National Research Program


Chemical Transformations in Water Reclamation and Reuse


Many hydrological, geochemical and biological processes associated with water reclamation and reuse are poorly understood. In particular, the occurrence, fate, and effects of trace organic and inorganic contaminants present in reclaimed water needs further investigation. Research on the chemistry of reclaimed water and the relationship to hydrological processes is especially critical to individuals responsible for management, protection, and restoration of these resources. The project objective is to understand the basic principles controlling the sources, occurrence, and transformations of wastewater derived trace chemicals and the interaction of reclaimed water chemistry with receiving streams, lakes, wetlands, and ground water ecosystems. The project will integrate chemical measurements, theoretical predictions, laboratory studies and experimental field studies in ground-water and surface-water environments.

REPORTS PUBLISHED 2003-2012

Barber, L.B., Vajda, A.M., Douville, C., Norris, D.O., and Writer , J.H., 2012 (web publication 2/2/12), Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade: Environmental Science & Technology, , v. 46, no. 4, p 2121–2131. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Lozano, N., Rice, C.P., Pagano, J., Zintek, L , Barber, L.B., Murphy, E.W., Nettesheim, T., Minarik, T., and Schoenfuss, H.L., 2012 (web publication 2/15/12, Concentration of organic contaminants in fish and their biological effects in a wastewater-dominated urban stream: Science of the Total Environment, v. 420, p. 191-201. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Mohanram, A., Ray, C., Metge, D.W., Barber, L.B., Ryan, J.N., and Harvey, R.W., 2012 (web publication 6/28/11), Effect of dissolved organic carbon on the transport and attachment behaviors of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and carboxylate-modified microspheres advected through temperate humic and tropical volcanic agricultural soil: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 46, no. 4, p. 2088–2094. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Savoie, J.G., LeBlanc, D.R., Fairchild, G.M., Smith, R.L., Kent, D.B., Barber, L.B., Repert, D.A., Hart, C.P., Keefe, S.H., and Parsons, L.A., 2012, Groundwater-quality data for a treated-wastewater plume near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2006–08: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 648, 11 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1228 KB)

Vajda, A.M., Barber, L.B., Gray, J.L., Lopez, E.M., Bolden, A.M., Schoenfuss, H.L., and Norris, D.O., 2011, Demasculinization of male fish by wastewate rtreatment plant effluent: Aquatic Toxicology, v.203, pp. 213-221. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.02.007

Writer, J.H., Ryan, J.N., Keefe, S.H., and Barber, L.B., 2012 (web publication 12/30/11), Fate of 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol in the Redwood River of Minnesota: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 46, no. 2, p. 860–868. (on-line abstract of journal araticle)

Barber, L.B., Brown, G.K., Nettesheim, T.G., Murphy, E.W., Bartell, S.E., and Schoenfuss, H.L., 2011, Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wasterwater-impacted urban stream: Science of the Total Environment, v. 409, p. 4720-4278. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.06.039 (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barber, L.B., Antweiler,R.C., Flynn, J.L., Keefe, S.H., Kolpin, D.W.,. Roth, D.A., Schnoebelen, D.J., Taylor, H.E., and Verplanck, P.L., 2011, Lagrangian mass-flow investigations of inorganic contaminants in wastewater-impacted streams: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 45, no. 7, p. 2575–2583. (on-line abstract of journal article

Barber, L.B., Keefe, S.H., Kolpin, D.W., Schnoebelen, D.J., Flynn, J.L., Brown, .G.K., Furlong, E.T., Gassmeyer, S.T., Gray, J.L., Meyer, M.T., Sandstrom, M.W., Taylor, H.E., and Zaugg, S.D., 2011, Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant discharges into Boulder Creek, Colorado and Fourmile Creek, Iowa during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005 – hydrological and chemical data:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1054, 52 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 11.4 MB)

Lee, K.E., Langer, S.K., Barber, L.B., Writer, J.H., Ferrey, M.L., Schoenfuss, H.L., Furlong, E.T., Foreman, W.T., Gray, J.L., ReVello, R.C., Martinovic, D., Woodruff, O.P., Keefe, S.H., Brown, G.K., Taylor, H.E., Ferrer, I., and Thurman, E.M., 2011, Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota—design, methods, and data, 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 575, 54 p., with appendixes. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 2 MB)

Murphy, S.F., and Writer, J.H., 2011, Evaluating the effects of wildfire on stream processes in a Colorado front range watershed, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, supplement 1 [Ninth International Symposium on the Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface (GES-9)], p. s.S363-S364. (on-line abstract of article)

Underwood, J.C.,. Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Repert, D.A., Baumgartner, L.K., Smith, R.L., Roane, T.M., and Barber, L.B., 2011, Effects of the antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole on groundwater bacterial enrichment: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 45, no. 7, p. 3096-3101. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Vajdaa, A.M., Barber, L.B., Gray, J.L., Lopez, E.M., Bolden, A.M., Schoenfuss. H.L., Norrisa, D.O., 2011, Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent: Aquatic Toxicology, v. 103, p. 213–221. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Writer, J.H., Barber, L.B., Ryan, J.N., and Bradley, P.M., 2011, Biodegradation and Attenuation of Steroidal Hormones and Alkylphenols by Stream Biofilms and Sediments: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 45, no 10, p. 4370-4376. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Writer, J.H., Keefe, S.K., Ryan, J.N., Ferrer, I., Thurman, M.E., and Barber, L.B., 2011, Methods for evaluating in-stream attenuation of trace organic compounds: Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, supplement 1 [Ninth International Symposium on the Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface (GES-9)], p. s344-s345. (on-line abstract of article)

Writer, J.H., Ryan, J.N., and Barber, L.B., 2011, Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and4-nonylphenol compounds from streams: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 45, p. 7275-7238. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Conn, K.E., Siegrist, R.L., Barber, L.B., and Meyer, M.T., 2010, Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 29, no. 2, p. 285-293. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Barber, L.B., Aiken, G.R., 2010, Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer: Water Research, v. 44, no. 4, p. 1062-1071. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Keefe, S.H., Thullen, J.S., Runkel, R.L., Wass, R.D., Stiles, E.A., and Barber, L.B., 2010, Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface-flow wastewater-treatment wetland: Water Resources Research, v. 46, W11518, doi:10.1029/2010WR009512 . (on-line abstract of journal article)

Lee, K.E., Schoenfuss, H.L., Barber, L.B., Writer, J.H., Blazer, V.B., Kiesling, R.L., and Ferrey, M.L., 2010, Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes - Implications for aquatic resources 1994-2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5107. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 7.5 MB)

Schultz, M.M., Furlong, E.T., Kolpin, D.W., Werner, S.L., Schoenfuss, H.L., Barber, L.B., Blazer, V.S., Norris, D.A., and Vajda, A.M., 2010, Antidepressant pharmaceuticals in two U.S. effluent-impacted streams: Occurrence and fate in water and sediment and selective uptake in fish neural tissue: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 44, no. 6, p. 1918-1925. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Writer, J.H., Barber, L.B., Brown, G.K., Taylor, H.E., Kiesling, R.L., Ferrey, M.L., Jahns, N.D., Bartell, S.E., and Schoenfuss, H.L., 2010, Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine active chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes: Science of the Total Environment, v. 409, no. 1, p. 100-111. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barber, L.B., Keefe, S.H., LeBlanc, D.R., Bradley, P.M., Chapelle, F.H., Meyer, M.T., Loftin, K.A., Kolpin, D.W., and Rubio, F., 2009, Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17Β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 13, p. 4843–4850. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bradley, P.M., Barber, L.B., Chapelle, F.H., Gray, J.L., Kolpin, D.W., and McMahon, P.B., 2009, Biodegradation of 17β-estradiol, estrone and testosterone in stream sediments: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 6, p. 1902-1910. (on-line abstract or on-line article in pdf format, 2050 KB, published by the American Chemical Society, not subject to U.S. copyright)  

Eganhouse, R.P., Pontolillo, J., Gaines, R.B., Frysinger, G.S., Gabriel, F.L.P., Kohler, H.E., Giger, W., and Barber, L.B., 2009, Isomer-Specific Determination of 4-Nonylphenols Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 24, p. 9306–9313. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Ferrer, I., Barber, L.B., and Thurman, E.M., 2009, Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of phytoestrogens as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: Identification in soy milk and wastewater samples: Journal of Chromatography A, v. 1216, no. 32, p. 6024-6032. (on-line abstract of journal article)

McGee, M.R., Julius, M.L., Vajda, A.M., Norris, D.O., Barber, L.B., Schoenfuss, H.L., 2009, Predator avoidance performance of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following short-term exposure to estrogen mixtures: Aquatic Toxicology, v. 91, no. 4, p. 355-361. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Painter, M.M., Buerkley, M.A., Julius, M.L., Vajda, A.M., Norris, D.O., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Schultz, M.M., and Schoenfuss, H.L., 2009, Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 28, no. 12, p. 2677-2684. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barber, L.B., 2008, Fate of consumer-product chemicals in the subsurface environment: 25 years of research on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, in Trefry, M.G., ed., Groundwater Quality: Securing Groundwater Quality in Urban and Industrial Environments: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 324, p. 126-132. (on-line abstract in pdf format)

Barber, L.B., Meyer, M.T., LeBlanc, D.R., Kolpin, D.W., Bradley, P.M., Chapelle, F.H., and Rubio, F., 2008, Subsurface fate and transport of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol, in Trefry, M.G., ed., Groundwater Quality: Securing Groundwater Quality in Urban and Industrial Environments: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 324, p. 133-139. (on-line abstract in pdf format)

Barnes, K.K., Kolpin, D.W., Focazio, M.J., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Haack, S.K., Barber, L.B., and Thurman, E.M., 2008, Water-quality data for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in ground water and in untreated drinking water sources in the United States, 2000–01: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008–1293, 7 p. plus tables.(on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 262 KB)

Barnes, K.K., Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D., Meyer, M.T., and Barber, L.B., 2008, A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - I) Groundwater: Science of the Total Environment, v. 402, no. 2-3, p. 192-200. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bradley, P.M., Barber, L.B., Kolpin, D.W., McMahon, P.B., and Chapelle, F.H., 2008, Potential for 4-n-nonylphenol biodegradation in stream sediments: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 27, p. 260-265. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Thurman, M.E., 2008, A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources: Science of the Total Environment, v. 402, no. 2-3, p. 201-216. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Lee, K.E., Schoenfuss, H.L., Jahns, N.D., Brown, G.K., and Barber, L.B., 2008, Alkylphenols, other endocrine-active chemicals, and fish responses in three streams in Minnesota—Study design and data, February–September 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 405, 44 p. plus appendixes. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 4.4 MB)

Schoenfuss, H.L., Bartell, S.E., Bistodeau, T.B., Cediel, R.A., Grove, K.J., Zintek, L., Lee, K.E., and Barber, L.B., 2008, Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenol: Aquatic Toxicology, v. 86, no. 1, p. 91-98, doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.10.004. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Vajda, A.M., Barber, L.B., Gray, J.L., Lopez, E.M., Woodling, J.D., and Norris, D.O., 2008, Reproductive disruption in fish downstream from an estrogenic wastewater effluent: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 42, no. 9, p. 3407-3414. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Verplanck, P.L., Murphy, S.F., Birkeland, P.W., Pitlick, J., Barber, L.B., and Schmidt T.S., 2008, Boulder Creek: A stream ecosystem in an urban landscape, in Raynolds, R.G., ed., Roaming the Rocky Mountains and Environs: Geological Field Trips, GSA Field Guides 10, 2008: Geological Society of America, p. 217-233. (on-line abstract)

Barber, L.B., Lee, K.E., Swackhamer, D.L., and Schoenfuss, H.L., 2007, Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds: Aquatic Toxicology, v. 82, p. 36-46. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Bradley, P.M., Barber, L.B., Kolpin, D.W., McMahon, P.B., and Chapelle, F.H., 2007, Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments—Implications for use as wastewater indicators: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 26, p. 1,116-1,121. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barber, L.B., Keefe, S.H., Antweiler, R.C., Taylor, H.E., and Wass, R.D., 2006, Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 603-611. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Barber, L.B., Keefe, S.H., Antweiler, R.C., Taylor, H.E., and Wass, R.D., 2006, Response to comment on "Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands": Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 3438-3439.

Barber, L.B., Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., Sandstrom, M.W., Taylor, H.E., and Furlong, E.T., 2006, Chemical loading into surface water along a hydrological, biogeochemical, and land use gradient: A holistic watershed approach: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 475-486. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1784 KB, published by American Chemical Society; not subject to U.S. copyright)

Conn, K.E., Barber, L.B., Brown, G.K., and Siegrist, R.L., 2006, Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 7358-7366. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Repert, D.A., Barber, L.B., Hess, K.M., Keefe, S.H., Kent, D.B., LeBlanc, D.R., and Smith, R.L., 2006, Long-term natural attenuation of carbon and nitrogen within a groundwater plume after removal of the treated wastewater source: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 1,154-1,162. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 474 kb, published by American Chemical Society; not subject to U.S. copyright)

Savoie, J.G., Smith, R.L., Kent, D.B., Hess, K.M., LeBlanc, D.R., and Barber, L.B., 2006, Ground-water-quality data for a treated-wastewater plume undergoing natural restoration, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1994-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 198, 1 CD-ROM (on-line abstract and to download files)

Barnes, K.K., Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D., Meyer, M.T., Barber, L.B., and Focazio, M.J., 2005, Studies examine contaminants: Pharmaceuticals, hormones and other organic wastewater contaminants in ground water resources: National Driller Magazine, v. 26, p. 38-39. (on-line article)

Hart, R.J., Taylor, H.E., Fisk, R.C., Anderson, G.M., Roth, D.A., Flynn, M.E., Peart, D.B., Truini, M., and Barber, L.B., 2005, Physical and chemical characteristics of Knowles, Forgotten, and Moqui Canyons, and effects of recreational use on water quality, Lake Powell, Arizona and Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5120, 43 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1.9 MB)

Verplanck, P.L., Taylor, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K., and Barber, L.B., 2005, Aqueous stability of gadolinium in surface waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluent, Boulder Creek, Colorado: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 39, p. 6923-6929. (on-line abstract of journal article)

Vogel, J.R., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Coplen, T.B., Verstraeten, I.M., and Meyer, M.T., 2005, Occurrence of selected pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical compounds and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2001 to 2003, volume 2: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 141. (on-line report)

Vogel, J.R., Verstraeten, I.M., Coplen, T.B., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., and Barber, L.B., 2005, Occurrence of selected pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical compounds and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2001 to 2003, volume 1: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 117. (on-line report)

Barnes, K.K., Focazio, M.J., Christenson, S.C., Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Zaugg, S.D., Meyer, M.T., and Barber, L.B., 2004, Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants within a contaminant plume downgradient of a municipal landfill: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 24, no. 2, p. 119-126. (on-line abstract)

Cordy, G., Duran, N., Bouwer, H., Rice, R., Furlong, E., Zaugg, S., Meyer, M., Barber, L., and Kolpin, D., 2004, Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic wastewater compounds persist when wastewater is used for recharge?: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 24, no. 2, p. 58-69. (on-line abstract)

DeJong, K.E., Siegrist, R.L., Barber, L.B., and Wren, A.L., 2004, Occurence of emerging organic chemicals in wastewater effluents from onsite systems: Proceedings 10th National Symposium on Individual and Small Community Sewage Systems, Sacramento, CA, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, p. 400-407. (on-line abstract of article)

Keefe, S.H., Barber, L.B., Runkel, R.L., and Ryan, J.N., 2004, Fate of volatile organic compounds in a constructed wastewater treatment wetland: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 38, p. 2209-2216.

Keefe, S.H., Barber, L.B., Runkel, R.L., Ryan, J.N., McKnight, D.M., and Wass, R., 2004, Conservative and reactive solute transport in constructed wetlands: Water Resources Research, v. 40, no. 1, W01201. (on-line abstract)

Lee, K.E., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Cahill, J.D., Kolpin, D.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004, Presence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-03: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2004-5138, 47 p. (on-line abstract or on-line report in pdf format, 1.3 MB)

Barber, L.B., 2003, Characterization of dissolved organic matter by concentration, fractionation, and molecular weight determination, in Schroeder, R.A., ed., Water-quality changes and organic-carbon characterization during recharge with recycled water at a research basin in Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles, California, 1991-1996: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4146, chapt. 8, p. 78-88.

Barber, L.B., Antweiler, R.C., Brown, G.K., Keefe, S.H., Peart, D.B., Plowman, T.I., Roth, D.A., and Taylor, H.E., 2003, Organic and trace element contaminants in water, biota, sediments, and semi-permeable membrane devices at the Tres Rios Demonstration Wetlands, Phoenix, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4129, 88 p.

Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Keefe, S.H., Brown, G.K., and Cahill J.D., 2003, Natural and contaminant organic compounds in the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000, Chapter 5 in Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., and Barber, L.B., eds., Comprehensive water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4045, p. 103-144. (on-line chapter in pdf format)

Barber, L.B., and Rostad, C.E., 2003, Specific organic contaminants, in Schroeder, R.A., ed., Water-quality changes and organic-carbon characterization during recharge with recycled water at a research basin in Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles, California, 1991-1996: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4146, chapt. 12, p. 116-122.

Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., and Buxton, H.T., 2003, Response to comment by Till (2003) on "Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewaters in U.S. streams" - A national reconnaissance: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 37, p. 1054. (on-line response)

Leenheer, J.A., and Barber, L.B., 2003, Hierarchal approach to organic matter characterization, in Schroeder, R.A., ed., Water-quality changes and organic-carbon characterization during recharge with recycled water at a research basin in Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles, California, 1991-1996: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4146, chapt. 6, p. 57-60.

Murphy, S.F., Barber, L.B., Verplanck, P.L., and Kinner, D.A., 2003, Environmental setting and hydrology of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Chapter 1 in Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., and Barber, L.B., eds., Comprehensive water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4045, p. 5-26. (on-line chapter in pdf format)

Murphy, S.F., Verplanck, P.L., and Barber, L.B., eds., 2003, Comprehensive water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, during high-flow and low-flow conditions, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4045, 198 p. (on-line report)

Verplanck, P.L., Murphy, S.F., and Barber, L.B., 2003, Water quality of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 043-03. (on-line fact sheet)

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS PROJECT, CONTACT:
Larry B. Barber
U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303
Email: lbbarber@usgs.gov
Telephone: 303-541-3039

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