 38.5 MB).

Constantz, J. and Essaid, H., 2007, Influence of groundwater pumping on streamflow restoration following upstream dam removal: Hydrological Processes, v. 21, no. 21, p. 2823-2834. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 1033 KB, - published on-line in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons as a U.S. Governement work in the public domain)

Cox, M.H., Constantz, J., and Su, G.W., 2007, Water quality parameters as ground-water tracers along the Russian River, CA: Ground Water, v. 45, DOI: 10.1111/j1745-6584.2006.00776.

Cox, M.H., Su, G.W., and Constantz, J., 2007, Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams: Ground Water, v. 45, p. 187-195. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Rao, B.A., Anderson, T.A., Orris, G.J., Rajagopalan, S., Sandvig, R.M., Scanlon, B.R., Stonestrom, D.A., Walvoord, M.A., and Jackson, W.A., 2007, Widespread natural perchlorate in unsaturated zones of the southwest US:  Environmental Science & Technology, v. 41, p. 4522-4528. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Stewart-Deaker, A.E., Stonestrom, D.A., and Moore, S.J., 2007, Streamflow, infiltration, and ground-water recharge at Abo Arroyo, New Mexico,in Stonestrom, D.A., Constantz, J., Ferre, T.P.A., and Leake, S.A., eds., Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1703-D, p. 83-105. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 23.5 MB)

Stonestrom, D.A., Constantz, J., Ferre, T.P.A., and Leake, S.A., eds., 2007, Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1703. (on-line abstract and links)

Stonestrom, D.A., and Harrill, J.R., 2007, Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States - Climatic and Geologic Framework, in Stonestrom, D.A., Constantz, J., Ferre, T.P.A., and Leake, S.A., eds., Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1703, chapt. A, 27 p. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 16.7 MB).

Stonestrom, D.A., Prudic, D.E., Walvoord, M.A., Abraham, J.D., Stewart-Deaker, A.E., Glancy, P.A., Constantz, J., Laczniak, R.J., and Andraski., B.J., 2007, Focused ground-water recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin, in Stonestrom, D.A., Constantz, J., Ferre, T.P.A., and Leake, S.A., eds., Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1703-E, p. 107-136. (on-line abstract or on-line paper in pdf format, 19.2 MB)

Su, G.W., Jasperse, J., Seymour, D., Constantz, J., and Zhou, Q., 2007, Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath a perennial river: Water Resources Research, v. 43, W08421 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Constantz, J., 2006, Solar distillation loop: U.S. Patent No. 7,108,769. (on-line patent)

Constantz, J., Su, G.W., and Hatch, C., 2006, Heat as a ground water tracer at the Russian River RBF facility, Sonoma County, California, in Hubbs, S.A., ed., Riverbank Filtration Hydrology: Dordrecht, Springer, p. 243-259.

Hatch, C.E., Fisher, A.T., Revenaugh, J. S., Constantz, J., and Ruehl, C, 2006, Quantifying surface water - groundwater interactions using time series analysis of streambed thermal records: Methods development : Water Resources Research, v. 42, W10410, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004787. (on-line abstract of journal article)

White, A.F., Schulz, M.S., Vivit, D.V., Blum, A.E., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2006, Controls on pore water solutes: An approach for distinguishing between biogenic and lithogenic processes: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 88, p. 363-366. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Andraski, B.J., Stonestrom, D.A., Michel, R.L., Halford, K.J., and Radyk, J.C., 2005, Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 4, p. 819-827. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Burow, K.R., Constantz, J., and Fujii, R., 2005, Heat as a tracer to estimate dissolved organic carbon flux from a restored wetland: Ground Water, v. 43, p. 545-556. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Green, C.T., Stonestrom, D.A., Bekins, B.A., Akstin, K.C., and Schulz, M.S., 2005, Percolation and transport in a sandy soil under a natural hydraulic gradient: Water Resources Research, v. 41, doi:10.1029/2005WR004061. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mayers, C.J., Andraski, B.J., Cooper, C.A., Wheatcraft, S.W., Stonestrom, D.A., and Michel, R.L., 2005, Modeling tritium transport through a deep unsaturated zone in an arid environment: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 4, p. 967-976, doi:10.2136/vzj2004.0179. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Nimmo, J.R., Healy, R.W., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2005, Aquifer recharge, in Anderson, M.G., and Bear, J., eds., Encyclopedia of Hydrological Science: Part 13--Groundwater: Chichester, UK, Wiley, v. 4, p. 2,229-2,246, doi:10.1002/0470848944.hsa161a (on-line abstract)

Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., Pohll, G., and Constantz, J., 2005, Incorporating seepage losses into the unsteady streamflow equations for simulating intermittent flow along mountain front streams: Water Resources Research, v. 41, no. 6, doi:10.1029/2004WR003677. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Scanlon, B.R., Reedy, R.C., Stonestrom, D.A., Prudic, D.E., and Dennehy, K.F., 2005, Impact of land use and land cover change on groundwater recharge and quality in the southwestern US: Global Change Biology, v. 11, p. 1,577-1,593. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Walvoord, M.A., Striegl, R.G., Prudic, D.E., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2005, CO2 dynamics in the Amargosa Desert: Fluxes and isotopic speciation in a deep unsaturated zone: Water Resources Research, v. 41, no 2, doi:10.1029/2004WR003599. (on-line abstract of journal article)

White A.F., Schulz M.S., Vivit D.V., Blum A.E., Stonestrom D.A., and Harden, J., 2005, Chemical weathering rates of a soil chronosequence on granitic alluvium: III Hydrochemical evolution and contemporary solute fluxes and rates: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 69, p. 1,975-1,996. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Constantz, J.E., and Essaid, H.I., 2004, The influence of ground water on stream restoration following dam removal: Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association Conference on Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers, Olympic Valley, California, June 2004, CD-ROM, sec. P, p. 1-5.

Stonestrom, D.A., Abraham, J.D., Andraski, B.J., Baker, R.J., Mayers, C.J., Michel, R.L., Prudic, D.E., Striegl, R.G., and Wolvoord, M.A., 2004, Monitoring radionuclide contamination in the unsaturated zone - lessons learned at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada, Workshop on Long-term Performance Monitoring of Metals and Radionuclides in the Subsurface, Rston, VA, April 21-22, 2004: Tallahassee, Florida State University. (on-line paper in pdf format)

Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., 2004, Using temperature to study stream-ground water exchanges: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3010. (on-line fact sheet)

Stonestrom, D.A., Prudic, D.E., Laczniak, R.J., and Akstin, K.C., 2004, Tectonic, climatic, and land-use controls on ground-water recharge in an arid alluvial basin: Amargosa Desert, U.S.A., in Hogan, J.F, Phillips, F.M, and Scanlon, B.R., eds., Groundwater recharge in a desert environment---The southwestern United States: American Geophysical Union Water Science and Applications Series, v. 9, , p. 29-47.

Su, G.W., Jasperse, J., Seymour, D., and Constantz, J., 2004, Estimation of hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial system using temperature: Ground Water, v. 42, p. 890-901.

Walvoord, M.A., Phillips, F.M., Stonestrom, D.A., Evans, R.D., Hartsough, P.C., Newman, B.D., and Striegl, R.G., 2004, Response to comment on "A reservoir of nitrate beneath desert soils": Science, v. 304, p. 51c

Walvoord, M.A., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2004, Enhanced gas-phase transport in a deep unsaturated zone, Amargosa Desert (U.S.A), Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite-Element Models -- MODFLOW and More, Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic, September 13-16, 2004: Fontainebleau, France, International Association of Hydrologic Sciences (published on CD-ROM).

Walvoord, M.A., Stonestrom, D.A., Andraski, B.J., and Striegl, R.G., 2004, Constraining the inferred paleohydrologic evolution of a deep unsaturated zone in the Amargosa Desert: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 3, p. 502-512. (on-line abstract)

Andraski, B.J., Sandstrom, M.W., Michel, R.L., Radyk, J.C., Stonestrom, D.A., Johnson, M.J., and Mayers, 2003, Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, p. 988-995 (on-line abstract)

Constantz, J., 2003, Dams and downstream ground water: Hydrologic Processes, v. 17, p. 3533-3535.

Constantz, J., Cox, M.H., and Su, G.W., 2003, Comparison of heat and bromide as ground-water tracers near streams: Ground Water, v. 41, p. 647-656. (on-line abstract)

Constantz, J., Cox, M.H., Sarma, L., and Mendez, G., 2003, The Santa Clara River -- The last natural river of Los Angeles, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., eds., Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260, p. 21-27.

Constantz, J., Jasperse, J., Seymour, D., and Su, G.W., 2003, Heat tracing in the streambed along the Russian River of northern California, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., eds., Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260, p. 17-20.

Constantz, J., and Stonestrom, D.A., 2003, Heat as a tracer of water movement near streams, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., eds., Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260, p. 1-6.

Constantz, J., Tyler, S., and Kwicklis, E., 2003, Temperature-profile methods for estimating percolation rates in arid environments: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 2, p. 12-24. (on-line abstract)

Cox, M.H., and Hatch, C., 2003, Water temperature, streamflow, and ground-water elevation in and adjacent to the Russian River between Hopland and Guerneville, CA from 1998-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-454. (on-line report)

Cox, M.H., Mendez, G.O., Kratzer, C.R., and Reichard, E.G., 2003, Evaluation of tracer tests completed in 1999 and 2000 on the upper Santa Clara River, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4277. (on-line abstract or to download report in pdf format - 5.8 MB)

Nimmo, J.R., Stonestrom, D.A., and Healy, R.W., 2003, Aquifer recharge in Stewart, B.A., and Howell, T.A., eds., Encyclopedia of Water Science: New York, Marcel Dekker, p. 22-25.

Stonestrom, D.A., and Blasch, K.W., 2003, Appendix A, Determining temperature and thermal properties for heat-based studies of surface-water ground-water interaction, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., eds., Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260, p. 73-80.

Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., eds., 2003, Heat as a Tool for Studying the Movement of Ground Water Near Streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260, 96 p. (on-line abstract and on-line circular in pdf format - 7.7MB)

Stonestrom, D.A., Prudic, D.E., Laczniak, R.J., Akstin, K.C., Boyd, R.A., and Henkelman, K.K., 2003, Estimates of deep percolation beneath native vegetation, irigated fields, and the Amargosa River channel, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-104, 88 p. (on-line report)

Walvoord,M.A., Phillips, F.M., Stonestrom, D.A., Evans, R.D., Hartsough, P.C., Newman, B.D., and Striegl, R.G., 2003, A reservoir of nitrate beneath desert soils: Science, v. 302, no. 5647, p. 1021-1024. (For abstract or full report, see link to Science under http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/striegl.html)


FOR ADDITIONAL INFOMATION ABOUT THIS PROJECT, CONTACT
James E. Constantz
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS496, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Email: jconstan@usgs.gov
Phone: 650-329-4655

David A. Stonestrom
U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd, MS421, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Email: dastones@usgs.gov
Phone: 650-329-4528

For information on additional projects in the National Research Program, see Indexes to NRP projects and bibliographies.

*For articles in Adobe® (.PDF) format, please note that you can download a free copy of Adobe® Acrobat® Reader® here. Also see Adobe® accessibility information, Information for users with disabilities, if applicable.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/constantz.html
Page Contact Information: Linda Friedman
Page Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Mar-2014 11:28:26 EST