Hydrothermal data from the Cascade Range
This database serves as a repository for hydrothermal-monitoring data collected at 25 sites in the U.S. portion of the Cascade Range volcanic arc. These data are intended to quantify baseline hydrothermal variability at most (10 of 12) of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascades, as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS’) National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) report (Ewert and others, 2005).
Traditionally, most measurement and sampling of hydrothermal fluids has been on a highly intermittent basis. Such intermittent data, with sampling frequencies typically >1 year, are not well-suited for comparison with continuous seismic and geodetic monitoring data. Further, when volcanic unrest becomes evident from other geophysical observations, baseline hydrothermal observations are sometimes non-existent, and are often limited to the season when weather conditions are most amenable to field work. The preponderance of field-season, daytime data means that there is limited information on seasonal or diurnal variability.
Beginning in the summer of 2009, motivated by the dramatic hydrothermal anomalies associated with volcanic unrest at South Sister volcano (Wicks and others, 2002; Evans and others, 2004), the USGS made a concerted effort to develop hourly hydrothermal records in the Cascade Range. The 25 selected monitoring sites show evidence of magmatic influence in the form of high 3He/4He ratios and (or) large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat. The monitoring sites can be grouped into three broad categories (Fig. 1): (1) sites with continuous pressure-temperature-conductivity monitoring and intermittent liquid sampling and discharge measurements; (2) sites with continuous temperature monitoring and intermittent gas sampling; and (3) sites that lack hourly data, but where the USGS has carried out intermittent flux measurements over a period of several decades.
For most sites, correlations have been developed to convert pressure-temperature-conductivity data into a flux of heat or (more often) to the flux of a solute species of interest. We relate (1) specific electrical conductance to lab-measured concentrations of dissolved constituents and (2) pressure (depth of water) to field-measured discharge. The metadata includes descriptions of the sites and methods and plots of the calculated fluxes. The workbook files contain all of the data and correlations upon which those fluxes are based.Part of the database compilation is a list of relevant references for each area. These lists include all references cited in the metadata.
Map of hydrothermal-monitoring sites in the U.S. portion of the Cascade Range, numbered consecutively north to south. Volcanoes (open triangles) are B, Mount Baker, G, Glacier Peak, R, Mount Rainier, A, Mount Adams, SH, Mount St. Helens, H, Mount Hood, J, Mount Jefferson, SS, South Sister, BB, Bachelor Butte, N, Newberry, CL, Crater Lake, ML, Medicine Lake, S, Shasta, and L, Mount Lassen. Red circles denote sites with continuous temperature monitoring and intermittent gas sampling. Green circles denote sites with continuous pressure-temperature-conductivity monitoring and intermittent liquid sampling and discharge measurements; black dots within green circles indicate the availability of complementary vent-temperature records. Blue circles indicate intermittent flux measurements extending over a period of several decades.
S.E. Ingebritsen, K.D. Gelwick, N.G. Randolph-Flagg, I.M. Crankshaw, E.A. Lundstrom, C.L. McCulloch, A.M. Murveit, A.C. Newman, R.H. Mariner, D. Bergfeld, D.S. Tucker, M.E. Schmidt, K.R. Spicer, A.R. Mosbrucker, and W.C. Evans, 2014, Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States, doi:10.5066/F72N5088.
|(1) Baker - Sherman Crater 8-6-13||(13) Oregon hot springs - Breitenbush 12-16-13|
|(2) Baker - Boulder Creek 12-16-13||(14-15) Oregon hot springs - McKenzie River 12-16-13|
|(3) Baker - Sulphur Creek 8-6-13||(16) South Sister - Separation Creek 12-16-13|
|(4) Glacier Peak -- Gamma Hot Spring and Creek 8-9-12||(17) South Sister - Mesa Creek and Spring 12-16-13|
|(5) Rainier - Summit 8-22-13||(18) Newberry - Paulina Lake hot spring 12-16-13|
|(6) Rainer - Paradise Creek and Warm Springs 12-16-13||(19) Medicine Lake - Hot Spot 6-28-13|
|(7) Rainier - Nisqually River 12-16-13||(20) Shasta - Summit 8-26-13|
|(8) MSH - carbonate spring 12-16-13||(21) Shasta - Boles Creek 12-16-13|
|(9) MSH - Kalama Spring 12-19-12||(22) Lassen - N flank of Lassen Peak 8-22-12|
|(10) Hood - Crater Rock fumarole 8-26-13||(23) Lassen - Manzanita Creek 12-17-13|
|(11) Hood - Swim Warm Springs 12-16-13||(24) Lassen - Devils Kitchen 8-23-13|
|(12) Oregon hot springs - Austin 12-16-13||(25) Lassen - Mill Creek 12-16-13|
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