The Reston Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory

Extensive Reference List

Dating of Young Ground Water
Dissolved Gases in Ground Water
Compiled by Niel Plummer and Eurybiades Busenberg

Such a list is never complete. We appologize for the omissions and errors. Please send corrections and additions to cfc@usgs.gov

Date of revision: January 29, 2007

Jump to a section:

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - R - S - T - U - V - W - Y - Z
Return to Top

A

AbuRukah, Y., and AlKofahi, O., 2001, The assessment of the effect of landfill leachate on ground-water quality - a case study. El-Akader landfill site-north Jordan: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 49, no. 3, p. 615-630.

Adrian, L., Szewzyk, U., Wecke, J., and Gorrisch, H., 2000, Bacterial dehalorespiration with chlorinated benzenes, Nature, 408, 580-583.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Alvarado, J. A. C., Purtschert, R., Hinsby K., Troldborg L., Hofer, M., Kipfer, R., Arno-Synal H., 2005, 36Cl in modern groundwater dated by a multi-tracer approach (3H/3He, SF6, CFC-12 and 85Kr): a case study in quaternary sand aquifers in the Odense Pilot River Basin, Denmark. Applied Geochemistry 20 (2005), p. 599-601.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Beyerle, U., Rueedi, J., Leuenberger, M., Peeters, F., Kipfer, R., Dodo, A., 2003, Evidence for periods of wetter and cooler climate in the Sahel between 6 and 40 kyr derived from groundwater, in Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 30, Number 4, p. 22:1-4.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Hofer, M., Schmid, M., Kipfer, R., Imboden, D. M., 2002, The physical structure and dynamics of a deep, meromictic crater lake (Lac Pavin, France), in Hydrobiologia 487: 111-136.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Holocher, J., Peeters, F., Kinzelbach W., Kipfer, R., 2003, Kinetic Model of Gas Bubble Dissolution in Groundwater and Its Implications for the Dissolved Gas Composition. Environmental Science Technology (2003) 37, p. 1337-1343.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Kipfer, R., Peeters, F., Stute, M., Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters in Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Volume 47, Noble Gases in Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, D. Porcelli, C. J. Ballentune, R. Wieler, Eds. Mineralogical Society of America, Chapter 14, p. 615-700.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Peeters, F., Beyerle, U., and Kipfer, R., 1999, Interpretation of dissolved atmospheric noble gases in natural waters: Water Resources Research, v. 35, p. 2779-2792.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Peeters, F., Beyerle, U., and Kipfer, R., 2000, Paleotemperature reconstruction from noble gases in ground water taking into account equilibrium with entrapped air. Nature, 405, p. 1040-1044.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Peeters, F., Kipfer, R., Achermann, D., Hofer, M., Beyerle, U., Imboden, D.M., Rozanski, K., Fröhlich, K., 2000, Analysis of deep-water exchange in the Caspian Sea based on environmental tracers, in Deep Sea Research I 47 (2000) p. 621-654.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Purtschert, R., Beyerle, U., Kipfer R., Loosli, H. H., 2001, Palaeowaters from the Glatt Valley, Switzerland, in Edmunds, W. M. and Milane, C. J. (eds). Coastal Europe: evolution of groundwater since the late Pleistocene. p. 155-162.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Stute, M., Clark, J.F., Reuter, R.F., and Schlosser, P., 2002, A paleotemperature record derived from dissolved noble gases in groundwater of the Aquia Aquifer (Maryland, USA): Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66, no. 5, p. 797-817.

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Schlosser, P., Stute M., Simpson H. J., Ludin A., Clark, J. F., 1998, A 3H/3He Study of Ground Water Flow in a Fractured Bedrock Aquifer, in Ground Water, Volume 36, Number 4, p. 661-670.

Albert, M.R., and Shultz, E.F., 2002, Snow and firn properties and air-snow transport processes at Summit, Greenland: Atmospheric Environment, v. 36, no. 15-16, p. 2789-2797.

Alexander, B., Vollmer, M.K., Jackson, T., Weiss, R.F., and Thiemens, M.H., 2002, Stratospheric CO2 isotopic anomalies and SF6 and CFC tracer concentrations in the Arctic polar vortex (Vol 28, pg 4103, 2001) - art. no. 1072: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 5, p. 1072.

Ali, M.Y.A., and Riley, J.P., 1990, Distribution of halomethanes in potable waters of Kuwait, Water Res., 24, 533-538.

Almon, E., and Magaritz, M., 1990, Dissolved common gases in groundwaters of the Appalachian Region. Jour. Hydrol., v. 121, 21-32.

Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), Production, sales and atmospheric release of fluorocrabons through 1999.

AFEAS Program Office, The West Tower- Suite 400, 1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, U.S.A. http://www.afeas.org/

Alvarado, J.A. Corcho, Purtschert, R., Barbecot, F., Chabault, C., Rueedi, J., Schneider, V., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Kipfer, R., and Loosli, H.H., 2007, Constraining the age distribution of highly mixed groundwater using 39Ar: A multiple environmental tracer (3H/3He, 85Kr, 39Ar, and 14C) study in the semiconfined Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer (France), Water Resour. Res., 43, W03427, doi:10.1029/2006WR005096.

Alyea, F., D. Cunnold and R. Prinn, Meteorological constraints on tropospheric halocarbon and nitrous oxide destruction by siliceous land surfaces, Atmos. Environ., 12, 1009-1011, 1978.

Andraski, B.J., Sandstrom, M.W., Michel, R.L., Radyk, J.C., Stonestrom, D.A., Johnson, M.J., and Mayers, C.J., 2003, Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, no. 3, p. 988-995.

Andrews, J. N., 1985, The isotopic composition of radiogenic helium and its use to study groundwater movement in confined aquifers: Chem. Geol., v. 49, p. 339-351.

Andrews, J. N., 1991, Noble gases and radioelements in groundwaters. In, "Applied Groundwater Hydrology, A British Perspective", R.A. Downing and W.B. Wilkinson, Eds., 243-265, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Andrews, J. N., and Fontes, J.-C., 1993, Comment on "Chlorine 36 dating of very old groundwater, 3, Further results on the Great Artesian Basin, Australia" by T. Torgersen et al.: Water Resources Res., v. 29, no. 6, p. ?

Andrews, J. N., and Kay, R. L. F., 1982, Natural production of tritium in permeable rocks: Nature, v. 298, p. 361-363.

Andrews, J. N., and Lee, D. J., 1979, Inert gases in groundwater from the Bunter sandstone of England as indicators of age and paleoclimatic trends: Journal of Hydrology, v. 41, p. 233-252.

Andrews, J. N., Davis, S. N., Fabryka-Martin, J., Fontes, F.-Ch., Lehmann, B. E., Loosli, H. H., Michelot, J.-L., Moser, H., Smith, B., and Wolf, M., 1989, The in situ production of radioisotopes in rock matrices with particular reference to the Stripa granite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 53, 1803-1815.

Andrews, J. N., Edmunds, W. M., Smedley, P.L., Fontes, J.C., Fifield, L.K. and Allan, G.L., 1994, Chlorine-36 in Groundwater as a Palaeoclimatic Indicator - The East Midlands Triassic Sandstone Aquifer (UK). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 122(1-2), 159-171.

Andrews, J. N., Giles, I. S., Kay, R .L. F., Lee, D. J., Osmond, J. K., Cowart, J. B., Fritz, P., Barker, J. F., and Gale, J., 1982, Radioelements, radiogenic helium and age relationships for groundwaters from the granites at Stripa, Sweden. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 46, 1533-1543.

Andrews, J. N., Goldbrunner, J. E., Darling, W. G., Hooker, P. ., Wilson, G. B., Youngman, M. J., Eichinger, L., Rauert, W., and Stichler, W., 1985, A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 73, 317-332.

Andrews, J. N., Hussein, N., and Youngman, M. J., 1989, Atmospheric and radiogenic gasses in groundwater from the Stripa granite: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 53, p. 1831-1841.

Andrews, J.N., Fontes, J.-C., Aranyossy, J.-F., Dodo, A., Edmunds, W.M., Joseph A., and Travi, Y., 1994, The evolution of alkaline groundwaters in the continental intercalaire aquifer of the Irhazer Plain, Niger. Water Resour. Res. V. 30, p. 45-61

Andrews, J. N., W. Balderer, A. H. Bath, H. B. Clausen, G. V. Evans, T. Florkowski, J. E. Goldbrunner, M. Ivanovich, H. Loosli and H. Zojer. 1984. Environmental isotope studies in two aquifer systems. In Isotope Hydrology 1983, pp. 535-576. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-SM-270/93.

Andrie, C., Rhein, M., Freudenthal, S., and Plahn, O., 2002, CFC time series in the deep water masses of the western tropical Atlantic, 1990-1999: Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 49, no. 2, p. 281-304.

Appelo, C.A.J., and D. Postma, 1993, Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 536pp.

Appleby, A., Atmospheric Freons and Halogenated Compounds, U.S. NTIS, PB Rep. 262-432, 337p, 1976.

Asher, W., Edson, J., McGillis, W., Wanninkhof, R., Ho, D.T., and Litchendorf, T., 2002, Fractional area whitecap coverage and air-sea gas transfer velocities measured during GasEx-98: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces.

Asher, E. W., and Wanninkhof, R., 1998, Transient tracers and air-sea transfer, J. Geophys. Res., 103, C8, 15939-15958.

Asher, E. W., and Wanninkhof, R., 1998, The effect of bubbler-mediated gas transfer on purposeful dual-gaseous tracer experiments: Journal of Geophysical Reseach, C5,103, 10555-10560.

Ashton, J. T., Dawe, R. A., Miller, K. W., Smith, E.B. and Stickings,N. J. (1968) The solubility of certain gaseous fluorine compounds in water. Journal of the Chemical Society (A), 1793-1796.

Aucott, M. L., McCulloch, A., Graedel, T. E., Kleiman, G., Midgley, P., 1999, Anthropogenic emissions of trichloromethane (chloroform, CHCl3) and chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22): Reactive chlorine emissions inventory: J. Geophys. Res., 104, D7, 8405-8415.

Aydin, M., Saltzman, E.S., DeBruyn, W.J., Montzka, S.A., Butler, J.H., and Battle, M., 2004, Atmospheric variability of methyl chloride during the last 300 years from an Antarctic ice core and firn air - art. no. L02109: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, no. 2, p. 2109.

AzetsuScott, K., Jones, E.P., Yashayaev, I., and Gershey, R.M., 2003, Time series study of CFC concentrations in the Labrador Sea during deep and shallow convection regimes (1991-2000) - art. no. 3354: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 108, no. C11, p. 3354.

Return to Top

B

Bachman, L.J., Nitrate in the Columbia Aquifer, Central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water Resour. Invest., 84-4322, 51 pp., 1984b.

Bachman, L.J., The Columbia Aquifer of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, Part 1: Hydrogeology, Maryland Geol. Surv. Rep. of Invest., 40, 34 pp., 1984a.

Bakwin, P.S., Hurst, D.F., Tans, P.P. and Elkins, J.W., 1997, Anthropogenic sources of halocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, carbon monoxide, and methane in the southeastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D13), 15915-15925.

Balderer, W. and Synal, H.A., 1997, Use of chlorine-36 as tracer for the evolution of waters in geothermal and tectonically active areas in Western Turkey. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B - Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, v. 123(1-4), 387-393.

Balderer, W., and Lehmann, B.E., 1989, 3He/4He-ratios as indicators of the origin of helium in groundwater: Examples from the deep Nagra boreholes in Northern Switzerland. In Water-Rock Interaction, Miles (ed.), Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 45-47.

Balderer, W., and Synal, H.-A., 1996, Application of the chlorine-36 method for the characterization of the groundwater circulation in tectonically active areas: examples from northwestern Anatolia/Turkey. Terra Nova, 8, p. 324-333.

Ball, D.W., 2002, Formation and vibrational spectrum of trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride, CF3SF5, a new greenhouse gas. Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 calculations: Journal of Molecular Structure Theochem, v. 578, p. 29-34.

Ball, W. P., and Roberts, P. V., 1991, Long-term sorption of halogenated organic chemicals by aquifer material. 1. Equilibrium: Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1223-1237.

Ballentine, C.J., and Hall, C.M., 1999, Determining paleotemperatures and other variables by using an error-weighted, nonlinear inversion of noble gas concentrations in water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 63(16), 2315-2336.

Ballentine, C.J., and Lollar, B.S., 2002, Regional groundwater focusing of nitrogen and noble gases into the Hugoton-Panhandle giant gas field, USA: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66, no. 14, p. 2483-2497.

Banks, R.E., 1994, Environmental Aspects of Fluorinated Materials .2. 'In-Kind' Replacements for Halon Fire Extinguishants -Some Recent Candidates. J Fluorine Chem, v. 67(3), 193-203.

Barcelona, M. J., and Helfrich, J. A., 1986, Well construction and purging effects on ground-water samples., Environ. Sci. Technol., 20, 1179-1184.

Barnes, D.H., Wofsy, S.C., Fehlau, B.P., Gottlieb, E.W., Elkins, J.W., Dutton, G.S., and Montzka, S.A., 2003, Urban/industrial pollution for the New York City - Washington, DC, corridor, 1996-1998: 2. A study of the efficacy of the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory measures - art. no. 4186: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 108, no. D6, p. 4186.

Barrett, M.R., 1996, The environmental impact of pesticide degradates in groundwater. Herbicide Metabolites in Surface Water and Groundwater (Series: ACS Symposium Series), v. 630, 200-225.

Bartolino, J.R., 1997, Chlorofluorocarbon and tritium age determination of ground-water recharge in the Ryan Flat subbasin, Trans-Pecos Texas. U.S. Geol. Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4245, 29p.

Battle, M., Bender, M., Sowers, T., Tans, P.P., Butler, J.H., Elkins, J.W., Ellis, J.T., Conway, T., Zhang, N., Lang, P. and Clarke, A.D., 1996, Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole. Nature, v. 383(6597), 231-235.

Bauer, M.R. and Yavitt, J.B., 1996, Processes and mechanisms controlling consumption of CFC-11 and CFC-12 by peat from a conifer-swamp and black spruce-tamarack bog in New York State. Chemosphere, v. 32(4), 759-768.

Baumgartner, S., Beer, J., Masarik, J., Wagner, G., Meynadier, L., Synal, H.-A., 1998, Geomagnetic modulation of the 36Cl flux in the GRIP ice core, Greenland, Sci., 279, 1330-1332.

Bayari, S., 2002, TRACER: an EXCEL workbook to calculate mean residence time in groundwater by use of tracers CFC-11, CFC-12 and tritium: Computers & Geosciences, v. 28, no. 5, p. 621-630.

Bayer, R., Schlosser, P., Bönisch, G., Rupp, H., Zaucker, F., and Zimmek, G., 1989, Performance and blank components of a mass spectrometric system for routine measurement of helium isotopes and tritium by the 3He in-growth method: Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Jahrgang 1989, 5. Abhandlung, Springer-Verlag, 42 pp.

Beasley, T.M., Cooper, L.W., Grebmeier, J.M., Kilius, L.R., and Synal, H.A., 1997, 36Cl and 129I in the Yenisei, Kolyma, and Mackenzie Rivers. Environmental Science and Technology, 31(6), p. 1834-1836.

Beining, P. and Roether, W., 1996, Temporal evolution of CFC 11 and CFC 12 concentrations in the ocean interior. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 101(C7), 16455-16464.

Benson, B.B., and D. Krause Jr., 1980, Isotopic Fractionation of Helium During Solution: A Probe for the Liquid State, Journal of Solution Chemistry, 9, 895-909.

Bentley, H.W., Phillips, F. M., Davis S.N., Gifford, S., Elmore, D., Tubs, L.E., and Gove, H.E., 1982, Thermonuclear 36C1 pulse in natural water. Nature, 300(5894), p. 737-740.

Bentley, H.W., Phillips, F.M., Davis, S.N., Habermehl, M.A., Airey, P.L., Calf, G.E., Elmore, D., Gove, H.E., and Torgersen, T., 1986, Chlorine 36 dating of very old groundwater, 1. The Great Artesian Basin, Australia: Water Resources Res., v. 22, p. 1991-2001.

Berg, M., Muller, S.R., Muhlemann, J., Wiedmer, A., and Schwarzenbach, R.P., 2000, Concentrations and mass fluxes of chloroacetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid in rain an natural waters in Switzerland, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 2675-2683.

Bethke, C., and Zhao, X., 1999, Groundwater flow and the 4He distribution in the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 104(B6), p. 12,999-13,011.

Beyerle, U., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Hofer, M., Imboden, D.M., Baur, H., Kipfer, R., 1999, Infiltration of river water to a shallow aquifer investigated with 3H/3He, noble gases and CFCs, J. Hydrol., 220, 169-185.

Beyerle, U., Purtschert, R., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Imboden, D.M., Loosli, H.H., Wieler, R., and Kipfer, R., 1998, Climate and groundwater recharge during the last glaciation in an ice-covered region. Science, v. 282, p. 731-734.

Bill, M., Rhew, R.C., Weiss, R.F., and Goldstein, A.H., 2002, Carbon isotope ratios of methyl bromide and methyl chloride emitted from a coastal salt marsh - art. no. 1045: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 4, p. 1045.

Bingham, G.E., Zhou, D.K., Bartschi, B.Y., Anderson, G.P., Smith, D.R., Chetwynd, J.H. and Nadile, R.M., 1997, Cryogenic infrared radiance instrumentation for shuttle (CIRRIS 1A) Earth limb spectral measurements, calibration, and atmospheric O-3, HNO3, CFC-12, and CFC-11 profile retrieval. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D3), 3547-3558.

Biraud, S., Ciais, P., Ramonet, M., Simmonds, P., Kazan, V., Monfray, P., O'Doherty, S., Spain, T.G., Jennings, S.G., 2000, European greenhouse gas emissions estimated from continuous atmospheric measurements and radon 222 at Mace Head, Ireland, J. Geophys. Res., 105, D1, 1351-1366.

Blicher-Mathiesen, G, McCarty, G.W., and Nielsen, L. P., 1998, Dinitrification and degassing in groundwater estimated from dissolved dinitrogen and argon: Journal of Hydrology, 208, 16-24.

Blinov, A., Massonet, S., Sachsenhauser, H., SanSion, C., Lazarev.V., Beer, J., Synal, H.A., Kaba, M., Masarik, J., and Nolte, E., 2000, An excess of Cl-36 in modern atmospheric precipitation. Nuclear Instuments and Methods in Phys. Res. Sect. B., 172, 537-544.

Bockgard, N., Rodhe, A., and Olsson, K.A., 2004, Accuracy of CFC groundwater dating in a crystalline bedrock aquifer: Data from a site in southern Sweden: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 12, no. 2, p. 171-183.

Böhlke, J K., and Horan, M., 1999, Strontium isotope geochemistry of ground waters and streams affected by agriculture, Locust Grove, Maryland. Applied Geochemistry, v. 15, p. 599-609.

Böhlke, J. K., 1999, Effects of ground-water residence times, subsurface reduction zones, and riparian "buffers" on the discharge of nitrate from agricultural watersheds: Sensitivity analysis by use of a lumped-parameter flow model. Ground Water (in review, 7/99).

Böhlke, J. K., and Denver, J. M., 1995, Combined use of groundwater dating, chemical, and isotopic analyses to resolve the history and fate of nitrate contamination in two agricultural watersheds, Atlantic coastal plain, Maryland. Water Resources Research, v. 31, no. 9, p. 2319-2339.

Böhlke, J. K., Denver, J.M., McMahon, P .B., and Wanty, R.B., 1996, Some hydrogeologic controls on the distribution of nitrate in agricultural water sheds (abstract). EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 77, p. W37.

Böhlke, J. K., O'Brien, A. ., and Michel, R. L., 1996, Isotopic evidence for discharge of old atmospheric sulfate from a forested mountain catchment in Virginia. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 77, p. S102.

Böhlke, J. K., Plummer, L. N., Busenberg, E., Coplen, T. B., Shinn, E. A., and Schlosser, P., 1997, Origins, residence times, and nitrogen chemistry of marine ground waters beneath the Florida Keys and nearby offshore areas. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem- Proceedings of the technical symposium in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, August 25-27, 1997, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-385, p. 6-7.

Böhlke, J. K., Revesz, K. M., Smith, R. L., and Yoshinari, T., 1997, Multispecies investigation of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in a contaminated ground-water plume undergoing dilution, oxygen consumption, and denitrification, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (abstract). EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 78, p. F211.

Böhlke, J. K., Revesz, K., Busenberg, E., Deak, J., Deseo, E. and Stute, M., 1997, Groundwater record of halocarbon transport by the Danube River. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(11), 3293-3299.

Böhlke, J.K., and Irwin, J.J., 1992, Brine history indicated by argon, krypton, chlorine, bromine, and iodine analyses of fluid inclusions from the Mississippi Valley type lead-fluorite-barite deposits at Hansonburg, New Mexico: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 110, p. 51-66.

Böhlke, J.K., and Irwin, J.J., 1992, Laser microprobe analyses of noble gas isotopes and halogens in fluid inclusions: Analyses of micro-standards and synthetic inclusions in quartz: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 56, p. 187-201.

Böhlke, J.K., Gwinn, C.J. and Coplen, T.B., 1993, New reference materials for nitrogen-isotope-ratio measurements: Geostandards Newsletter, v. 17, p. 159-164.

Böhlke, J.K., Kirschbaum, C., and Irwin, J.J., 1989, Simultaneous analyses of noble gas isotopes and halogens in fluid inclusions in neutron-irradiated quartz veins using a laser microprobe noble gas mass spectrometer: in Shanks, W.C., III, and Criss, R.E. (editors), New Frontiers in Stable Isotope Research: Laser probes, ion probes, and small sample analysis: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1890, p. 61-88.

Böhlke, J.K., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Coplen, T.B., Shinn, E.A., and Schlosser, P., 1997, Origins, residence times, and nitrogen chemistry of marine ground waters beneath the Florida Keys and nearby offshore areas. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem- Proceedings of the technical symposium in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, August 25-27, 1997, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-385, p. 6-7.

Böhlke, J.K., Smith, R.L., Coplen, T.B., Busenberg, E., and LeBlanc, D.R., 1999, Recharge conditions and flow velocities of contaminated and uncontaminated ground waters at Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Evaluation of d2H, d18O, and dissolved gases. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 337-348.

Böhlke, J.K., Wanty, R., Tuttle, M., Delin, G., and Landon, M., 2002, Denitrification in the recharge area and discharge area of a transient agricultural nitrate plume in a glacial outwash sand aquifer, Minnesota - art. no. 1105: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 7, p. 1105.

Bönisch, G., Blindheim, J., Bullister, J. L., Schlosser, P. and Wallace, D.W.R., 1997, Long-term trends of temperature, salinity, density, and transient tracers in the central Greenland Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 102(C8), 18553-18571.

Boswell, S.M. and Smythe-Wright, D., 1996, Dual-detector system for the shipboard analysis of halocarbons in sea-water and air for oceanographic tracer studies. Analyst, v. 121(4), 505-509.

Boswell, S.M., and SmytheWright, D., 2002, The tracer signature of Antarctic Bottom Water and its spread in the Southwest Indian Ocean: Part I - CFC-derived translation rate and topographic control around the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Conrad Rise: Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 49, no. 3, p. 555-573.

Bott, T.L., and Standley, L.J., 1999, Incorporation of trifluoroacetate, a hydrofluorocarbon decomposition byproduct, by freshwater benthonic microbial communities, Water Res., 33, 1538-1544.

Bottomley, D.J., Ross, J.D., and Clarke, W.B., 1984, Helium and neon isotope geochemistry of some groundwaters from the Canadian Precambrian Shield: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 48, p. 1973-1985.

Boutonnet, J.C., Bingham, P., Calamari, D., de Rooij, C., Franklin, J., Kawano, T., Libre, J.-M., McColluch, A., Malinverno, G., Odom, J.M., Rusch, G.M., Smythe, K., Sobolev, I., Thompson, R., Tiedje, J.M., 1999, 59-124.Environmental risk assessment of trifluoroacetic acid, HUm. Ecol. Risk Assess., v. 5,no. 1,

Bouwer, E. J., and McCarty, P. L., 1983, Transformations of halogenated organic compounds under itrification conditions, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 45, 1295-1299.

Bouwer, E. J., and Wright, J. P., 1988, Transformations of trace halogenated aliphaticsin anoxic biofilm columns. J. Conam. Hydrol., 2., 155-169.

Brown, J. D., Evolution of Fluorocarbon Compounds as Ground Water Tracers- Soil Column Studies, M. S. Thesis, Dept. Hydrol. Water Resour., Univ. Ariz., Tuscon, 97p, 1980.

Bruggeman, A.C., Mostaghimi, S., Holtzman, G.I., Shanholtz, V.O., Shukla, S. and Ross, B.B., 1995, Monitoring pesticide and nitrate in Virginia's groundwater - A pilot study. Transactions of the ASAE, v. 38(3), 797-807.

Bruner, F., Maione, M. and Mangani, F., 1996, New assessments on CFCs tropospheric concentration levels measured in Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 62(3), 255-262.

Bu, X., and Warner, M.J., 1995, Solubility of chlorofluorocarbon 113 in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Research I, v. 42, no. 7, p. 1151-1161.

Buchmann, B., Stemmler, K., and Reimann, S., 2003, Regional emissions of anthropogenic halocarbons derived from continuous measurements of ambient air in Switzerland: Chimia, v. 57, no. 9, p. 522-528.

Buckingham, E., 1904, Contributions to our knowledge of the aeration of soils. US Agric. Bur. Soils Bull., 25, 5-52.

Bullister, J. L. and Weiss R.F. (1988) Determination of CFC3F and CCl2F2 in seawater and air. Deep Sea Research 35, 839-854.

Bullister, J. L. and Weiss, R. F. (1983) Anthropogenic chlorofluoromethanes in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. Sci., 221:265-268.

Bullister, J. L., 1984, Atmospheric chlorofluomethanes as tracers of ocean circulation and mixing: Studies in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, Ph.D. dissertation, 172p. Univ. Calif., San Diego, La Jolla.

Bullister, J.L., 1989, Chlorofluorocarbons as time-dependent tracers in the ocean. Oceanography, 2, 12-17.

Bullister, J.L., and Lee, B.-S., 1995, Chlorofluorocarbon-11 removal in anoxic marine waters. Geophysical Res. Letters, v. 22, no. 14, p. 1893-1896.

Bullister, J.L., and Wisegarver, D.P., 1998, The solubility of carbon tetrachloride in water and seawater, Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 45, 1285-1302.

Bullister, J.L., Wisegarver, D.P., and Menzia, F.A., 2002, The solubility of sulfur hexafluoride in water and seawater: Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 49, no. 1, p. 175-187.

Bulsiewicz, K., Rose, H. Klatt, O., Putzka, A., and Roether, W., 1998. A capillary-column chromatographic system for efficient chlorofluorocarbon measurements in ocean waters, J. Geophys. Res. C8, 103, 15959-15970.

Burgess, A.B., Grainger, R.G., Dudhia, A., Payne, V.H., and Jay, V.L., 2004, MIPAS measurement of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) - art. no. L05112: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, no. 5, p. 5112.

Burgman, J.O., Calles, B., Westman, F., 1987. Conclusions from a ten year study of oxygen-18 in precipitation and runoff in Sweden. In: Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development. IAEA, Vienna, Austria, pp. 579-590.

Burns, D.A., Murdoch, P.S., Lawrence, G.B., Michel, R.L., 1998. Effect of groundwater springs on NO3- concentrations during summer in Catskill Mountain streams. Water Resour. Res. 34, 1987-1996.

Burns, D.A., Plummer, L.N., McDonnell, J.J., Busenberg, E., Casile, G., Kendall, C., Hooper, R.P., Freer, J.E., Peters, N.E., Beven, K., and Schlosser, P., 2003, Geochemical evolution of riparian ground water in a forested Piedmont catchment. Ground Water, v. 41, no. 7, p. 913-925.

Burton, William C., Plummer, L. Niel, Busenberg, Eurybiades, Lindsey, Bruce D., and Gburek, William R., 2002, Influence of fracture anisotropy on ground-water ages and chemistry, Valley and Ridge Province, Pennsylvania. Ground Water v. 40, no. 3, p. 242-257.

Burton, W.C., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Lindsey, B.D., and Gburek, W.J., 2002, Influence of fracture anisotropy on ground water ages and chemistry, Valley and Ridge province, Pennsylvania: Ground Water, v. 40, no. 3, p. 242-257.

Busenberg E., and Plummer, L.N., 2000, Dating young ground water with sulfur hexafluoride: Natural and anthropogenic sources of sulfur hexafluoride. Water Resources Research, v. 36(10), 3011-3030.

Busenberg, E. and Plummer, L. N. (1991) Chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2)-- Use as an age dating tool and hydrologic tracer in shallow groundwater systems. In Proceedings, U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Technical Meeting. Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991, eds. G. L. Mallard and D. A. Aronson, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, pp. 542-547.

Busenberg, E. and Plummer, L. N. (1992) Use of Chlorofluoromethanes (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as hydrologic tracers and age-dating tools: Example- The alluvium and terrace system of Central Oklahoma. Water Resources Research 28, 2257-2283.

Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 1993, Use of trichlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) as a hydrologic tracer and age-dating tool for young ground water, (abs.): Geological Society of America, 1993 Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, 1993, p. A-365.

Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 1996, Concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and other gases in ground water at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, in Morganwalp, D. W., and Aronson, D.A. eds. U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program -- Proceedings of the Technical Meeting , Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4014, p. 151-158.

Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 1997, Use of sulfur hexafluoride as a dating tool and as a tracer of igneous and volcanic fluids in ground water. Abst. Geol. Soc. Amer., 1997 Annual Meeting, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 6, p. A-78.

Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 2000, Dating young ground water with sulfur hexafluoride-Natural and anthropogenic sources of sulfur hexafluoride: Water Resources Research, v. 36, p.3011-3030.

Busenberg, E., Plummer, L. N., Bartholomay, R.C. and Wayland, J. E., 1998, Chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and dissolved permanent gases in ground water from selected sites in and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994-97: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-274, (DOE/ID-22151), 72p.

Busenberg, E., Plummer, L. N., Doughten, M. W. Wildman, P. K., and Bartholomay, R. C., 2000, Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of ground and surface waters from selected sites in and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994-97: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-81, 55p.

Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., and Bartholomay, R.C., 2001, Estimated age and source of the young fraction of ground water at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4265 (DOE/ID-22177), 144p.

Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., Bartholomay, R.C., and Wayland, J.E., 1999, Chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride and dissolved permanent gases in ground water from selected sites at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994 - 97. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-274, 72p.

Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., Doughten, M. W., Widman, P. K., and Bartholomay, R.C., 2000, Chemical and isotopic composition and gas concentrations of ground water and surface water from selected sites at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994-97. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-81, 55p.

Busenberg, E., Weeks, E. P., Plummer, L. N., and Bartholemay, R. C., 1993, Age dating ground water by use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2), and distribution of chlorofluorocarbons in the unsaturated zone, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 93-4054, 47 p.

Butchart, N., Scaife, A.A., 2001, Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410, 799-802.

Butenhoff, C.L., and Khalil, M.A.K., 2002, Correction for water vapor in the measurement of atmospheric trace gases: Chemosphere, v. 47, no. 8, p. 823-836.

Butler, J. H., Battle, M., Bender, M. L., Montzka, S. A., Clarke, A. D., Saltzman, E. S., Sucher, C. M., Severinghouse, J. P., and Elkins, J. W., 1999, A record of atmospheric halocarbons during the twentieth century from polar firn air, Nature, 399, 748-755.

Butler, J.H. (Editor), Elkins, J.W., Montzka, S.A., Thompson, T.M., Swanson, T.H., Clarke, A.D., Moore, F.L., Hurst, D.F., Romashkin, P.A., Yvon-Lewis, S.A., Lobert, J.M., Dicorleto, M., Dutton, G.S., Lock, L.T., King, D.B., Dunn, R.E., Ray, E.A., Pender, M., Wamsley, P.R., and Volk, C.M., 1998, Nitrous oxide and halocompounds. Chap. 5. In Climate Monitoring and Diagnositcs Laboratory Summary Report No. 24, 1996-1998, David J. Hofmann, James T. Peterson, and Rita M. Rosson, Eds., U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, p. 91-121.

Return to Top

C

Cabot, P.L., Segarra, L., and Casado, J., 2003, Electrodegradation of chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 113 at small concentrations in closed cells: Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, v. 6, no. 3, p. B15-B18.

Campana, M.E., and Mahin, D.A., 1985, Model-derived estimates of groundwater mean ages, recharge rates, effective porosities and storage in a limestone aquifer. Jour. Hydrol., v. 76, p. 247-264.

Caplow, T., Schlosser, P., Ho, D.T., and Santella, N., 2003, Transport dynamics in a sheltered estuary and connecting tidal straits: SF6 tracer study in New York Harbor: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 37, no. 22, p. 5116-5126.

Carey, A.E., Dowling, C.B., and Poreda, R.J., 2004, Alabama Gulf Coast groundwaters : He-4 and C-14 as groundwater-dating tools: Geology, v. 32, no. 4, p. 289-292.

Carlson, C.A., Phillips, Fred M., Elmore, David, and Bentley, Harold W., 1990, Chlorine-36 tracing of salinity sources in the dry valleys of Victoria land, Anartcica, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 311-318.

Carter, M. W., Cron, D. R., Bamesberger, W. L., and Robinson, E., 1983, Halocarbon concentration patterns associated with frontal passages. Geophys. Res. Letter, 10, 1100-1103.

Carter, M.W., and A.A. Moghissi, Three Decades of Nuclear Testing, Health Physics, 33(1), 55-71, 1977.

Castro, M. C., 2004, Helium Sources in passive margin aquifers – new evidence for a significant mantle in 3He source in aquifers with unexpectedly low in situ 3He/4He production, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222 (2004) 897-913, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, p. 897-913.

Castro, C. E., Helventon, M. C., and Belser, N. O., 1994, Biodehalogenation, reductive dehalogenation by Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, comparison with nickel(1)octaethylisobacteiochlorin anion and F-430 model. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 13, 429-433.

Castro, M.C., and Goblet, P., 2003, Noble gas thermometry and hydrologic ages: Evidence for late Holocene warming in Southwest Texas - art. no. 2251: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, no. 24, p. 2251.

Castro, M.C., Stute, M., and Schlosser, P., 2000, Comparison of 4He ages and 14C ages in simple aquifer systems: implications for groundwater flow and chronologies. Applied Geochemistry, v. 15, p. 1137-1167.

Castro, M.C., Jambon, A., deMarsily, G., and Schlosser, P., 1998, Noble gases as natural tracers of water circulation in the Paris Basin, 1. Measurements and discussion of their origin and mechanisms of vertical transport in the basin. Water Resour, Res., v. 34(10), p. 2443-2466.

Castro, M.C., Goblet, P., Ledous, E., Violette, S., and de Marsily, G., 1998, Noble gases as natural tracers of water circulation in the Paris Basin, 2. Calibration of a groundwater flow model using noble gas isotope data. Water Resour, Res., v. 34(10), p. 2467-2483.

Cecil, L.D., Vogt, S., 1997, Identification of bomb-produced chlorine-36 in mid-latitude glacial ice of North America. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B - Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, v. 123(1-4), 287-289.

Cecil, L. DeWayne, Welhan, J.A., Green, J.R., Grape, S.K., and Sudicky, E.R., 2000, Use of Cl-36 to determine regional-scale aquifer dispersivity, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho. USA, Nuclear Instuments and Methods in Phys. Res. Sect. B., 172, 679-687.

Cecil, L. DeWayne, Welhan, John A., Sudicky, Edward R., and Green, Jaromy R., 2000, Use of chloring-36 to determine regional-scale aquifer dispersivity, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho/USA. Journal NIMB, 14076, p. 1-9.

CFC replacements in Europe. Chemistry in Britain, 1997, v. 33(2), 15-15.

CFC smugglers caught in the act. Chemistry & Industry, 1997, (15), 578-578.

CFC-free fingerprints. Chemistry in Britain, 1997, v. 33(10), 10-10.

Chang, A.Y., Salawitch, R.J., Michelsen, H.A., Gunson, M.R., Abrams, M.C., Zander, R., Rinsland, C.P., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J.R., Proffitt, M.H., Margitan, J.J., Fahey, D.W., Gao, R.S., Kelly, K.K., Elkins, J.W., Webster, C.R., May, R.D., Chan, K.R., Abbas, M.M., Goldman, A., Irion, F.W., Manney, G.L., Newchurch, M.J. and Stiller, G.P., 1996, A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: Tracers of atmospheric transport. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(17), 2389-2392.

Chang, A.Y., Salawitch, R.J., Michelsen, H.A., Gunson, M.R., Abrams, M.C., Zander, R., Rinsland, C.P., Elkins, J.W., Dutton, G.S., Volk, C.M., Webster, C.R., May, R.D., Fahey, D.W., Gao, R.S., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J.R., Stimpfle, R.M., Kohn, D.W., Proffitt, M.H., Margitan, J.J., Chan, K.R., Abbas, M.M., Goldman, A., Irion, F.W., Manney, G.L., Newchurch, M.J. and Stiller, G.P., 1996, A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: Halogenated gases. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(17), 2393-2396.

Chang, C.C., Lo, G.G., Tsai, C.H., and Wang, J.L., 2001, Concentration variability of halocarbons over an electronics industrial park and its implication in compliance with the Montreal Protocol: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 35, no. 16, p. 3273-3279.

Chaudhuri, B.K. and Wiesmann, U., 1995, Enhanced anaerobic degradation of benzene by enrichment of mixed microbial culture and optimization of the culture medium. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, v. 43(1), 178-187.

Chemical Manufacturers Association, Production, sales and calculated release of CFC-11 and CFC-12 through 1989, CMA, Washington, DC, 22 pp., 1990.

Chen, T.C., and Her, G.R., 2001, On-line monitoring of trihalomethanes in drinking water using continuous-flow purge and cryofocusing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Journal of Chromatography A, v. 927, no. 1-2, p. 229-235.

Chim, R.Y.L., Kennedy, R.A., and Tuckett, R.P., 2003, The vacuum-UV absorption spectrum of SF5CF3; implications for its lifetime in the earth's atmosphere: Chemical Physics Letters, v. 367, no. 5-6, p. 697-703.

Chiou, C. T. and T. D. Shoup, Soil sorption of organic vapors and effects of humidity on sorptive mechanism and capacity, Environ. Sci. Tech., 19, 1196-1200, 1985.

Cho, M.G. and Rycroft, M.J., 1997, The decomposition of CFCs in the troposphere by lightning. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics, v. 59(12), 1373-1379.

Christensen, T.H., Bjerg, P.L., and Kjeldsen, P., 2001, Natural attenuation as an approach to remediation of groundwater pollution at landfills: Treatment of Contaminated Soil: Fundamentals, Analysis, Applications.

Christensen, T.H., Kjedsen, P., Bjerg, P.L., Jensen, D.L., Christensen, J.B., Baun, A., Albrechtsen, H.-J., and Heron, G., Biogeochemistry of lanfill leachate plumes (Review article). Applied Geochem., 16, 659-718.

Christidis, N., Hurley, M.D., Pinnock, S., Shine, K.P. and Wallington, T.J., 1997, Radiative forcing of climate change by CFC-11 and possible CFC-replacements. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D16), 19597-19609.

Christof, O., Seifert, R., and Michaelis, W., 2002, Volatile halogenated organic compounds in European estuaries: Biogeochemistry, v. 59, no. 1-2, p. 143-160.

Christophorou, L.G., Olthoff, J.K. and Wang, Y.C., 1997, Electron interactions with CCl2F2. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, v. 26(5), 1205-1237.

Ciccioli, Palol, Cooper, W. T., Hammer, P. M., and Hayes, J. M., 1980, Organic solute-mineral surface interactions: A new method for the determination of groundwater velocities: Water Resources Research, v. 16, p. 217-223.

Cirerone, R. J., R. S. Stolarski and S. Walters, Stratospheric ozone destruction by man-made chlorofluoromethanes, Sci., 185, 1165-1167, 1974.

Claassen, H. C., Guidelines and Techniques for Obtaining Water Samples that Accurately Represent the Water Chemistry of the Aquifer, U.S. Geol. Survey, Open-File Report 82-1024, 49p, 1982.

Clark, J.F., and Hudson, G.B., 2001, Quantifying the flux of hydrothermal fluids into Mono Lake by use of helium isotopes. Linol. Oceanogr. 46, 189-196.

Clark J. F., Simpson H. J., Bopp R.F. and Deck B.L. (1995) Dissolved oxygen in lower Hudson Estuary: 1978-93. Journal of Environmental Engineering 121, 760-763.

Clark, J. F., Simpson, H. J., Smethie, W. M., and Toles, C., 1992, Gas exchange in a contaminated estuary inferred from chlorofluorocarbons. Geophysical Res. Letters., 19, 1133-1136

Clark, J. F., Wanninkhof, R., Schlosser, P., and James, H., 1994, Gas exchange rates in the tidal Hudson river using a dual tracer technique, Tellus, 46B, 274-285.

Clark, J.F., Schlosser, P., Stute, M. and Simpson, H.J., 1996, SF6-He-3 tracer release experiment: A new method of determining longitudinal dispersion coefficients in large rivers. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 30(5), 1527-1532.

Clark, J.F., Schlosser, P., Stute, M. and Simpson, H.J., 1997, SF6-He-3 tracer release experiment: A new method of determining longitudinal dispersion coefficients in large rivers (Vol 30, pg 1527, 1996). Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(1), 308-308.

Clark, J.F., Stute, M., Schlosser, P. and Drenkard, S., 1997, A tracer study of the Floridan aquifer in southeastern Georgia: Implications for groundwater flow and paleoclimate. Water Resources Research, v. 33(2), 281-289.

Clark, J.F. Davisson, M.L., Hudson, G.B., and Macfarlane, P.A., 1998, Noble gases, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon as tracers of flow in the Dakota aquifer, Colorado and Kansas. Jour. Hydrology, v. 211, p. 141-167.

Clark, J.F., W.M. Smethie, Jr. and Simpson, H. J. (1995) Chlorofluorocarbons in the Hudson estuary during summer months. Water Resour. Res., 31:2553-2560.

Clarke, W.B., Jenkins, W.J., Top, Z., 1976, Determination of tritium by mass spectrometric measurement of 3He. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., v. 27, 515-522.

Climate Change 1995, Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change-IPCC 1995: Summary for Policymakers and Technical Summary of the Working Group I Report, 1995.

Cole, J. J., and N. F. Caraco, Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide in a low-wind oligotrophic lake measured by the addition of SF6, Limnol. Oceanogr., 43, 647-656, 1998.

Collon, P., Cole, D., Davids, B., Fauerbach, M., Harkewicz, R., Kutschera, W. Morrissey, D.J., Pardo, R.C., Paul, M., Sherrill, B.M., and Steiner, M., 1999, Measurement of the long-lived radionuclide 81Kr in pre-nuclear and present-day atmospheric Krypton. Radiochim. Acta 95, 13-19.

Collon, P., Kutschera, W., Loosli, H.H., Lehmann, B.E., Purtschert, R., Love, A., Sampson, L., Anthony, D., Cole, D., Davids, B., Morrissey, D.J., Sherrill, B.M., Steiner, M. Pardo, R.C., and Paul, M. 2000, 81Kr in the Great Artesian basin, Australia: a new method for dating very old groundwater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 182, 103-113.

Committee on Extension to the Standard Atmosphere, 1976, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976: Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 227 p.

Connan, O., LeCorre, P. and Marty, Y., 1997, Formation of dibromomethane and bromodichloromethane by phytoplankton in the coastal waters of the Western English Channel. Comptes Rendus de L Academie Des Sciences Serie II Fascicule A -Sciences de La Terre et Des Planetes, v. 324(1), 25-31.

Connan, O., LeCorre, P. and Morin, P., 1996, Purge and trap GC determination of volatile halocarbon compounds in seawater. Analusis, v. 24(2), 55-59.

Cook, P. G., 2003, Groundwater ages in fractured rock aquifers, in Krasny, Hrkal, and Bruthans, (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Groundwater in Fractured Rocks, Czech Republic, p. 139-140.

Cook, P.G., Favreau, G., Dighton, J.C., and Tickell, S., 2003, Determining natural groundwater influx to a tropical river using radon, chlorofluorocarbons and ionic environmental tracers: Journal of Hydrology, v. 277, no. 1-2, p. 74-88.

Cook, P.G., Love, A.J., Robinson, N.I., and Simmons, C.T., 2005, Groundwater ages in fractured rock aquifers. Jour. Hydrol., v. 308, 284-301. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.11.005.

Cook, P.G., and Robinson, N.I., 2002, Estimating groundwater recharge in fractured rock from environmental H-3 and Cl-36, Clare Valley, South Australia - art. no. 1136: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 8, p. 1136.

Cook P.G. and Solomon D.K. (1997) Recent advances in dating young groundwater: chlorofluorocarbons, 3H/3He, and 85Kr. Journal of Hydrology 191, 245-265.

Cook, P.G. and Solomon, D.K. (1995) The transport of atmospheric trace gases to the water table: Implications for groundwater dating with chlorofluorocarbons and Krypton-85. Water Resources Research, 31:263-270.

Cook, P.G., and Böhlke, J.K., 1999, Determining timescales for groundwater flow and solute transport. In: Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology (P.G. Cook and A. Herzeg, editors), Chapter 1, Kluwer Academic Press, p. 1-30.

Cook, P.G., and Herczeg, A.L., 1999, Appendix 4: Liquid and gas-phase diffusion coefficients. In P. Cook and A. Herczeg (Eds.) "Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology", Kluwer Academic Press, p. 521-522.

Cook, P.G., Jolly, I.D., Leaney, F.W., Walker, G.R., Allan, G.L., Fifield, L.K. and Allison, G.B., 1994, Unsaturated Zone Tritium and Chlorine-36 Profiles from Southern Australia -Their Use as Tracers of Soil Water Movement. Water Resour Res, v. 30(6), 1709-1719.

Cook, P.G., Solomon, D.K., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., and Schiff, S.L., 1995, Chlorofluorocarbons as tracers of groundwater transport processes in a shallow, silty sand aquifer: Water Resources Research 31(3), p. 425-434.

Cook, P.G., Solomon, D.K., Sanford, W.E., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., and Poreda, R.J., 1996, Inferring shallow groundwater flow in saprolite and fractured rock using environmental tracers, Water Resources, Research, v. 32, no. 6, p. 1501-1509.

Cook, P.G., and Simmons, 2000, Using environmental tracers to constrain flow parameters in fractured rock aquifers; Cave Valley, South Australia: American Geophysical Union, Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock, Geophysical Monograph 122, 337-347.

Cooke, K.M., Simmonds, P.G., Nickless, G., and Makepeace, A.P.W., 2001, Use of capillary gas chromatography with negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of perfluorocarbon tracers in the atmosphere: Analytical Chemistry, v. 73, no. 17, p. 4295-4300.

Cooper W.T. (1981) Interactions Between Organic Solutes and Mineral Surfaces and their Significance in Hydrogeology. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Inidana, 234p.

Cooper, L.W., Larsen, I.L., Solis ,C., Grebmeier, J.M., Olsen, C.R., Solomon, D.K. and Cook, R.B., 1996, Isotopic tracers for investigating hydrological processes. Landscape Function and Disturbance in Arctic Tundra (Series: Ecological Studies : Analysis and Synthesis), v. 120, 165-182.

Cooper, W.T., 1981, Interactions Between Organic Solutes and Mineral Surfaces and their Significance in Hydrogeology. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Inidana, 234p.

Coplen, T.B., Krouse, H.R., and Böhlke, J.K.,1992, Reporting of nitrogen-isotope abundances: Pure and Applied Chemistry, v. 64, p. 907-908.

Coplen, T.B., Normalization of Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Data, Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geoscience Section), 72, 293-297, 1988.

Cornett, R.J., Andrews, H.R., Chant, L.A., Davies, W.G., Greiner, B.F., Imahori, Y., Koslowsky, V.T., Kotzer, T., Milton, J.C.D. and Milton, G.M., 1997, Is Cl-36 from weapons' test fallout still cycling in the atmosphere? Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B - Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, v. 123(1-4), 378-381.

Cosgrove, B. A., and Walkley, J., 1981, Solubilities of gases in H2O and 2H2O. J. Chromatogr. 216, 161-167.

Craig, H., and Lupton, J.E., 1976, Primordial neon, helium, and hydrogen in oceanic basalts: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 31, p. 369-385.

Craig, H., and Lupton, J.E., Welhan, J.A., and Porida, R., 1978, Helium isotope ratios in Yellowstone and Larsen Park volcanic gases: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 5, no. 11, p. 897-900.

Creach, V., Bertru, G. and Mariotti, A., 1997, Natural isotopic composition of heterotrophic bacteria to determine the origin of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon. Comptes Rendus de L Academie Des Sciences Serie III - Sciences de La Vie - Life Sciences, v. 320(4), 339-347.

Cresswell, R.G., Bauld, J., Jacobson, G., Khadka, M.S., Jha, M.G., Shrestha, M.P., Regmi, S., 2001, A first estimate of ground water ages for the deep aquifer of the Kathasmundu Basin, Nepal, Using the radioisotope chlorine-36. Ground Water, 39, 449-457.

Cresswell, R.G., Jacelot, J.L.,Fobson, G., Wischusen, J. and Fifield, L. Keith, 1999, Ancient groundwaters in the Amadeus Basin, Central Australia: evidence from the radio-isotope 36C1. Journal of Hydrology 223, 212-220.

Crill, P.M., Butler, J.H., Cooper, D.J. and Novelli, P.C., 1995, Standard analytical methods for measuring trace gases in the environment. Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water (Series: Methods in Ecology), 164-205.

Crusius, J., and Wanninkhof, R., 2003, Gas transfer velocities measured at low wind speed over a lake: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 48, no. 3, p. 1010-1017.

Culbertson, J.A., Prins, J.M., Grimsrud, E.P., 2000, Improvements in the detection and analysis of CF3-containing compounds in the background atmosphere by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectroscopy. J. Chromatogr. 903, 261-265.

Culbertson, J.A., Prins, J.M., Grimsrud, E.P., Rasmussen, R.A., Khalil, M.A.K., and Shearer, M.J., 2004, Observed trends for CF3-containing compounds in background air at Cape Meares, Oregon, Point Barrow, Alaska, and Palmer Station, Antarctica: Chemosphere, v. 55, no. 8, p. 1109-1119.

Cunnold D.M., Weiss R.F., Prinn R.G., Hartley D., Simmonds P.G., Fraser P.J., Miller B.,Alyea, F.N. and Porter L. (1997) GAGE/AGAGE measurements indicating reductions in global emissions of CCl3F and CCl2F2 in 1992-1994. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 102(D1), 1259-1269.

Cunnold, D. M., Fraser, P. J., Weiss, R. F., Prin, R. G., Simmons, P. G, Miller, B. R., Alyea, F. N., and Crawford, A. J., 1994, Global trends and annual releases of CCl3F and CCl2F2 estimated from ALE/GAGE and other measurements from July 1978 to June 1991. J. Geophys. Res., 99D, 1107-1126.

Cunnold, D. M., Prinn, R. G., Rasmussen, R. A., Simmonds, P. G., Alyea, F. N., Cardelino, C. A., Crawford, A. J., Fraser, P. J., and Rosen, R. D., 1983, The atmospheric lifetime experiment. 3. Lifetime methodology and application to three years of CFCl3 data. J. Geophys. Res., 88C, 8379-8400.

Cunnold, D. M., R. G. Prinn, R. A. Rasmussen, P. G. Simmonds, F. N. Alyea, C. A. Cadelino, A. J. Crawford, P. J. Fraser and R. D. Rosen, Atmospheric lifetime and annual release of CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 from 5 years of ALE data, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 10797-10817, 1986.

Cunnold, D.M., Weiss, R.F., Prinn, R.G., Hartley, D., Simmonds, P.G., Fraser, P.J., Miller, B., Alyea, F.N. and Porter, L., 1997, GAGE/AGAGE measurements indicating reductions in global emissions of CCl3F and CCl2F2 in 1992-1994. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D1), 1259-1269.

Return to Top

D

D'Aoust, B.G., and Clark, M.J.R., 1980, Analysis of supersaturated air in natural waters and reservoirs. Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc., v. 109, 708-724.

Daniel, J. S., Solomon, S., and Albritton, D. L., 1995, On the evaluation of halocarbon radiative forcing and global warming potentials: Journal of Geophysical Research D1, 100, 1271-1285.

Davidson, G.R., 2002, Use of SF6 to label drilling air in unsaturated, fractured rock studies: risk of over-purging: Applied Geochemistry, v. 17, no. 10, p. 1361-1370.

Davis, S.N., Fabryka-Martin, J., Wolfberg, R., Moysey, S., Shaver, R., Alexander, E.C., and Krothe, N.,2000, Chlorine-36 in ground water containing low chloride concentrations. Ground Water, 38, 912-921.

Davis S.N., and Bentley H.W. 1982. Dating Groundwater, A short Review. In Nuclear and Chemical Dating Techniques: Interpreting the Environmental Record, ed. L.A. Cutrie, pp. 187-222. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society Symposium Series, No. 176.

Davis, S.N., Cecil, DeWayne, Zreda, M., and Sharma, P., 1998, Chlorine-36 and the initial value problem. Hydrogeol. J. 6, 104-114.

Davis, S.N., Moysey, S., Cecil, L.D., and Zreda, M., 2003, Chlorine-36 in groundwater of the United States: empirical data: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 11, no. 2, p. 217-227.

Davis, S. N., G. M. Thompson, H. W. Bentley and G. Stiles, Ground-water tracers - A short review, Ground Water, 18, 14-23, 1980.

Davis, L.C., and Pittman, J.R., 1990, Hydrological, meteorological, and geohydrological data for an unsaturated zone study near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho-1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-114, 208p.

de Best, J.H., Salminen, E., Doddema, H.J., Janssen, D.B., and Harder, W., 1998, Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions, Biodegradation, 8, 429-436.

De Bortoli, M., and Pecchio, E., 1976, Measurements of some halogenated compounds in air over Europe, Atmos. Environ., 10, 921-923.

Daniel, J.S., Solomon, S., and Albitton, D.L., 1995, On the evaluation of halocarbon radiative forcing and global warming potentials, J. Geophys. Res., 100, D1, 1271-1285.

Deak, J., Deseo, E., Böhlke, J.K., and Revesz, K., 1996, Isotope hydrology studies in the Szigetkoz region, northwest Hungary. In: Isotopes in Water Resources Management, International Atomic Energy Agency, v. 1, p. 419-432.

Deipser, A., 1998, Biodegradation of volatile CFCs, H-CFCs and VC in compost and marl, Waste Manage. Res., 16, 330-341.

Deipser, A. and Stegmann, R., 1997, Biological degradation of VCCs and CFCs under simulated anaerobic landfill conditions in laboratory test digesters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 4(4), 209-216.

Dekant, W., 1996, Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Environmental Health Perspectives, v. 104(Suppl. 1), 75-83.

Delin, G.N., Healy, R.W., Landon, M.K., and Böhlke, J.K., 2001, Effects of topography and soil properties on recharge and movement of water through the unsaturated zone at two sites in an agricultural field. Ground Water (in press).

DeMore, W.B., 1996, Experimental and estimated rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons. Journal of Physical Chemistry, v. 100(14), 5813-5820.

Denovan D.A. and Strand S.E. (1992) Biodegradation of chlorofluorocarbons in anaerobic environvents. Chemosphere 24, 935-940.

Denning, A. S., Holzer, M., Gurney, K. R., Heimann, M., Law, R. M., Rayner, P. J., Fung, I. Y., Fan, S.-M., Tagushi, S, Friedlingstein, P., Balkanski, Y., Taylor, J., Maiss, M., 1999, Three-dimentional transport and concentration of SF6. A model intercomparison study (TransCom 2): Tellus, 51B, 266-297.

Denovan, D. A., and Strand, S. E., 1992, Biodegradation of chlorofluorocarbons in anaerobic environvents, Chemosphere, 24,935-940.

Denver, J.M., and M.W. Sandstrom, Distribution of Dissolved Atrazine and Two Metabolites in the Unconfined Aquifer, Southeastern Delaware, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water Resour. Invest., 91-4034, 314-318, 1991.

Denver, J.M., Effects of Agricultural Practices and Septic-System Effluent on the Quality of Water in the Unconfined Aquifer in Parts of Eastern Sussex County, Delaware, Delaware Geol. Surv. Rep. of Invest., 45, 66 pp., 1989.

Denver, J.M., Groundwater-Sampling Network to Study Agrochemical Effects on Water Quality in the Unconfined Aquifer, in Groundwater Residue Sampling Designs, Amer. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. No.465, edited by R.G. Nash, and A.R. Leslie, pp. 136-149, 1991.

Denver, J.M., Shedlock, R.J., and Böhlke, J.K., 1993, Application of ground-water dating to water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, United States. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstract with Program, 25, A-365.

Derra, S., CFCs - No easy solutions, Res. Develop., 32, 54-66, 1990.

Dervos, C. and Vassiliou, P., 2000, Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6): Global environmental effects and toxic byproducts, J. Air Water Manage. Assoc., 50, 137-141.

Deseo, E., Deak, J., Revesz, K., Böhlke, J.K., and Stute, M., 1996, Groundwater origin and dating studies in Szigetköz. Acta Geologica Hungarica, v. 39 Supplementum (Isotope Workshop III), p. 31-34.

DeWalle, D.R., Edwards, P.J., Swistock, B.R., Aravena, R., Drimmie, R.J., 1997. Seasonal isotope hydrology of three Appalachian forest catchments. Hydrol. Processes 11, 1895-1906.

Dewulf, J. and Van Langenhove, H., 1997, Chlorinated C-1- and C-2-hydrocarbons and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters: An overview on fate processes, sampling, analysis and measurements. Water Research, v. 31(8), 1825-1838.

Dewulf, J., Drijvers, D., and Van Langenhove, H., Measurement of Henry's law constant as a function of temperature and salinity for the low temperature range, Atmos. Environ., 29,323-331.

de Zeeuw, J., Zwiep, D. and Marinissen, J.W., 1996, Separation of chlorofluorocarbons using high-resolution PLOT columns. American Laboratory, v. 28(5), C24.

Dickerman, J. C., Emmel, T. E., Harris, G. E., and Hummel, K. E., 1989, Technologies for CFC/Halon Destruction. EPA/600/7-89/011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Diefenbacher, A., Crone, M., Turk, M., 1998, Critical properties of CO2, CHF3, SF6, (CO2+CHF3), and (CHF3+SF6), J. Chem. Therodynamics, 30, 481-496.

Dillon, K.S., Corbett, D.R., Chanton, J.P., Burnett, W.C., and Furbish, D.J., 1999, The use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer of septic tank effluent in the Florida Keys, J. Hydrol. 220, 129-140.

Dimmer, C.H., Simmonds, P.G., Nickless, G., and Bassford, M.R., 2001, Biogenic fluxes of halomethanes from Irish peatland ecosystems. Atmos. Environ. 35, 321-330.

Dinicola, R.S., Cos, S.E., and Bradley, P.M., 2000, Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4060, 86p.

DiStefano, T. D., Gossett, J. M., and Zinder, S. H., 1992, Hydrogen as an electron donor for dechlorination tetrachlorethene by anaerobic mixed cultures, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2287-2292.

Dixon, K.W., Bullister, J.L., Gammon, R.H. and Stouffer, R.J., Examining a coupled climate model using CFC-11 as an ocean tracer. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(15), 1957-1960.

Donelan, M.A., and Wanninkhof, R., 2002, Gas transfer at water surfaces - Concepts and issues: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces.

Doney, S.C., and Hecht, M.W., 2002, Antarctic bottom water formation and deep-water chlorofluorocarbon distributions in a global ocean climate model: Journal of Physical Oceanography, v. 32, no. 6, p. 1642-1666.

Doney, S.C., Jenkins, W.J. and Bullister, J.L. 1997, A comparison of ocean tracer dating techniques on a meridional section in the eastern North Atlantic. Deep - Sea Research Part I -Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 44(4), 603-626.

Doong, R.A. and Wu, S.C., 1995, Enhanced biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride by the supplement of substrate and mineral ions under anaerobic condition. Water Environ Res, v. 67(3), 276-281.

Dowgiallo, J., Nowicki, Z., Beer, J., Bonanti, G., Suter, M., Synal, H.A., and Wolfli, W., 1990, 36C1 in ground water of the Mazowsze basin (Poland). Journal of Hydrology, 118, 373-385.

Dowgiallo, J., Sadurski, A., Beer, J., Bonani, G., Synal, H.A., and Wolfli, W., 1991, 36C1 groundwater of the Upper Cretaceous aquifer in the Gdansk Area, (Poland). Nucl. Geophys, 5(3), 353-360.

Drenkard, Stefan, Torgersen, T., Wepperning, R., Farley, K., Schlosser, P., Michel, R. L., Shapiro, A. M., and Wood, W. W., 1993, Helium isotope analysis and tritium-helium age dating in the Mirror Lake basin, Grafton County, New Hampshire: in Mallard, G. E., and Aronson, D. A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4014, p. 159-165.

Driscoll, C. T., Likens, G. E., Hedin, L. O., Eaton, J. S., and Borman, F. S., 1989, Changes in the chemistry of surface waters: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 23, no. 2, p. 137-143.

Driscoll, F.G., 1986, Groundwater and Wells. 2nd Edition, Johnson Division, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1089p.

DuarteGarza, H.A., Hwang, C.A., Kellerman, S.A., Miller, R.C., Hall, K.R., Holste, J.C., Marsh, K.N. and Gammon, B.E., 1997, Vapor pressure, vapor density, and liquid density for 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (R-141b). Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, v. 42(3), 497-501.

Dunkle, S.A., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Phillips, P.J., Denver, J.M., Hamilton, P.A., Michel, R.L., and Coplen, T.B., 1993, Chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as Dating Tools and Hydrologic Tracers in Shallow Ground Water of the Delmarva Peninsula, Atlantic Coastal Plain, United States: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 12, p. 3837-3860.

Dyck, W., and Jonasson, I.R., 1977, The nature and behavior of gases in natural waters. Water Research, v. 11, 705-711.

Return to Top

E

Eastoe, C.J., Long, Austin, andKnauth, L. Paul, 1999, Stable chlorine isotopes in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Evidence for preservation of Permian evaporite brines. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 63(9), 1375-1382.

Eggenkamp, H.G.M., and Schuiling, R.D., 1995, d37C1 variations in selected minerals, a possible tool for exploration. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 55, 249-255.

Eggenkamp, H.G.M., Kreulen, R., and Koster Van Groos, A.F. , 1995, Chlorine stable isotope fractionation in evaporates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 59(24), 5169-5175.

Ekwurzel, B., Schlosser, P., Smethie, W.M., Jr., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Michel, R.L., Weppernig, R., and, Stute, M., 1994, Dating of shallow groundwater: Comparison of the transient tracers 3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons and 85Kr. Water Resources Research, v. 30, No. 6, p. 1693-1708.

Elias, L., CcCooeye, M., and Gardner, 1976, On-site measurement of atmospheric tracer gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 17-20.

Elkins, J. W. ed., 1989, Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, --Summary Report (1988) Boulder, Colo., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, No. 17, 142 p.

Elkins, J. W., Thompson, T. M., Swanson, T. H., Butler, J. H., Hall, B. D., Cummings, S. O., Fisher, D. A., and Raffo, A. G., 1993, Decrease in the growth rates of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12. Nature, 364, 780-783.

Elkins, J.W. (Editor), Butler, J.H., Thompson, T.M., Montzka, S.A., Myers, R.C., Lobert, J.M., Yvon, S.A., Wamsley, P.R., Moore, F.L., Gilligan, J.M., Hurst, D.F., Clarke, A.D., Swanson, T.H., Volk, C.M., Lock, L.T., Geller, L.S., Dutton, G.S., Dunn, R.M., Dicorleto, M.F., Baring, T.J., and Hayden, A.H., 1996, Nitrous oxide and halocompounds. Chap. 5. In Climate Monitoring and Diagnositcs Laboratory No. 23, Summary Report 1994-1995, David J. Hofmann, James T. Peterson, and Rita M. Rosson, Eds., U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, p. 84-111.

Elkins, J.W., Fahey, D.W., Gilligan, J.M., Dutton, G.S., Baring, T.J., Volk, C.M., Dunn, R.E., Myers, R.C., Montzka, S.A., Wamsley, P.R., Hayden, A.H., Butler, J.H., Thompson, T.M., Swanson, T.H., Dlugokencky, E.J., Novelli, P.C., Hurst, D.F., Lobert, J.M., Ciciora, S.J., McLaughlin, R.J., Thompson, T.L., Winkler, R.H., Fraser, P.J., Steele, L.P. and Lucarelli, M.P., 1996, Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(4), 347-350.

Ellis, D.A., Cahill, T.M., Mabury, S.A., Cousins, I.T., and Mackay, D., 2002, Partitioning of organofluorine compounds in the environment: Organofluorines.

Elmore, David, and Phillips, Fred M., 1987, Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes. Science, 236, 543-550.

ElShahat, M.F., AbdelHalim, S.H., and Hassan, G.A., 2001, Factors influencing the formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water treatment plants: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 67, no. 4, p. 549-553.

Engel, A., Strunk, M., Muller, M., Haase, H.P., Poss, C., Levin, I., and Schmidt, U., 2002, Temporal development of total chlorine in the high-latitude stratosphere based on reference distributions of mean age derived from CO2 and SF6 - art. no. 4136: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 107, no. D12, p. 4136.

Engen, M. A., Wagner. V. A., Sears, L. J., and Grimsrud, E. P., 1998, Detection of CF3-containing compounds in background air by gas chromatography\high resolution mass spectroscopy: J. Geophys. Res. D19, 103, 287-297.

Engesgaard, P., Højberg A.L., Hinsby, K., Jensen, K.H, Laier, T., Larsen, F., Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 2004, Transport and time lag of chlorofluorocarbon gases in the unsaturated zone, Rabis Creek, Denmark. Vadose Zone Journal, v. 3, p. 1249-1261.

England, M.H. and Hirst, A.C., 1997, Chlorofluorocarbon uptake in a World Ocean model .2. Sensitivity to surface thermohaline forcing and subsurface mixing parameterizations. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 102(C7), 15709-15731.

Epler N.A. (1990) Chlorofluoromethanes as tracers of recent ground water on Long Island, New York. (abstracts), NWWA Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Sept. 25-26, 1990, p.8.

Erdirencelebi, D., Burdurlu, Y., Bahadir, M. and Lorenz, W., 1997, A survey on volatile organohalogen compounds (VOX) in the sewage of Konya (Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, v. 6(11-12), 680-686.

Eriksson, E., 1958, The possible use of tritium for estimating groundwater storage. Tellus, v. 10, p. 472-478.

Ernst, G., Gurtner, J. and Wirbser, H., 1997, Flow-calorimetric massic heat capacities at low pressures of CF3Cl and CHF3 (refrigerants R13 and R23) and of C6F14 (perfluoro-2-methylpentane); vapour pressure curve and critical data of C6F14 Full source. Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, v. 29(10), 1125-1128.

Evans, C., Davies, T.D., 1998. Causes of concentration/discharge hysteresis and its potential as a tool for analysis of episode hydrochemistry. Water Resour. Res. 34, 129-137

Evans, W. C., Sorey, M. L., Michel, R. L., Cook, A. C., Kenedy, B. M., and Busenberg, E., 2001, Tracing magmatic Carbon in ground water at Big Springs, California, USA, (In press)

Evans, W.F.J. and Puckrin, E., 1996, Laboratory technique for the measurement of thermal-emission spectra of greenhouse gases: CFC-12. Applied Optics, v. 35(9), 1519-1522.

Return to Top

F

Fabian, P., Borchers, R. and Schmidt, U., 1996, Proposed reference models for CO2 and halogenated hydrocarbons. Cospar International Reference Atmosphere (Cira), Pt III (Series: Advances in Space Research), v. 18(9/10), 145-153.

Fabian, P., Borchers, R., Leifer, R., Subbaraya, B.H., Lal, S. and Boy, M., 1996, Global stratospheric distribution of halocarbons. Atmospheric Environment, v. 30(10-11), 1787-1796.

Fang, Y., Hozalski, R.M., Clapp, L.W., Novak, P.J., and Semmens, M.J., 2002, Passive dissolution of hydrogen gas into groundwater using hollow-fiber membranes: Water Research, v. 36, no. 14, p. 3533-3542.

Fang, Y., Clapp, L.W., Hozalski, R.M., Novak, P.J., and Semmens, M.J., 2004, Membrane gas transfer under conditions of creeping flow: modeling gas composition effects: Water Research, v. 38, no. 10, p. 2489-2498.

Farman, J. C., B. G. Gardiner and J. D. Sanklin, Large losses of total ozone reveal seasonal Clx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985.

Favreau, G., Guero, A., and Seidel, J.L., 2004, Comment on ''Improving noble gas based paleoclimate reconstruction and groundwater dating using Ne-20/Ne-22 ratios,'' by F. Peeters et al. (2003) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67, 587-600: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, no. 6, p. 1433-1435.

Fayer, M.J., and Hillel, D., 1986, Air encapsulation: 1. Measurement in a filed soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., v. 50, p. 568-572.

Feely, R.A., Wanninkhof, R., Hansell, D.A., Lamb, M.F., Greeley, D., and Lee, K., 2002, Water column CO2 measurements during the Gas Ex-98 expedition: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces.

Fialho, P. S., and Nieto de Castro, C. a., 2000, Prediction ot the vapor pressure of environmental halocarbons: International Journal of Thermodynamics: 21, 385-392.

Fields, S.M., 1996, Multidimensional gas chromatographic separation of halocarbons from permanent gases using a capillary as the precolumn for a packed column. Journal of Microcolumn Separations, v. 8(2), 123-130.

Fine, R.A., Rhein, M., and Andrie, C., 2002, Using a CFC effective age to estimate propagation and storage of climate anomalies in the deep western North Atlantic Ocean - art. no. 2227: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 24, p. 2227.

Fisher, D. A., and Midgley, P. M., 1993, Production and release to the atmosphere of CFCs 113, 114 and 115. Atmos. Environ., 27A, 271-276.

Focasio, M. J., Böhlke, J. K., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L. N., and Phillips, S. W., Ground water residence times in shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, October 1997; Salt Lake City, Utah, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no, 6, p. 76.

Focazio, M.J., Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., Busenberg, E., Bachman, L.J., and Powers, D.S., 1998, Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigatios Rept. 97-4225, 75p.

Focazio, M.J., Tipton, Deborah, Stephanie Dunkle Shapiro, S.D., and Linda H. Geiger, L.H., 2006, The chemical quality of self -supplied domestic well water in the United States: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 26, no. 3, p. 92-104.

Fontes, J.-Ch., Dating of groundwaters, p. 285-317. In: Guidebook on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Tech. Report Ser. 91, 439p, 1983.

Forster, M., Moser, H., Ramm, K., and Hietel, B., 1989, Investigating the neutron-induced subsurface production of environmental isotopes 37Ar, 39Ar, 3H, and 36Cl with neutron irradiation of aquifer material: Chem. Geol., v. 79, p. 325-332.

Fox, V.J., and M.K. Stewart, 1997, CFC Dating of Groundwater at Christchurch, New Zealand, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 1997 Annual Meeting, October 20-23, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Francey, R.J., Steele, L.P., Langenfelds, R.L., Lucarelli, M.P., Allison, C.E., Beardsmore, D.J., Coram, S.A., Derek, N., de Silva, F.R., Etheridge, D.M., Fraser, P.J., Henry, R.J., Turner, B., Welch, E.D., Spencer, D.A., and Cooper, L.N., 1996, Global atmospheric sampling (GASLAB): supporting and extending the Cape Grim trace gas program, Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, p 8-29.

Frank, H., Christoph, E.H., HolmHansen, O., and Bullister, J.L., 2002, Trifluoroacetate in ocean waters: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 36, no. 1, p. 12-15.

Frank, W., Neves, J. J. C., and Frank, H., 1991, Levels of airborne halocarbons at urban and mountain forest sites in Germany and at the Atlantic coast. Chemosphere, 23, 609-626.

Fraser P., Cunnold D., Alyea F., Weiss R., Prinn R., Simmonds P., Miller B. and Langenfelds R. (1996) Lifetime and emission estimates of 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluorethane (CFC-113) from daily global background observations June 1982-June 1994. J. Geophys. Res. -Atmospheres 101(D7), 12585-12599.

Fraser, P.J., Derek, N., and L.W. Porter, (1996), Halocarbons, nitrous oxide and methane- The Gage Program, 1994. In Baseline Atmospheric Program 1994/95, p. 119-133.

Friedman, H. L., The solubility of sulfur hexafluoride in water and of rare gases, sulfur hexafluoride and osmium tetroxide in nitromethane, J. Am. Chem. Soc. A, 76, 1793-1796, 1954.

Froidevaux, L., Waters, J. W., Read, W. G., Connell, P. S., Kinnison, D. E., Russell, J. M., 2000, Variations in the free chlorine of the tratosphere (1991-1997): Anthropogenic, volcanic, and methane incluences: J. Geophys. Res., 105, (D4), 4471-4481.

Frost, T., and UpstillGoddard, R.C., 2002, Meteorological controls of gas exchange at a small English lake: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 47, no. 4, p. 1165-1174.

Fukui, Y., and Doskey, P. V., 1998, A mesdurement technique for organic nitrates and halocarbons in ambient air, High Resolution Chromatography, 21, 201-208.

Return to Top

G

Galdiga, C.U. and Greibrokk, T., 1997, Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of sulphur hexafluoride and cyclic perfluorocarbons in reservoir samples by gas chromatography. Chromatographia, v. 46(7-8), 440-443.

Gamlen, P. H., Lane, B. C., Midgley, P. M., and Steed, J. M., 1986, The production and release to the atmosphere of CCl3F and CCl2F2 (chlorofluorocarbons CFC 11 and CFC 12). Atmos. Environ., 20, 1077-1085.

Gammon, R. H., Cline, J. and Wisegarver, D. (1982) Chlorofluoromethanes in the North Pacific Ocean: Measured vertical distribution and application as transient tracers of upper ocean mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 87:9441-9454.

Gee, G. W., and D. Hillel, Ground-water recharge in arid regions: Review and critique of estimation methods, Hydrol. Proces., 2, 255-266, 1988.

Geller, L.S., Elkins, J.W., Lobert, J.M., Clarke, A.D., Hurst, D.F., Butler, J.H. and Myers, R.C., 1997, Tropospheric SF6: Observed latitudinal distribution and trends, derived emissions and interhemispheric exchange time. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 44(6), 675-678.

Gibs, J., and Imbrigiota, T. E., 1990, Well-purging criteria for sampling purgeable organic compounds, Ground Water, 28, 68-78.

Gilpin, T. M., 1991, Global concentrations of three chlorofluorocarbons, 1984-1988. PH.D. Dissertation, University of California at Irvine, 355p.

Glynn, P. D., Busenberg, E., Brown, J. G., 1999, Use of chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases and water isotopes to characterize ground-water recharge in an aquifer contaminated by acid, metal-laden wastewater, In:, Morganwalp, D. W. and Buxton, H. T. eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program- U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 256-274.

Glynn, P., and Busenberg, E., 1996, Dissolved gas and chlorofluorocarbon content of ground water in the Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona; in Mallard G. L. and Aronson, D. A. (eds.), Proceedings, U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, technical meeting. Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4015, 1043-1054.

Glynn, P.D., and Busenberg, E., 1996, Unsaturated zone diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the Pinal Creek Basin Arizona, in Morganwalp, D. W., and Aronson, D.A. eds. U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program -- Proceedings of the technical meeting , Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4014, p. 1055-1064.

Glynn, Pierre D., and Plummer, L. Niel, 2005, Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems. Hydrogeology Journal, v. 13, p. 263-287.

Goldscheider, N., Hotzl, H., Kass, W., and Ufrecht, W., 2003, Combined tracer tests in the karst aquifer of the artesian mineral springs of Stuttgart, Germany: Environmental Geology, v. 43, no. 8, p. 922-929.

Golfinopoulos, S.K., Lekkas, T.D., and Nikolaou, A.D., 2001, Comparison of methods for determination of volatile organic compounds in drinking water: Chemosphere, v. 45, no. 3, p. 275-284.

Golombek, A., and Prinn, R., 1986, A global three-dimentional model of the circulation and chemistry of CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3CCl3, CCl4 and N2O. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 3985-4001.

Golombek, A., and Prinn, R., 1989, Global three-dimentional model calculations of the budgets and presen-day atmospheric lifetimes of CF2ClCFCl2 (CFC-113), CHClF2 (CFC-22). Geophys. Res. Letter, 16, 1153-1156.

Good, D.A., and Francisco, J.S., 2003, Atmospheric chemistry of alternative fuels and alternative chlorofluorocarbons: Chemical Reviews, v. 103, no. 12, p. 4999-5023.

Goode, D. J., Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L. N., CFC degradation under anaerobic water table conditions in the glacial drift at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire. Geological Society of America, 1997 Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, 1997, p. A-77.

Goode, D.J., 1996, Direct simulation of groundwater age. Water Resources Research, v. 32(2), 289-296.

Goode, D.J., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L. N., Shapiro, A. M., and Vroblesky, D. A., 1999, CFC's in the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire: In:, Morganwalp, D. W. and Buxton, H. T. eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program- U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 809-820.

Gossett, J. M., 1987, Measurement of Henry's law constants for C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol.,21, 202-208.

Greally, B. R., Nickless, G., Simmonds, P. G., Woodward, M., and de Zeeuw, J., 1998, Separation of mixed halocarbons of environmental interest on a new type of silica-based porous-layer open tabular capillary gas chromatographic column, Journal of Chromatography A, 810, 119-130.

Green, J.R., Cecil, L.D., Synal, H.A., Kreutz, K.J., Wake, C.D., Naftz, D.L., and Frape, S.K., 2000, Chlorine -36 and cesium-137 in ice-core samples from mid-latitude glacial sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Nuclear Instuments and Methods in Phys. Res. Sect. B., 172, 812-816.

Greisshaber, E., O'Nions, R.K., and Oxburgh, E.R., 1992, Helium and carbon isotopes in crustal fluids from the Eifel, the Rhine Graben and Black Forest: Chemical Geology, v. 99, p. 213-235.

Gribble, G. W., 1994, The natural production of chlorinated compounds. Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 310A-319A.

Gritsun, Y.G., Watts, S.F. and Wibrow, J., 1996, Measurement of methyliodide and halocarbons in the atmosphere. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 62(4), 323-338.

Gupta, S.K., and Deshpande, R.D., 2003, Origin of groundwater helium and temperature anomalies in the Cambay region of Gujarat, India: Chemical Geology, v. 198, no. 1-2, p. 33-46.

Return to Top

H

Hahne, A.A., Volz, D.H., Ehhart, D.H., Casatto, H., Roether, W., Weiss, W. and Kromer,B. (1978) Depth profiles of chlorofluoromethanes in the Norwegian Sea. Pure Appl. Geophys., 116:575-582.

Haine, T. W. N., and Richards, K. J., 1995, The influence of the seasonal mixed layer on oceanic uptake of CFCs, J. Geophys. Res., 100C, 10127-10744.

Haine, T.W.N., Richards, K.J., and Jia, Y.L., 2003, Chlorofluorocarbon constraints on North Atlantic ventilation: Journal of Physical Oceanography, v. 33, no. 8, p. 1798-1814.

Haine, T.W.N., Watson, A.J. and Liddicoat, M.I., 1995, Chlorofluorocarbon-113 in the northeast Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 100(C6), 10745-10753.

Haley, J. L., Hanson, B., Enfield, C., and Glass, J. 1991, Evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater extraction systems, Ground Water Monit. Rev,, 11,, 119-124.

Hall, T. M., and D. W. Waugh, Influence of nonlocal chemistry on tracer distributions: Inferring the mean age of air from SF6, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D11), 13327-13336, 1998.

Hall, T. M., and D. W. Waugh, 2000, Stratospheric resisdence time and its relation to mean age: J. Geophys. Res., 105(D5), 6773-6782.

Hamilton, P.A., and R.J. Shedlock, Are Fertilizers and Pesticides in Ground Water? A Case Study of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, U.S. Geol. Surv. Circ., 1080, 16 pp., 1992.

Hamilton, P.A., R.J. Shedlock, and P.J. Phillips, Ground-Water-Quality Assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia-- Analysis of Available Water-Quality Data Through 1987, U.S Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep., 89-34, 1989.

Hammer, P. M., J. M. Hayes, W. L. Jenkins and R. B. Gagosian, Exploratory analyses of trichlorofluoromethane (F-11) in North Atlantic water columns, Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 645-648, 1978.

Han, Liangfeng, Hacker, Peter, and Groning, Manfred, 2007, Residence times and age distributions of spring waters at the Semmering catchment area, Eastern Austria, as inferred from tritium, CFCs and stable isotopes. Isotopes in Environ. Health Studies, 43(1), 31-50. doi:10.1080/10256010601154015.

Hansen, J., A. Lacis and M. Prather, Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 16417-16421, 1989.

Happell, J.D., and Roche, M.P., 2003, Soils: A global sink of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride - art. no. 1088: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, no. 2, p. 1088.

Happell, J.D., Price, R.M., Top, Z., and Swart, P.K., 2003, Evidence for the removal of CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 at the groundwater-surface water interface in the Everglades: Journal of Hydrology, v. 279, no. 1-4, p. 94-105.

Happell, J.D. and Wallace, D.W.R., 1997, Gravimetric preparation of gas phase working standards containing volatile halogenated compounds for oceanographic applications. Deep - Sea Research Part I - Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 44(9-10), 1725-1738.

Harder, A. H., and Holden, W. R., 1965, Measurement of gas in ground water, 1965, Water Resources Research, 1, 75-82.

Harden, H.S., Chanton, J.P., Rose, J.B., John, D.E., and Hooks, M.E., 2003, Comparison of sulfur hexafluoride, fluorescein and rhodamine dyes and the bacteriophage PRD-1 in tracing subsurface flow: Journal of Hydrology, v. 277, no. 1-2, p. 100-115.

Harnisch, J., Borchers, R., Fabian, P. and Kourtidis, K., 1995, Aluminium production as a source of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 2(3), 161-162.

Harnisch, J., Borchers, R., Fabian, P. and Maiss, M., Tropospheric trends for CF4 and C2F6 since 1982 derived from SF6 dated stratospheric air. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(10), 1099-1102.

Harnisch, J., Borchers, R., Fabian, P., Gaggeler, H.W. and Schotterer, U., 1996, Effect of natural tetrafluoromethane. Nature, v. 384(6604), 32-32.

Harnisch, J., Borchers, R., Fabian, P., Koutidis, K., 1995, Aluminium production as a source of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS), Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 2, 161-162.

Harnisch J., and Eisenhauer, A, 1998, Natural CF4 and SF6 on Earth, Geophys. Res. letters, 25, 2401-2404.

Harnisch, J., and Hohne, N., 2002, Comparison of emissions estimates derived from atmospheric measurements with national estimates of HFCs, PFCs and SF6: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 9, no. 5, p. 315-320.

Harrington, G.A., Cook, P.G., and Herczeg, A.L., 2002, Spatial and temporal variability of ground water recharge in central Australia: A tracer approach: Ground Water, v. 40, no. 5, p. 518-527.

Harris, N.R.P., Farman, J.C., and Fahey, D.W., 2002, Comment on "Effects of cosmic rays on atmospheric chlorofluorocarbon dissociation and ozone depletion" - art. no. 219801: Physical Review Letters, v. 8921, no. 21, p. 9801.

Harnisch, J., Frische, M., Borchers, R., Eisenhauer, A., and Jordan, A., 2000, Natural fluorinated organics in fluorite and rocks. Geophysical Res. Lett., v. 27(13), 1883-1886.

Hartley, D.E., Kindler, T., Cunnold, D.M. and Prinn, R.G., 1996, Evaluating chemical transport models: Comparison of effects of different CFC-11 emission scenarios. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 101(D9), 14381-14385.

Hartmann, J.M., Kochel, J.M., Payan, S., CamyPeyret, C. and Engel A., 1997, CCl2F2 mixing ratio profiles in the 1995 late winter Arctic vortex from balloon-borne spectra. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 24(19), 2367-2370.

Hayes, J.M., and Thompson, G.M., 1977, Trichlorofluoromethane in ground water- A possible indicator of ground-water age. Purdue University, Water Resources Research Center, Technical Report No. 90, NTIS Report PB 265 170, 25pp.

Hayman, G.D. and Derwent, R.G., 1997, Atmospheric chemical reactivity and ozone-forming potentials of potential CFC replacements. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(2), 327-336.

Heaton, T.H.E., 1981, Dissolved gases-Some applications to groundwater research: Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, v. 84, p. 91-97.

Heaton, T.H.E., 1984, Dissolved ions, stable and radioactive isotopes and noble gases in thermal waters of South Africa -A comment. Jour. Hydrol., v. 72, 195-199.

Heaton, T.H.E., 1984, Rates and sources of 4He accumulation in groundwater. Hydrological Sciences - Journal, v. 29, 29-47.

Heaton, T.H.E., and Vogel, J.C., 1980, Rate of oxygen removal in some South African groundwaters. Hydrological Sciences -Bulletin, v. 25, 373-377.

Heaton, T.H.E., and Vogel, J.C., 1981, "Excess air" in groundwater. Jour. Hydrol., v. 50, 201-216.

Heaton, T.H.E., Talma, A.S., and Vogel, J.C., 1983, Origin and history of nitrate in confined groundwater in the Western Kalahari. Jour. Hydrol, v. 62, 243-262.

Heaton, T.H.E., Talma, A.S., and Vogel, J.C., 1986, Dissolved gas paleotemperatures and 18O variations derived from groundwater near Uitenhage, South Africa. Quaternary Research, v. 25, 79-88.

Heaton, T.H.E., Talma, S.A., and Vogel, J. C., 1981, Gaseous nitrogen as evidence for denitrification in groundwater: Journal of Hydrology, v. 50, p. 192-200.

Hedenquist, J.W., Goff, Frasesr, Phillips, Fred M., Elmore, David, and Stewart, Michael K., 1990, Groundwater dilution and residence times, and constraints on chloride source, in the Mokai Geothermal system, New Zealand, from chemical, stable isotope, tritium and 36C1 data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, p. 19,365-19,375.

Heilweil, V.M., Solomon, D.K., Perkins, K.S., and Ellett, K.M., 2004, Gas-partitioning tracer test to quantify trapped gas during recharge: Ground Water, v. 42, no. 4, p. 589-600.

Heilweil, V.M., C.D. Wilkowske, and D.K. Solomon, 1997, Use of Aquifer Testing and Age Tracers to Understand Ground-Water Flow in the Navajo Aquifer in Washington County, Utah, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 1997 Annual Meeting, October 20-23, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Heise, H.M., Kurte, R., Fischer, P., Klockow, D. and Janissek, P.R., 1997, Gas analysis by infrared spectroscopy as a tool for electrical fault diagnostics in SF6 insulated equipment. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, v. 358(7-8), 793-799.

Hendry, M.J., Wassenaar, L.I., and Kotzer, T., 2000, Chloride and chlorine isotopes (36C1, and d37C1) as tracers of solute migration in a thick, clay-rich aquitard system. Water Resources Research, 36(1), 285-296.

Hermansson, H. P., Sjoblom, R., and Akerblom, G., 1991, Geogas in crystalline bedrock: Swedish National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel, Statens Karnbransle Namnd, SKN Report 52, p. 22.

Herzberg, O., and Mazor, E., 1979, Hydrological applications of noble gases and temperature measurements in underground water systems: Examples from Israel. Jour. Hydrol., v. 41, 217-231.

Hester, N, E., Stephen, E. R., and Taylor, O. C., 1974, Fluorocarbons in the Los Angeles basin: Journal of Air Pollution Control Association, v. 24, p. 591-595.

Hibbs, D. E., K. L. Parkhill, and J. S. Gulliver, Sulfur hexafluoride gas tracer studies in streams, J. Envir. Eng., 8, 552-560, 1998.

Highwood, E. J., and Shine, K. P., 2000, Radiative forcing and global warming potentials of 11 halogenated compounds, J. Qantitative Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer, 2000, 169-183.

Hinkle, S.R., 1996, Age of ground water in basalt aquifers near Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Skamania County, Washington. U.S. Geol. Survey, Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4272, 26p.

Hinkle, S.R., and Snyder, D.T., 1997, Comparison of chlorofluorocarbon-age dating with particle-tracking results of a regional ground-water flow model of the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington. U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 2483, 47p.

Hinsby, K., Edmunds, W. M., Loosli, H. H., Manzano, M., Condesso de Melo, M. T., Barbecot, F., 2001, The modern water interface: recognition, protection and development - advance of modern waters in European aquifer systems. In Edmunds, W. M. and Milane, C. J. (eds). Coastal Europe: evolution of groundwater since the late Pleistocene. p. 271-288.

Hinsby, K., Hojberg, A.L., Engesgaard, P., Jensen, K.H., Larsen, F., Plummer, L.N., and Busenberg, E., Transport and degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in a pyretic aquifer, Rabis Creek, Denmark. Water Resources Research, v 43, W10423, doi:10.1029/2006WR005854.

Hinsby, K., T. Laier, A. Thomsen, P. Engesgaard, K.H. Jensen, F. Larsen, R. Jakobsen, E. Busenberg, and L.N. Plummer, 1997, CFC-Dating, and Transport and Degradation of CFC-Gases in Different Redox Environments: Two Case Studies from Denmark, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 1997 Annual Meeting, October 20-23, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Hirota, M., and Muramatsu, H., 1986, Gas chromatographic measurements of atmospheric sulfur hexafluoride, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 59, 329-331.

Ho, D.T., Bliven, L.F., Wanninkhof, R. and Schlosser, P., 1997, The effect of rain on air-water gas exchange. Tellus Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, v. 49(2), 149-158.

Ho, D. T., Caplow, T., Schlosser, P., Enriquez, R. C. 2004, Effect of Tides on Solute Flushing from a Strait: Imaging Flow and Transport in the East River with SF6. Environmental Science Technology (2004) 38, p. 4562-4571.

Ho, D.T., Schlosser, P., and Caplow, T., 2002, Determination of longitudinal dispersion coefficient and net advection in the tidal Hudson River with a large-scale, high resolution SF6 tracer release experiment: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 36, no. 15, p. 3234-3241.

Ho, D. T., and P. Schlosser, 2000, Atmospheric SF6 near a large urban area, Geophys. Res. Letters, 27, 1679-1682.

Ho, D. T., Santella, N., Schlosser, P., Stute, M., 2003, Distribution of Atmospheric SF6 near a Large Urban Area As Recorded in the Vadose Zone. Environmental Science Technology (2003) 37, p. 1069-1074

Ho, D.T., Schlosser, P., Smethie, Jr., W.M., and Simpson, H.J., 1998, Variability in atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) near a large urban area: Implications for groundwater dating. Environ. Sci. & Technol., v. 32, no. 16, p. 2377-2382.

Ho, D.T., Asher, W.E., Bliven, L.F., and Schlosser, Peter, 2000, On mechanisms of ranin-induced air-water gas exchange. Jour. Geophys. Res., 105(C10), p. 24,045-24,057.

Ho, D. T., Zappa, C. J., McGillis, W. R., Bliven, L. F., Ward, B., Dacey, J. W. H., Schlosser, P., 2004, Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 109, C08S18.

Hoekstra, E.J., de Leer, E.W.B., and Brinkman, U.A.T., 1998, Natural formation of chloroform and brominated trihalomethanes in soil, Environ. Sci Technol., 32, 3724-3729.

Hodges, A.L., Jr., 1982, Ground-Water Temperature of the Wyoming Quadrangle in Central Delaware, with Application to Ground-Water-Source Heat Pumps, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water Resour. Invest., 82-53, 29p.

Hoekstra, E.J., Duyzer, J.H., deLeer, E.W.B., and Brinkman, U.A.T., 2001, Chloroform- concentration gradients in soil air and atmospheric air, and emission fluxes from soil, Atmos. Environ. 35, 61-70.

Hofer, M., and Imboden, D.M., 1998, Simultaneous determination of CFC-11, CFC-12, N2 and Ar in water. Anal. Chem., 70, 724-729.

Hofer, M., Peeters, F., AeschbachHertig, W., Breenwald, M., Holocher, J., Livingstone, D.M., Romanovski, V., and Kipfer, R., 2002, Rapid deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) indicated by transient tracers: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 47, no. 4, p. 1210-1216.

Höhener, P., Werner, D., Balsiger, C., and Pasteris, G., 2003, Worldwide occurrence and fate of chlorofluorocarbons in groundwater: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, v. 33, no. 1, p. 1-29.

Holmen, K. and P. Liss, Models for air-water transfer: An experimental investigation, Tellus, 36B, 92-100, 1984.

Holmes, K.J. and Ellis, J.H., 1996, Potential environmental impacts of future halocarbon emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 30(8), A348-A355.

Holocher, J., Matta, V., AeschbachHertig, W., Beyerle, U., Hofer, M., Peeters, F., and Kipfer, R., 2001, Noble gas and major element constraints on the water dynamics in an alpine floodplain: Ground Water, v. 39, no. 6, p. 841-852.

Holocher, J., Peeters, F., AeschbachHertig, W., Hofer, M., Brennwald, M., Kinzelbach, W., and Kipfer, R., 2002, Experimental investigations on the formation of excess air in quasi-saturated porous media: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66, no. 23, p. 4103-4117.

Hong, S.-U., and Duda, J.L., 1998, Diffusion of CFC-11 and hydrofluorocarbons in polyurethane, J. Applied Polymer Sci., 70, 2069-2073.

Hooker, B.S., Skeen, R.S. and Petersen, J.N., Biological destruction of CCl4 .2. Kinetic modeling. Biotechnol Bioeng, v. 44(2), 211-218.

Horvath, A. L., Halogenated Hydrocarbons: Solubility-Miscibility with Water, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 889p, 1982.

Hrubec, J., Denengelsman, G., Degroot, A.C. and Denhartog, R.S., 1995, Behaviour of organic micropollutants during groundwater recharge. Int J. Environ Anal Chem, v. 58(1-4), 185-198.

Huang, W., Nguyen, L., Gammon, R.H., and Bullister, J.L., 2000, Production and consumption of methyl halides in a fresh water lake. Linol. Oceanogr. 45, 1537-1545.

Huey, L.G., Hanson, D.R. and Howard, C.J., 1995, Reactions of SF6- and I- with atmospheric trace gases. J Phys Chem, v. 99(14), 5001-5008.

Huggle, D., Blinov, A., Stan-Sion, C., Korschinek, G., Scheffel, C., Massonet, S. Zerle, L., Beer, J., Parrat, Y., Gaeggeler, H., Hajdas, W., and Nolte, E., 1996, Production of cosmogenic 36CI on atmospheric argon. Planet Space Sci., 2, 147-151.

Hulsston, J.R., Hilton, D.R., and Kaplan, I.R., 2001, Helium and carbon systematics of natural gases from Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Applied Geochem. 16, 419-436.

Hung, I.-F., and Bernier, A., 1990, Freons and hadrocarbons in aerosol spray cans, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 45, 133-138.

Hunter-Smith, R.J., Balls, P.W., and Liss, P.S., 1983, Henry's Law constants and the air-sea exchange of various low molecular weight halocarbon gases. Tellus, v. 35B, p. 170-176.

Hur H. G., Sadowsky, M. J., and Wackett, L. P., 1994, Metabolism of chlorofluorocarbons and polybrominated compounds by Pseudominas putida G786(pHG-2) via an engineered metabolic pathway. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 60, 4148-4154.

Hurley, J.J., Defibaugh, D.R., and Moldover, M. R., 2000, Thermodynamic properties of sulfue hexafluoride: International J. Thermopysics, 21, 739-765.

Hurst, D. F., P. S. Balkin, and J. W. Elkins, 1998, Recent trends in the variability of halogenated trace gases over the United States, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D19), 25,299-25,306.

Hurst, D.F., Bakwin, P.S., Myers, R.C. and Elkins, J.W., 1997. Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina. Journal of Geophysical Research -Atmospheres, v. 102(D7), 8825-8835.

Return to Top

I

IAEA/WMO (1998). Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation. The GNIP Database. Release 2 May 1998. URL: http://isohis.iaea.org

Imes, J.L., Plummer, L.N., Kleeschulte, M.J., and Schumacher, J.G., 2007, Recharge area, base-flow and quick-flow discharge rates and ages, and general water quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri , U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report SIR 2007-5049, 79 p.

Imhoff, P.T., Jakubowitch, A., Briening, M.L., and Chiu, P.C., 2003, Partitioning gas tracer tests for measurement of water in municipal solid waste: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, v. 53, no. 11, p. 1391-1400.

International Atomic Energy Agency, Statistical Treatment of Environmental Isotope Data in Precipitation, IAEA Tech. Rep. Ser., 206, 1981.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2006, Use of Chlorofluorocarbons in Hydrology: A Guidebook , STI/PUB/1238, 277 p., 111 figures, ISBN 92-0-100805-8, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1238_web.pdf

Irawan, R., Scelsi, G.B., and Woolsey, G.A., 2001, Optical fiber sensing of SF6 degradation in high-voltage switchgear: Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials, v. 10, no. 2, p. 181-195.

Iwatsuki, T., Xu, S., Itoh, S., Abe, M., and Watanabe, M., 2000, Estimation of relative ground water age in the granite at the Tono reseach site, central Japan, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Phys. Res., Sect. B, 172, 524-529.

Ivanovich, M., 1994, Uranium Series Disequilibrium - Concepts and Applications. Radiochimica Acta, v. 64(2), 81-94.

Return to Top

J

Jackson, R.E., Lesage, S., and Priddle, M.W., 1992, Estimating the fate and mobility of CFC-113 in groundwater: Results from the Gloucester landfill project. In "Groundwater Contamination and Analysis at Hazardous Waste Sites", S. Lesage and R.E. Jackson, eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., p. 511-526.

Jacobsen, G.E., Hotchkis, M.A.C., Fink, D., Child, D.P., Tuniz, C., Sacchi, E., Levins, D.M., Povinec, P.P., and Mulsow, S., 2000, AMS measurements of I-129, Cl-36 and C-14 in underground waters from Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls. Nuclear Instuments and Methods in Phys. Res. Sect. B., 172, 666-671.

Jähne, B., Heinz, G., and Dietrich, W., 1987, Measurement of the diffusion coefficients of sparingly soluble gases in water. Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 92, no. C10, p. 10767-10,776.

Jannik, Nancy Olga, Phillips, Fred M., Smith, George I., and Elmore, David, 1991, A 36C1 chronology of lacustrine sedimentation in the Pleistocene Owens River System. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 103, 1146-1159

Jean-Baptiste, P. and Messias, M.J., 1993, Using Tracers to Study Ocean Circulation - What More Can We Learn by the Year 2000. Ann Inst Oceanogr, v.69(2), 283-305.

Jean-Baptiste, P., Messias, M.J., Alba, C., Charlou, J.L., and Bougault, H., 1994, A simple copper-tube sampler for collecting and storing seawater for post-cruise CFC measurements. Deep-Sea Res., v. 41, no. 9, p. 1361-1372.

Jean-Baptiste, P., and Poisson, A., 2000, Gas transfer experiment on a lake (Kerguelen Islands) using 3H and SF6: J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C1), 1177-1186.

Jenkins, W. J., 1987, 3H and 3He in the Beta Triangle: Observations of gyre ventilation and oxygen utilization rates: Journal of Physical Oceanography, v. 17, p. 763-783.

Jenkins, W.J., 1987, 3H and 3He in the Beta Triangle: Observations of Gyre Ventilation and Oxygen Utilization Rates: Journal of Physical Oceanography, v.17(6), 763-783.

Jenkins, W.J., and W.B. Clarke, 1976, The Distribution of 3He in the Western Atlantic Ocean, Deep-Sea Research, 23, 481-494.

Jenkins, W.J. and Smethie, W.M., 1996, Transient tracers track ocean climate signals. Oceanus, v. 39(2), 29-32.

Johnston, C.T., Cook, P.G., Frape, S.K., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., and Blackport, R.J., 1998, Ground water age and nitrate distribution within a glacial aquifer beneath a thick unsaturated zone: Ground Water, v. 36(1), p.171-180.

Jordan, A., Harnisch, J., Borchers, R., Le Guern, F., Shinohara, H., 2000, Volcanogenic halocarbons, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 1122-1124.

Jordan, A., 2003, Volcanic formation of halogenated organic compounds: Natural Production of Organohalogen Compounds.

Jury, W. A., Chemical movement through soil. 135-158. In: Vadose Zone Modeling of Organic Pollutants, S. C. Hern and S. M. Melancon (Eds.) Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan, 295p, 1989.

Return to Top

K

Kaiser, K. L. E., and Valdmanis, I., 1979, Volatile chloro- and chlorofluorocarbons in Lake Erie - 1977 and 1978. J. Great Lakes Res., 5, 160-169.

Kamenskii, I.L., Tolstikhin, I.N., Gannibal, M.A., Nivin, V.A., Orlov, S.P., Ploshchanskii, L.M., Lehmann, B.E., Loosli, H.H., and Tokarev, I.V., 2001, Role of tritium, He-3 precursor, in the fractionation of radiogenic helium: Geochemical application: Geochemistry International, v. 39, no. 12, p. 1211-1217.

Kanakidou M., Dentener F.J. and Crutzen P.J. (1995) A global three-dimensional study of the fate of HCFCs and HFC-134a in the troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(D9), 18781-18801.

Karl, T. R., C. N. Williams, F. T. Quinlan and T. A. Boden, United States Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data, Environmental Sciences Publication No. 3404. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 1990.

Katz, B. G., Böhlke, J. C. Hornsby, H. D., 2001, Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA in Alley, W.M., ed., Regional Ground-water Quality, Chap. 11, Van Nostrand Reinhold, p. 255-294.

Katz, B.G., Chelette, A.R., and Pratt, T.R., 2004, Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA: Journal of Hydrology, v. 289, no. 1-4, p. 36-61.

Katz, B.G., Hornsby, H.D., Böhlke, J.K., and Mokray, M.F., 1999, Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwanee River basin, Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 99-4252, 54 p.

Katz, B.G., Lee, T.M., Plummer, L.N., and Busenberg, E., 1995, Chemical Evolution of groundwater near a sinkhole lake, northern Florida. 1. Flow patterns, age of groundwater, and influence of lakewater leakage: Water Resources Research, 31(6), p. 1549-1564.

Katz, B.G., Lee, T.M., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Revesz, K. M., and Jones, B. F., 1995, Chemical Evolution of groundwater near a sinkhole lake, northern Florida. 2. Chemical patterns, age of groundwater, and influence of lake water leakage. Water Resources Research, 31, 1565-1584.

Kaufman, Aaron, Margaritz, Mordeck, Paul, Michael, Hillaire-Marcel, Claude, Hollos, George, Boaretto, Elisabeta, and Taieb, Maurice, 1990, The 36C1 ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, East Africa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54, 2827-2833.

Kaufman, R.S., Frape, S.K., McNutt, Robert, and Eastoe, Christopher, 1993, Chloride stable isotope distribution of Michigan Basin formation waters. Applied Geochemistry, 8, 403-407.

Kaufmann, R.S., and Arnorsson, S., 1986, 37Cl/35Cl ratios in Icelandic geothermal waters. Fifth International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Reykjavik, Iceland, p.325-327.

Kaufmann, R., Long, A., Bentley, H., and Davis, S., Natural chlorine isotopes variations. Nature 309, 338-340.

Keene, W. C., Khalil, M. A., Erickson, D. J., McCulloch, A., Graedel, T. E., Lobert, J.M., Aucott, M. L., Gong., S. L., Harper, D. B., Kleiman, G., Midley, P., More, R. M., Seuzaret, C., Sturges, W. T., Benkovitz, C. M., Koropalov, V., Barrie, L. A., and Li, Y.- F., 1999, Composite global emissions of reactive chlorine from antropogenic and natural sources: Reactive chlorine emissions inventory: J. Geophys. Res. D7, 104, 8429-8440.

Kemnitz, E., Kohne, A. and Lieske, E., 1997, Heterogeneous catalyzed decomposition reactions of dichlorodifluoromethane in the presence of water on gamma-alumina. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, v. 81(2), 197-204.

Kennedy, B. M., Lynch, M. A., Reynolds, J. H., Smith, S. P., 1985, Intensive sampling of noble gases in fluids at Yellowstone: Early review of data: Regional patterns: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, p. 1251-1261.

Kennedy, B.M., Reynolds, J.H., and Smith, S.P., 1988, Noble gas geochemistry in thermal springs. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 52, p. 1919-1928.

Kennedy, R.A., and Mayhew, C.A., 2001, A study of low energy electron attachment to trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride, SF5CF3: Atmospheric implications. Intern. J. Mass Spectrometry, 206, AR1-AR4.

Kennedy, V.C., Kendall, C., Zellweger, G.W., Wyerman, T.A., Avanzino, R.J., 1986. Determination of the components of stormflow using water chemistry and environmental isotopes, Mattole River basin, California. J. Hydrol. 84, 107-140.

Kepper, F., Elden, R., Neidan, V., Pracht, J., and Scholer, H.F., 2000, Halocarbons produced by natural oxidation processes during degradation of organic matter, Nature, 403, 298-301.

Key, B.D., Howell, R.D. and Criddle, C.S., 1997, Fluorinated organics in the biosphere. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(9), 2445-2454.

Keywood, M.D., Fifield, L.K., Chivas, A.R., and Cresswell, R.G., 1998, Fallout of chlorine 36 to the earth's surface in the southern hemisphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, D7, 8281-8286.

Khalil, M. A., Moore, R. M., Harper, D. B., Lobert, J.M., Erickson, D. J., Koropalov, V., Sturges, W. T., Keene, 1999, Natural emissions of chlorine-containing gases: Reactive chlorine emissions inventory: J. Geophys. Res. D7, 104, 8333-8346.

Khalil, M. A. K. and R. A. Rasmussen, 1986, The release of trichlorofluoromethane from rigid polyerythane foam, JAPCA, 36, 159-163.

Khalil, M. A. K. and R. A. Rasmussen, 2000, Soil-atmosphere exchange of radiatively and chemically active gases, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 7, 79-82.

Khalil, M. A. K. and R. A. Rasmussen, Global distributions of anthropogenic chlorocarbons: A comparison of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, CFC-113, CCl4, and CH3CCl3 from an ocean cruise and land-based sampling sites, p. 85-86, 1987. In: Elkins, J. W. (Ed.) Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change. Summary Report 1988, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO. 110p, 1988.

Khalil, M. A. K., and Rasmussen, R. A., 1989, The potential of soils as a sink of chlorofluorocarbons and other man-made chlorocarbons. Geophys. Res. Letter, 16, 679-682.

Khalil, M. A. K., and Rasmussen, R. A., 1993, The environmental history and future of fluorocarbon 11. J. Geophys. Res., 98D, 23091-23106.

Khalil, M.A.K., Rasmussen, R.A., and Shearer, M.J., 2002, Atmospheric nitrous oxide: patterns of global change during recent decades and centuries: Chemosphere, v. 47, no. 8, p. 807-821.

Khalil, M.A.K., Rasmussen, R.A., Culbertson, J.A., Prins, J.M., Grimsrud, E.P., and Shearer, M.J., 2003, Atmospheric perfluorocarbons: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 37, no. 19, p. 4358-4361.

Khalil, M.A.K., and Rasmussen, R.A., 2004, Changes in the regional emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 38, no. 2, p. 364-366.

Killworth, P.D., Carmack, E.C., Weiss, R.F. and Matear, R., 1997, Modeling deep-water renewal in Lake Baikal. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 41(7), 1521-1538.

King, D.B. and Saltzman, E.S., 1995, Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of sulfur hexafluoride in water. J Geophys Res-Oceans, v. 100(C4), 7083-7088.

King, L. G., Mathematical model for underground discharge of radioactive gases, Battelle Northwest Lab. Report 945, 55 pp., 1968.

Kipfer, R., Fette, M., Schubert, C. J., Hoehn E., Wehrli, B., 2005, Assessing river-groundwater exchange in the regulated Rhone River (Switzerland) using stable isotopes and geochemical tracers. Applied Geochemistry 20 (2005), p. 701-712.

Kipfer, R., Hofer, M., Peeters, F., Imboden, D. M., Domysheva V. M., 2000, Vertical turbulent diffusion and upwelling in Lake Baikal estimated by inverse modeling of transient tracers, in Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 105, Number C2, p. 3451-3464.

Kipfer, R., Strassmann, K. M., Brennwald, M. S., Peeters, F., 2004, Dissolved noble gasses in the porewater of lacustrine sediments as palaeolimnological proxies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 69, Number 7, p. 1665-1674.

Kjeldsen, P., and Scheutz, C., 2003, Short- and long-term releases of fluorocarbons from disposal of polyurethane foam waste: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 37, no. 21, p. 5071-5079.

Klatt, O., Roether, W., Hoppema, M., Bulsiewicz, K., Fleischmann, U., Rodehacke, C., Fahrbach, E., Weiss, R.F., and Bullister, J.L., 2002, Repeated CFC sections at the Greenwich Meridian in the Weddell Sea - art. no. 3030: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 107, no. C4, p. 3030.

Kleinman, G., and Prinn, R.G., Measurement and deduction of emissions of trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and trichloromethane (chloroform) in the northern United States and southeastern Canada, J. Geophys. Res.105 (D23), 28875-28893.

Ko, M. W., Sze, N. D., Wang, W.-C., Shia, G., Goldman, A., Murcray, F. J., Murcray, D. G., and Rindland, C. P., 1993, Atmospheric sulfur hexafluoride: Sources, sinks and greenhouse warming, J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 10499-10507.

Koh, D.C., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Kim, Y. 2007, Evidence for terrigenic SF6 in groundwater from basaltic aquifers, Jeju Island, Korea: Implications for groundwater dating. J Hydrol., v. 339, p. 93-104, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.03.011.

Koh, D.C., Plummer, L.N., Solomon, D.K., Busenberg, E., Kim, Y., and Chang, H.W., 2006, Application of environmental tracers to mixing, evolution, and nitrate contamination of ground water in Jeju Island, Korea , Journal of Hydrology, vol. 327, p. 258 . 275, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.021.

Kourtidis, K., Borchers, R. and Fabian, P., 1996, Dibromomethane (CH2Br2) measurements at the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(19), 2581-2583.

Kotzer, T., Gascoyne, M., Mukai, M. Ross, J., Waito, G., Milton,G., and Cornett, R.J., 1998, 36C1, 129I and noble gas isotope systematics in groundwaters from the Lac de Bonnet Batholith, Manitoba, Canada. Radiochim. Acta. 82, 313-318.

Kranz, O., 1966, Organische Fluor-Verbindungen in der Gas-einschlüssen der Wölsendorfer Flußspäte, Naturwissenschaften, 53, 593-600.

Krause, D., Jr., and Benson, B.B., 1989, The solubility and isotopic fractionation of gases in dilute aqueous solution. IIa. Solubilities of the Noble gases. Jour. Solution Chem., v. 18, 823-873.

Krey, P. W., Lagomarsino, R. E., Toonkel, L.E., and Schonberg, M., 1976, Atmospheric residence time of SF6, Rep. HASL-302, pp. I-50-I-57, U.S. Energy Res. and Dev. Admin., New York, 1976.

Kriegman-King, M. R., and Reinhard, M, 1994, Transformation of carbon tetrachloride by pyrite in aqueous solution, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 692-700.

Kroeze, C., and Matthijsen, A.J.C.M., 1998, Fluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6): A methodology for national emission inventories and scenarios applied to the Netherlands, Water Soil Pollution, 107, 197-218.

Krone, U. E., and Thauer, R. K., 1992, Dehalogenation of trichloromethane (CFC-11) by Methanosarcina Barkeri, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 90, 201-204.

Krone, U. E., Thauer, R. K., Hogenkasmp, H. P. C., and Steinbach, K, 1991, Reductive formation of carbon monoxide from CCl4 FREONs 11, 12, and 13 catalyzed by corrinoids, Biochemistry, 30, 2713-2719.

Krumme, M.L., Smith, R.L., Egestorff, J., Thiem, S.M., Tiedje, J.M., Timmis, K.N. and Dwyer, D.F., 1994, Behavior of Pollutant-Degrading Microorganisms in Aquifers - Predictions for Genetically Engineered Organisms. Environ Sci Technol, v. 28(6), 1134-1138.

Kubik, P.W., Elmore, David, Hemmick, Thomas K., Gove, Harry E., Fehn, Udo, Teng, Ray T.D., Jiang, Songsheng, and Tullai, Sharon, 1987, Accelerator mass spectrometry at the University of Rochester. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B29, 138-1412.

Krysell, M., and Wallace, D. W. R., 1988, Arctic ocean ventilation studies with a suite of anthropogenic tracers. Sci., 242, 746-749.

Kulongoski, J.T., and Hilton, D.R., 2002, A quadrupole-based mass spectrometric system for the determination of noble gas abundances in fluids: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, v. 3, p. U1-U10.

Kulongoski, J.T., Hilton, D.R., and Izbicki, J.A., 2003, Helium isotope studies in the Mojave Desert, California: implications for groundwater chronology and regional seismicity: Chemical Geology, v. 202, no. 1-2, p. 95-113.

Kulongoski, Justin T., Hilton, David R., Cresswell, Richard G., Hostetler, Stephen, and Jackson, Gerry, 2008, Helium-4 characteristics of groundwaters from Central Australia: Comparative chronology with chlorine-36 and carbon-14 dating techniques. Jour. Hydrol. V. 348, 176-194. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.09.048.

Kunze, R., Neubert, D., Brademann-Jock, K., Erhardt, U., 1998, Determination of halogenated hydrobarbons in insulating polymeric foams, J. Thermal Anal., 53, 27-33.

Kurte, R., Beyer, C., Heise, H.M., and Klockow, D., 2002, Application of infrared spectroscopy to monitoring gas insulated high-voltage equipment: electrode material-dependent SF6 decomposition: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, v. 373, no. 7, p. 639-646.

Kuttler, W., Lamp, T., and Weber, K., 2002, Summer air quality over an artificial lake: Atmospheric Environment, v. 36, no. 39-40, p. 5927-5936.

Return to Top

L

Lal, D., 1987, Production of 3He in terrestrial rocks. Chem. Geol., v. 66, 89-98.

Lange, T., and Hebert, D., 2001, A new site for Kr-85 measurements on groundwater samples: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 61, no. 3-6, p. 679-680.

Larin, I.K., Gushchin, A.G., and Maksimov, B.N., 1997, Assessment of greenhouse potential of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8, Chem. Phys. Reports, 16, 2111-2121.

Larsen, D., Gentry, R.W., and Solomon, D.K., 2003, The geochemistry and mixing of leakage in a semi-confined aquifer at a municipal well field, Memphis, Tennessee, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 18, no. 7, p. 1043-1063.

Lasa, J., Sliwka, I. and Drozdowicz, B., 1996, Simple method of electron capture detector calibration for quantitative measurements of F-11 and F-12 freons in the atmosphere Full source Journal of Chromatography A, v. 724(1-2), 265-270.

Law, C. S., A. J. Watson, M. I. Liddicoat, and T. Stanton, Sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer of biochemical and physical processes in an open-ocean iron fertilisation experiment, Deep-Sea Res. II, 45, 977-994, 1998.

Law, C.S., Martin, A.P., Liddicoat, M.I., Watson, A.J., Richards, K.J., and Woodward, E.M.S., 2001, A Langrangian SF6 tracer study of an anticyclonic eddy in the North Atlantic: Path evolution, vertical mixing and nutrient supply to the mixed layer. Deep Sea Res. Part II, 48, 705-724.

Law, C. S., Watson, A. J., and Liddicoat, M. I., 1994, Automated vacuum analysis of sulfur hexafluoride in seawater: derivation of the atmospheric trend (1979-1993) and potential as a transient tracer, Marine Chem., 48, 57-69.

Lee, B.-S., Bullister, J.L., Whitney, F.A., 1999, Chrorofluorocarbon CFC-11 and carbon tetrafluoride removal in Saanich Inlet, an intermediately anoxic basin, Marine Chem., 66, 171-185.

Ledwell, J.R., A.J. Watson, and C.S. Law, 1993, Evidence for Slow Mixing Across the Pycnocline from an Open-Ocean Tracer-Release Experiment: Nature, v.364, 701-703.

Ledwell, J. R., and Watson, A. J., 1991, The Santa Monica Basin Tracer Experiment: a study of diapycnal and isopycnal mixing, J. Geophys. Res., 96 C, 8695-8718.

Ledwell, J. R., and A. J. Watson, and C. S. Law, Mixing of a tracer in the polycline, J. Geophys. Res., 103(C10), 21499-21529, 1998.

Ledwell, J. R., and Watson, A. J., and Broecker, W. S., 1986, A deliberate tracer experiment in the Santa Monica Basin, Nature, 323, 322-324.

Lee, B.S., Bullister, J.L., Murray, J.W., and Sonnerup, R.E., 2002, Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara: Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 49, no. 5, p. 895-913.

LeGarrec, J.L., Sidko, O., Queffelec, J.L., Hamon, S., Mitchell, J.B.A. and Rowe, B.R., 1997, Experimental studies of cold electron attachment to SF6, CF3Br, and CCl2F2. Journal of Chemical Physics, v. 107(1), 54-63.

Lehmann, B.E., Love, A., Purtschert, R., Collon, P., Loosli, H.H., Kutschera, W., Beyerle, U., AeschbachHertig, W., Kipfer, R., Frape, S.K., Herczeg, A., Moran, J., Tolstikhin, I.N., and Groning, M., 2003, A comparison of groundwater dating with Kr-81, Cl-36 and He-4 in four wells of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 211, no. 3-4, p. 237-250.

Lehmann, B.E., Oeschger, H., Loose, H.H., Hurst, G.S., Allman, S.L., Chin, C.H., Kramer, S.D., Payne, M.G., Phillips, R.C., Willis, R.D., and Thonnard, N., 1985, Counting 81kr atoms for analysis of groundwater. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, B13, 11,547-11,551.

Lesage, S., Brown, S., and Hosler, K. R., 1992, Degradation of chlorofluorocarbon-113 under anaerobic conditions. Chemosphere, 24, 1225-1243.

Lesage, S., Jackson, R. E., Priddle, M. W., and Riemann, P. G., 1990, Occurrence and fate of organic solvent residues in anoxic groundwater at the Gloucester Landfill, Canada. Environ. Sci. Technol., 24, 559-566.

Lesage, S., Xu, H. and Novakowski, K.S., 1997, Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water. Ground Water, 35(1), 149-160.

Levin, I., Ciais, P., Langenfelds, R., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Sidorov, K., Tchebakova, N., Gloor, M., Heimann, M., Schulze, E.D., Vygodskaya, N.N., Shibistova, O., and Lloyd, J., 2002, Three years of trace gas observations over the EuroSiberian domain derived from aircraft sampling - a concerted action: Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology, v. 54, no. 5, p. 696-712.

Levin, I. and Hesshaimer, V, 1996, Refining of atmospheric transport model entries by the globally observed passive tracer distributions of 85krypton and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 101(D11), 16745-16755.

Li, S., and Wacket, L. P., 1993, Reductive dehalogenation by cytochrome P450CAM: substrate binding and catalysis. Biochemistry,32, 9355.

Li, X.Z., and Sun, J.M., 2001, Further formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water during heating: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, v. 11, no. 4, p. 343-348.

Li, J.X., Wang, J.Z., Li, H., Rao, Z., Li, Q., and Luo, S.G., 2003, The production and release of CFCs from coal combustion: Acta Geologica Sinica English Edition, v. 77, no. 1, p. 81-85.

Li, X.W., and Wunsch, C., 2004, An adjoint sensitivity study of chlorofluorocarbons in the North Atlantic - art. no. C01007: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 109, no. C1, p. 1007.

Liefer, R., Larsen, R., and Toonkel, L., 1982, Trends in stratospheric concentrations of trace gases in the northern hemisphere during the years 1974-1979, Geophys. Res. Lett., 9, 755-758.

Lindsey, B.D., Phillips, S.W., Donnelly, C.A., Speiran, G.K., Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., Focazio, M.J., Burton, W.C., and Busenberg, Eurybiades, 2003, Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4035, 201 p.

List, R. J., 1949, Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, Sixth ed., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., 527 p.

Liu, B.L., Phillips, F., Hoines, S., Campbell, A.R. and Sharma, P., 1995, Water movement in desert soil traced by hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, chloride, and chlorine-36, southern Arizona. J Hydrol, v. 168(1-4), 91-110.

Lobert, J.M., Butler, J.H., Baring, T.J., Montzka, S.M., Myers, R.C., and Elkins, J.W. (1995) OAXTC 92: Ocean/Atmosphere Exchange of Trace Compounds 1992: Oceanic measurements of HCFC-22, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CH3CCl3, CCl4, and N2O in the marine air and surface waters of the west Pacific Ocean (Aubust 3-October 21, 1992). NOAA Tech. Mem. ERL CMDL-9, 43p.

Lollar, B.S., Frape, S.K., and Weise, S.M., 1994, New sampling devices for environmental characterization of groundwater and dissolved gas chemistry (CH4, N2, He). Environmental Science & Technology, v. 28, p. 2423-2427.

Lollar, B.S., Slater, G.F., Sleep, B., Witt, M., Klecka, G.M., Harkness, M., and Spivack, J., 2001, Stable carbon isotope evidence for intrinsic bioremediation of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene at Area 6, Dover Air Force Base. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 261-269.

Long, Austin, Eastoe, Christopher J., Kaufmann, Ronald S., Martin, Jennifer G., Wirt, Laurie, and Finley, Jim B., 1993, High-precision measurement of chlorine stable isotope ratios. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 2907-2912.

Loosli, H.H., and H. Oeschger. 1978. Argon-39, carbon-14 and krypton-85 measurements in groundwater samples. In Isotope Hydrology 1978, pp. 931-945. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.

Loosli, H.H., Lehmann, B.E., and Balderer, W., 1989, Argon-39, argon-37 and krypton-85 isotopes in Stripa groundwaters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 53, 1825-1829.

Lopes, T.J., and Bender, D.A., 1998, Nonpoint source of volatiles organic compounds in urban areas-relative importance of land surfaces and air, Environ. Pollut., 101, 221-230.

Lopes, T.J., Fallon, J.D., Rutherford, D.W., and Hiatt, M.H., 2000, Volatile organic compounds in storm water from a parking lot. J. Envirn. Eng. ASCE, 126, 1160-1161.

Lovelock, J. E., 1971, Atmospheric fluorine compounds as indicators of air movements: Nature, v. 230, p. 379.

Lovelock, J. E., 1990, The electron-capture detector and green politics. LC-GC, 8, 854-860.

Lovelock, J. E., and Ferber, G. J., 1982, Exotic tracers for atmospheric studies, 1982, Atmos. Environ., 16, 1467-1471.

Lovelock, J. E., R. J. Maggs and R. A. Wade, Halogenated hydrocarbons in and over the Atlantic, Nature, 241, 194-196, 1973.

Lovley, D.R., and Goodwin, S., 1988, Hydrogen concentrations as an indicator of the predominant terminal electron-accepting reactions in aquatic sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 52, 2993-3003.

Lovley, D.R., and J.C. Woodward (1992) Consumption of Freon CFC-11 and CFC-12 by Anaerobic Sediments and Soils, Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, 925-929.

Lu, Q.B., and Sanche, L., 2002, Comment on ''Effects of cosmic rays on atmospheric chlorofluorocarbon dissociation and ozone depletion'' - Reply - art. no. 219802: Physical Review Letters, v. 8921, no. 21, p. 9802.

Ludin, A., R. Weppernig, G. Bönisch, and P. Schlosser. 1998. Mass spectrometric measurement of helium isotopes and tritium in water samples. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York. Report 98.6. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~noblegas/ms_ms/Ludin_et_al_MS_Paper.html

Luo, S., Ku, T.-L., Roback, R., Murrell, M., and McLing, T. L., 2000, In-stu radionuclide transport and preferential ground water flows at INEEL (Idaho): Decay-series disequilibrium studies, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 64, p. 867-881.

Lupton, J.E., 1983, Terrestrial inert gases: Isotope tracer studies and clues to primordial components in the mantle: Annual Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v. 11, p. 371-414.

Return to Top

M

MacDonald, A. M., Darling, W. George, Ball, Derek F., Oster, H., 2003, Identifying trends in groundwater quality using residence time indicators: an example from the Permian aquifer of Dumfries, Scotland. Hydrogeology Journal (2003), p. 504-517.

MacIntyre, S., Wanninkhof, R. and Chanton, J.P., 1995, Trace gas exchange across the air-water interface in freshwater and coastal marine environments. Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water (Series: Methods in Ecology), 52-97.

MacKenzie, D., 1996, The cool way to destroy CFCs. New Scientist, v. 149(2014), 24-24.

MacNeal, J. R., Rack, T. P., and Corns, R. R., 1990, Process for degassing aluminum melts with sulfur hexafluoride, U.S. Pat. Off. No. 4,959,101, Washington, D.C.

Mahara, Y., Habermehl, M.A., Miyakawa, K., Shimada, J., and Mizuochi, Y., 2007, Can the 4He clock be calibrated by 36Cl for groundwater dating? Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materias and Atoms, v. 259(1), 536-546. DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2007.01.198.

Maione, M., Mangani, F., Lattanzi, L., Arduini, J., and Bonasoni, P., 2002, Measurements of chlorofluorocarbons and their replacement compounds at Monte Cimone: Results obtained after eighteen months of observations: Annali di Chimica, v. 92, no. 4, p. 443-449.

Maione, M., Arduini, J., Mangani, G., and Geniali, A., 2004, Evaluation of an automatic sampling gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric instrument for continuous monitoring of trace anthropogenic gases: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 84, no. 4, p. 241-253.

Maiss M., and Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., 2000, A reversed trend in emissions of SF6 into the atmosphere? In Int. Symp. on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands 8-9 September, 1999, p. 1-6, Kluwer Academic Press.

Maiss M., and Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., 1998, Atmospheric SF6: Trends, sources, and prospects, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 3077-3086.

Maiss, M., and Levin, I., 1994, Global increase of SF6 observed in the atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 569-572.

Maiss, M., Ilmberger, and Munnich, K. O., 1994, Vertical mixing on Uberlingersee (Lake Constance) traced by SF6 and heat, Aquat. Sci., 56, 329-347.

Maiss, M., Ilmberger, J., Zenger, A., and Munnich, K. O., 1994, A SF6 tracer study of horizontal mixing in Lake Constance, Aquat. Sci., 56, 307-328.

Maiss, M., Steele, L.P., Francey, R.J., Fraser, P.J., Langenfelds, R.L., Trivett, N.B.A. and Levin, I., 1996, Sulfur hexafluoride - A powerful new atmospheric tracer. Atmospheric Environment, v. 30(10-11), 1621-1629.

Makide, Y., Chen, L., and Tominaga, T., 1994, Accurate measurements and changing trends in atmospheric concentrations of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CH3CCl3, etc.. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Global Cycles of Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases, p. 52-55, Tohubu University, Sendai, Japan, March 7-10, 1994.

Maloszenwski, P., and Zuber, A., 1982, Determining the turnover time of groundwater systems with the aid of environmental tracers. 1. Models and their applicability. Jour. Hydrol., v. 57, p. 207-231.

Maloszewski, P., Rauert, W., Stichler, W., and Herrmann, A., 1983, Application of flow models to an Alpine catchment area using tritium and deuterium data. Jour. Hydrology, v. 66, p. 319-330.

Mamyrin, B.A., and I.N. Tolstikhin, 1984, Helium Isotopes in Nature, Dev. Geochem., v.3, Elsevier, New York, 273pp.

Manga, M., and Kirchner, J.W., 2004, Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy - art. no. W05110: Water Resources Research, v. 40, no. 5, p. 5110.

Manga, M., 1999, On the timescales characterizing groundwater discharge at springs. J. Hydrol. 219, 56-69.

Mangani, F., Maione, J.L., Lattanzi, L., and Aduini, J., 2000, Atmospheric measurements of the halogenated hydrocarbons involved in global climate change phenomena. Atmos. Environ. 34, 5303-5309.

Mangani, F., Maione, M., Lattanzi, L., and Arduini, J., 2001, A ten years monitoring of chlorofluorocarbons at the Antarctica: Results and perspectives: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 4, p. 273-282.

Manley, S.L. and delaCuesta, J.L., 1997, Methyl iodide production from marine phytoplankton cultures. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 42(1), 142-147.

Mann, L. J., Purgeable organic compounds in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho -- 1988 and 1989, U.S. Geol. Survey Open-File Report 90-367, 17pp., 1990.

Mann, L. J., and L. L. Knobel, Purgeable organic compounds in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, U.S. Geol. Survey Open-File Report 87-766, 23pp., 1987.

Mann, L. J., and, L. D. Cecil, Tritium in ground water at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Resour. Invest. Report 90-4090, 35pp., 1990.

Manning, A.H., and Solomon, D.K., 2003, Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge: Journal of Hydrology, v. 275, no. 3-4, p. 194-207.

Manning, A.H., Solomon, D.K., and Sheldon, A.L., 2003, Applications of a total dissolved gas pressure probe in ground water studies: Ground Water, v. 41, no. 4, p. 440-448.

Manning, A.J., Ryall, D.B., Derwent, R.G., Simmonds, P.G., and ODoherty, S., 2003, Estimating European emissions of ozone-depleting and greenhouse gases using observations and a modeling back-attribution technique - art. no. 4405: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 108, no. D14, p. 4405.

Marcus, Y., 1997, Solubilities of buckminsterfullerene and sulfur hexafluoride in various solvents. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, v. 101(42), 8617-8623.

Marrero, T.R., and Mason, E.A., 1972, Gaseous diffusion coefficients. Jour. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, v. 1, 3-118.

Marty, B., Torgersen, T., Meynier, V., O'Nions, R.K., and DeMarsily, G., 1993, Helium isotope fluxes and groundwater ages in the Dogger Aquifer, Paris Basin: Water Resources Res., v. 29, no. 4 p. 1025-1035.

Massmann, J., and Farrier, D.F., 1992, Effects of atmospheric pressures on gas transport in the vadose zone. Water Resources Res., 28(3), 777-791.

Matear, R.J., and McNeil, B.I., 2003, Decadal accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the Southern Ocean: A comparison of CFC-age derived estimates to multiple-linear regression estimates - art. no. 1113: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 17, no. 4, p. 1113.

Matear, R.J. and Wong, C.S., 1997, Estimation of vertical mixing in the upper ocean at Station P from chlorofluorocarbons. Journal of Marine Research, v. 55(3), 507-521.

Matthess, G., The Properties of Groundwater, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 406p, 1982.

Mazor, E., 1972, Paleotemperatures and other hydrological parameters deduced from noble gases dissolved in groundwaters: Jordan Rift Valley, Isreal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 36, p. 1321-1336.

Mazor, E., 1977, Geothermal tracing with atmospheric and radiogenic noble gases. Geothermics, v. 5, 21-36.

Mazor, E., and Bosch, A., 1987, Noble gases in formation fluids from deep sedimentary basins: a review. Applied Geochem., v. 2, 621-627.

Mazor, E., and Verhagen, B. Th., 1983, Dissolved ions, stable isotopes and noble gases in thermal waters of South Africa: Journal of Hydrology, v. 63, p. 315-329.

Mazor, E., and Verhagen, B. Th., 1984, Dissolved ions, stable isotopes and noble gases in thermal waters of South Africa--reply: Journal of Hydrology, v. 72, p. 201-203.

McCarthy, R.L., F.A. Bower, and J.P. Jesson, The Fluorocarbon-Ozone Theory--1. Production and Release- World Production and Release of CCl3F and CCl2F2 (Fluorocarbons 11 and 12) Through 1975, Atmos. Environ., 11, 491-497, 1977.

McConnell, J.B., Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 1994, Water-resources data for the Valdosta area, Georgia, 1961-1993, U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 94-350, 58p.

McCulloch, A., Ashford, P., and Midgley, P.M., 2001, Historic emissions of fluorotrichloromethane (CFC-11) based on a market survey: Atmospheric Environment, v. 35, no. 26, p. 4387-4397.

McCulloch, A., 2002, Trichloroacetic acid in the environment: Chemosphere, v. 47, no. 7, p. 667-686.

McCulloch, A. 2003, Fluorocarbons in the global environment: a review of the important interactions with atmospheric chemistry and physics: Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, v. 123, no. 1, p. 21-29.

McCulloch, A., 1999, CFC and Halon replacements in the environment, J. Fluorine Chem., 100, 163-173.

McCulloch, A., and Midgley, P.M.,1998, Estimated historic emissions of fluorocarbons from the European Union: Atmos. Environ., 32, 1571-1580.

McCulloch, A., Midgley, P.M., and Fisher, D.A., 1994, Distribution of emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 11, 12, 113, 114, and 115 among reporting and non-reporting countries in 1986. Atmos. Environment, v. 28, p. 2567-2582.

McFarland, E. Randolph, 1997, Hydrogeologic framework, analysis of ground-water flow, and relations to regional flow in the Fall Zone near Richmond, Virginia. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resour. Investigations Report 97-4021, 56p.

McMahon, P.B., and Böhlke, J.K., 1996, Denitrification and mixing in a stream-aquifer system: effects on nitrate loading to surface water: Journal of Hydrology, v. 186, p. 105-128.

McMahon, P.B., Böhlke, J.K., and Bruce, B.W., 1999, Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado, USA. Water Resources Research, v. 35, p. 1629-1642.

McNeil, B.I., Matear, R.J., Key, R.M., Bullister, J.L., and Sarmiento, J.L., 2003, Anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean based on the global chlorofluorocarbon data set: Science, v. 299, no. 5604, p. 235-239.

Meredith, M.P., Van Scoy, K.A., Watson, A.J. and Locarnini, R.A., 1996, On the use of carbon tetrachloride as a transient tracer of Weddell Sea deep and bottom waters. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(21), 2943-2946.

Michel, R. M., Tritium Deposition in the Continental United States 1953-83, U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Resour. Invest. Report 89-4072, 46p, 1989.

Michel, R.L., 1992, Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records. Jour. Hydrol., v. 130, p. 367-378.

Michel, R.L., 2004, Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin: Hydrological Processes, v. 18, no. 7, p. 1255-1269.

Michel, R.L., and Turk, J.T., 1995, Use of sulfur-35 and tritium to study rates of sulfur migration in the Flat Tops Wilderness Area, Colorado. Isotopes in Water Resources Management, Vol. 1. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 293-301.

Michel, R.L., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., Izbicki, J.A., Martin, and Densmore, J.N., 1997, Use of tritium and chlorofluorocarbons to determine the rate of seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer. In Proceedings of the 13th Salt-Water Intrusion Meeting (G. Barrocu, Ed.), Cagliari, Italy, 5-10 June, 1994, p. 113-123.

Michel, R.L., Campbell, D., Clow, D., and Turk, J.T., 2000, Timescales for migration of atmospherically-derived sulphate through an alpine watershed, Loch Vale, Colorado. Water Resources Research, v. 36(1), p. 27-36.

Michelot, J.L., Fontes, J. Ch., Soreau, S., Lehmann, B.E., Loosli, H.H., Balderer, W., Elmore, D., Kubik, P.W., Wolfi, W., Beer, J., and Synal, A., 1989, Chlorine-36 in deep groundwaters and host-rocks of Northern Switzerland: sources, evolution and hydrological implications. Water-rock Interation, Miles (ed.), Rotterdam, p. 483-486.

Midgley, P. M., and Fisher, D. A., 1993, Production and release to the atmosphere of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22). Atmos. Environ., 27A, 2215-2223.

Midgley, P., 1997, New directions: HCFCs and HFCs: Halocarbon replacements for CFCs. Atmospheric Environment, v. 31(7), 1095-1096.

Midgley, P.M. and McCulloch, A., 1997, Estimated national releases to the atmosphere of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) during 1990. Atmospheric Environment, 31(6), 809-811.

Miller, B. R., Huang, J., Weiss, R. F., Prinn, R. G., and Fraser, P. J., 1998, Atmospheric trend and lifetime of dichlorofluoromethane (HCFC-22) and global tropospheric OH concentration: J. Geophys. Res.: 103 (D11), 13237-13248.

Milton, J.C.D., Milton, G.M., Andrews, H.R., Chant, L.A.., Cornett, R.J.J., Davies, W.G., Greiner, B.F., Imahori, Y., Koslowsky, V.T., Kotzer, T., Kramer, S.J., and McKay, J.W., 1997, C1 36 - A potential paleodating tool. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B123, 371-377.

Milton, G.M., Kramer, S.J., Kotzer, T.G., Milton, J.C.D., Andrews, H.R., Chant, L.A., Cornett, R.J., Davies, W.G., Greiner, B.F., Imahori, Y., Koslowsky, V.T. and McKay, J.W., 1997, Cl 36 - A potential paleodating tool. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B - Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, v. 123(1-4), 371-377.

Milton, J.C.D., Milton, G.M., Andrews, H.R., Chant, L.A., Cornett, R.J.J., Davies, W.G., Greiner, B.F., Imahori, Y., Koslowsky, V.T., Kotzer, T., Kramer, S.J. and McKay, J.W., 1997, A new interpretation of the distribution of bomb-produced chlorine-36 in the environment, with special reference to the Laurentian Great Lakes. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B - Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, v. 123(1-4), 382-386.

Min, D.H., Bullister, J.L., and Weiss, R.F., 2000, Constant ventilation age of thermocline water in the eastern subtropical North Pacific Ocean from chlorofluorocarbon measurements over a 12-year period, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3909-3912.

Min, D.H., Bullister, J.L., and Weiss, R.F., 2002, Anomalous chlorofluorocarbons in the Southern California Borderland Basins - art. no. 1955: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 20, p. 1955.

Minschwaner, K., Dessler, A.E., Elkins, J.W., Volk, C.M., Fahey, D.W., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J.R., Roche, A.E. and Chan, K.R., 1996, Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 101(D5), 9433-9439.2

Modica, E., H. T. Buxton, and L. N. Plummer, 1998, Evaluating the source and residence times of ground-water seepage to headweaters streams, New Jersey Coastal Plain, Water Resour. Res., 34, 2797-2810.

Modica, E., Reilly, T.E., and Pollock, D.W., 1997, Patterns and age distribution of ground-water flow to streams. Ground Water, v. 35, no. 3, p. 523-537.

Mohamed, M.F., Kang, D.W., and Aneja, V.P., 2002, Volatile organic compounds in some urban locations in United States: Chemosphere, v. 47, no. 8, p. 863-882.

Mohn, W. W., and Tiedje, J. M., 1992, Microbial reductive dehalogenation. Microbiol. Rev., 56, 482-507.

MollmannCoers, M., Klemp, D., Mannschreck, K., and Slemr, F., 2002, Determination of anthropogenic emissions in the Augsburg area by the source-tracer-ratio method: Atmospheric Environment, v. 36, p. S95-S107.

Molina, M. and F. S. Rowland, Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine atom catalyzed destruction of ozone, Nature, 249, 810-812, 1974.

Monfort, Jean-Pierre, and Pellegatta, Jean-Louis, 1991, Diffusion coefficients of the halocarbons CCl2F2 and C2Cl2F4 with simple gases. J. Chem. Eng. Data, v. 36, p. 135-137.

Montzka, S.A., Butler, J.H., Myers, R.C., Thompson, T.M., Swanson, T.H., Clarke, A.D., Lock, L.T. and Elkins, J.W., Decline in the tropospheric abundance of halogen from halocarbons: Implications for stratospheric ozone depletion. Science, v. 272(5266), 1318-1322.

Montzka, S.A., Myers, R.C., Butler, J.H., Elkins, J.W., Lock, L.T., Clarke, A.D. and Goldstein, A.H., 1996, Observations of HFC-134a in the remote troposphere. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(2), 169-172.

Mookherji, S., McCarty, G.W., and Angier, J.T., 2003, Dissolved gas analysis for assessing the fate of nitrate in wetlands: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 39, no. 2, p. 381-387.

Moore, R.M., Groszko, W. and Niven, S.J., 1996, Ocean-atmosphere exchange of methyl chloride: Results from NW Atlantic and Pacific Ocean studies. Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans, v. 101(C12), 28529-28538.

Morgenstern, U., Gellermann, R., Hebert, D., Borner, I., Stolz, W., Vaikmae, R., Rajamae, R., and Putnik, H., 1995, 32Si in limestone aquifers. Chem. Geol., v. 120, p. 127-134.

Morgenstern, O., Pyle, J.A., Iwi, A.M., Norton, W.A., Elkins, J.W., Hurst, D.F., and Romashkin, P.A., 2002, Diagnosis of mixing between middle latitudes and the polar vortex from tracer-tracer correlations - art. no. 4321: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 107, no. D17, p. 4321.

Morris, L., Caruana, D.J., and Williams, D.E., 2002, Simple system for part-per-billion-level volatile organic compound analysis in groundwater and urban air: Measurement Science & Technology, v. 13, no. 4, p. 603-612.

Morrison, T. J., and N. B. Johnstone, The salting out of non-electrolites, III, The inert gases and sulfur hexafluoride, J. Chem. Soc., 3655-3659, 1955.

Morris, R.A., Miller, T.M., Viggiano, A.A., Paulson, F.J., Solomon, S., and Reid, G., 1995, Effects of electron and ion reactions on atmospheric lifetimes of fully fluorinated compounds. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 1287-1294.

Moysey, S., Davis, S.N., Zreda, M., and Cecil, L.D., 2003, The distribution of meteoric Cl-36/Cl in the United States: a comparison of models: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 11, no. 6, p. 615-627.

Mroczek, E.K., 1997, Henry's law constants and distribution coefficients of sulfur hexafluoride in water from 25 degrees C to 230 degrees C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, v. 42(1), 116-119.

Muhlherr, I. H., and Hiscock, K. M., 1998, Nitrous oxide production and consumption in British limestone aquifers: Journal of Hydrology, 211, 126-139.

Munz, C., and Roberts, P. V., 1987, Air-water phase equilibria of volatile solutes. Res. Technol., 62-69.

Return to Top

N

Naftz, D.L., Susong, D.D., Schuster, P.F., Cecil, L.D., Dettinger, M.D., Michel, R.L., and Kendall, C., 2002, Ice core evidence of rapid air temperature increases since 1960 in alpine areas of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, United States - art. no. 4171: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 107, no. D13, p. 4171.

Naik, V., Jain, A.K., Patten, K.O., and Wuebbles, D.J., 2000, Consistent sets of atmospheric lifetimes and radiative forcings on climate for CFCs HFcs, 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 105, D5, 6903-6914.

Nastev, M., Therrien, R., Lefebvre, R., and Gelinas, P., 2001, Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 52, no. 1-4, p. 187-211.

National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council (1976) Halocarbons: Environmental Effects of Chlorofluoromethane Release, National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington, D.C., 1976.

Nelms, D.L., 1997, Use of Chlorofluorocarbons to Delineate Ground-Water-Flow Systems, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 1997 Annual Meeting, October 20-23, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Nelms, D.L., and Brockman, A.R., 1997, Hydrogeology of, and quality and recharge ages of ground water in, Prince William County, Virginia, 1990-91. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4009, 58p.

Nelson, N.T. and Brusseau, M.L., 1996, Field study of the partitioning tracer method for detection of dense nonaqueous phase liquid in a trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 30(9), 2859-2863.

Nelms, D.L., Harlow, G.E., Jr., Plummer, L.N., and Busenberg, Eurybiades, 2003, Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4278, 58p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri034278/

New wastewater method eliminates CFC use. Environmental Science & Technology, 1996, v. 30(4), A150-A150.

New Zealand Ministry of Health, 2000, Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand, 130p, http//www.moh.govt.nz/

Ng, W.Y., and Walkley, K., 1969, Diffusion of gases in liquids: the constant size bubble method. Canadian Jour. Chemistry, v. 47, p. 1075-1077.

Niedersen K.U., Lieske, E., and Kemnitz, E., 1999, Heterogeneous catalysed decomposition of CFCs, Green Chem. 225-229.

Nielsen, O.J., Nicolaisen, F.M., Bacher, C., Hurley, M.D., Wallington, T.J., and Shine, K.P., 2002, Infrared spectrum and global warming potential of SF5CF3: Atmospheric Environment, v. 36, no. 7, p. 1237-1240.

Nightingale, P.D., Liss, P.S., and Schlosser, P., 2000, Measurements of air-sea gas transfer during an open ocean algal bloom, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2117-2120.

Nilson, R.H., Peterson, E.W., Lie, K.H., Burkhard, N.R., and Hearst, J.R., 1991, Atmospheric pumping: A mechanism causing vertical transport of contaminated gases through fractured permeable media. Jour. Geophys. Res., 96(B13), 21,933-21948.

Nilson, R.H., Pagus, P.L., McKinnis, W.B., Hearst, J.R., Burkhard, N.R., and Smith, C.F., 1993, Field measurements of tracer gas transport induced by barometric pumping. Amer. Nuclear Soc., High-Level Radioactive Waste Conference Proceedings, Las Vegas, Nevada, p710-716.

Noakes, T., 2002, Medical aerosol propellants: Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, v. 118, no. 1-2, p. 35-45.

Nolte, E., Krauthan, P., Heim, U., and Korschinek, G., 1990, 36C1 measurements and dating of groundwater samples from the Milk River aquifer. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B52, 477-482.

Norris, A.E., Wolfsberg, K., Gifford, S.K., Bentley, H.W., and Elmore, D., 19871, Infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, traced by 36C1. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B29, 376-379.

Return to Top

O

O'Brien, R.N., and Hyslop, F., 1977, A laser interferometric study of the diffusion of O2, N2, H2, and Ar into water. Canadian Jour. Chemistry, v. 55, p. 1415-1421.

O'Connell, M.E., J.K. Böhlke, and K.L. Prestegaard, 1997, Low Recharge Rates Indicated by CFC Age Gradients in a Low Conductivity Aquifer, Maryland Coastal Plain, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 1997 Annual Meeting, October 20-23, Salt Lake City, Utah.

ODoherty, S., Cunnold, D.M., Manning, A., Miller, B.R., Wang, R.H.J., Krummel, P.B., Fraser, P.J., Simmonds, P.G., McCulloch, A., Weiss, R.F., Salameh, P., Porter, L.W., Prinn, R.G., Huang, J., Sturrock, G., Ryall, D., Derwent, R.G., and Montzka, S.A., 2004, Rapid growth of hydrofluorocarbon 134a and hydrochlorofluorocarbons 141b, 142b, and 22 from Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) observations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, and Mace Head, Ireland - art. no. D06310: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 109, no. D6, p. 6310.

Ogura, K., Kobayashi, W., Migita, C. T., and Kaku, K., 1992, Complete photodecomposition of CFC-113, CHCl3 and CCl4, and scavenging of generated reactive species, Environmental Science and Technology, 13, 81-88.

Olschewski, A., U. Fisher, M. Hofer, and R. Schulin, 1995, Sulfur hexafluoride as a gas tracer in soil venting operations, Environ. Sci. Tech., 29, 264-266.

Osenbruck, K., Lippmann, J., and Sonntag, C., 1998, Dating very old pore waters in impermeable rocks by noble gas isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 62(18), 3041-3045.

Oram D.E., Sturges W.T., Penkett S.A., McCulloch A. and Fraser P.J. (1998) Growth of fluoroform (CHF3, HFC-23) in the background atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 25(1), 35-38.

OReilly C., Jenkin, G.R.T., Feely, M., Alderton, D.H.M. and Fallick, A.E, 1997, A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of 200 Ma of fluid evolution in the Galway Granite, Connemara, Ireland. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 129(2-3), 120-142.

Oremland, R.S., Lonergan, D.J., Culbertson, C.W. and Lovley, D.R., 1996, Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 62(5), 1818-1821.

Orsi, A.H., Smethie, W.M., and Bullister, J.L., 2002, On the total input of Antarctic waters to the deep ocean: A preliminary estimate from chlorofluorocarbon measurements - art. no. 3122: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 107, no. C8, p. 3122.

Oster, H., Sonntag, C., and Munnich, K.O., 1996, Groundwater age dating with chlorofluorocarbons. Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 10, p. 2989-3001.

Oudijk, G., 2003, Estimating the minimum age of a chlorinated solvent plume in groundwater with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium methodologies: A case study: Environmental Forensics, v. 4, no. 1, p. 81-88.

Ou'rSzabo, Z., Rice, D.E., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Drenkard, S., and Schlosser, P., 1996, Age-dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey coastal plain: Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 4, p. 1023-1038.

Oxburgh, E. R., O'Nions, R. K., and Hill, R., 1986, Helium isotopes in sedimentary basins: Nature, v. 324, p. 632-635.

Ozima, M., and Podosek, F.A., 1983, "Noble Gas Geochemistry". Cambridge University Press, New York, 367p.

Ozyurt, N.N., and Bayari, C.S., 2003, LUMPED: a Visual Basic code of lumped-parameter models for mean residence time analyses of groundwater systems: Computers & Geosciences, v. 29, no. 1, p. 79-90.

Return to Top

P

Pack, D. H., J. G. Lovelock, G. Cotton and C. Curthoys, Halocarbon behavior from a long time series, Atmos. Environ., 11, 329-344, 1977.

Pankow, J.F., Luo, W.T., Bender, D.A., Isabelle, L.M., Hollingsworth, J.S., Chen, C., Asher, W.E., and Zogorski, J.S., 2003, Concentrations and co-occurrence correlations of 88 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air of 13 semi-rural to urban locations in the United States: Atmospheric Environment, v. 37, no. 36, p. 5023-5046.

Pankow, J. F., Magnitude of artifacts caused by bubbles and headspace in groundwater determination of volatile compounds in water, Anal. Chem., 58, 1822-1826, 1986.

Pankow, J. F., Minimization of volatilization gasses during sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds, p. 73-86. In: Significance and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water Supplies, N. M. Ram, Christman R. N. and K. P. Cantor (Eds.), Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan, 1990.

Pankow, J.F., Thomson, N.R., Johnson, R.L., Baehr, A.L. and Zogorski, J.S., 1997, The urban atmosphere as a non-point source for the transport of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to shallow groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(10), 2821-2828.

Park, M.K., Cho, H.M., Nam, J.C., Kim, J., and Kim, K.R., 2001, A simple interface for a gas chromatography system for air samples in sub-ambient pressure: Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, v. 22, no. 11, p. 1273-1276.

Park, T., Rettich, T. R., Battino, R., Peterson, D., and Wilhelm, E., 1982, Solubility of gases in liquids. 14. Bunsen coefficients for several fluorine-containg gases (freons) dissolved in water at 298.15 K: J. Chem.. Eng. Data, 27, 324-326.

Parks, W.S., Mirecki, J.E., and Kingsbury, J.A., 1995, Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Invest. Rept. 94-4212, 58p.

Patra, P.K. and Lal, S., 1997, Variability of eddy diffusivity in the stratosphere deduced from vertical distributions of N2O and CFC-12. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics, v. 59(10), 1149-1157.

Patra, P.K., and Santhanam, M.S., 2002, Comment on ''Effects of cosmic rays on atmospheric chlorofluorocarbon dissociation and ozone depletion'' - art. no. 219803: Physical Review Letters, v. 8921, no. 21, p. 9803.

Patra, P.K., Lal, S., Subbaraya, B.H., Jackman, C.H. and Rajaratnam, P., 1997, Observed vertical profile of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and its atmospheric applications. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D7), 8855-8859.

Peeters, F., Beyerle, U., AeschbachHertig, W., Holocher, J., Brennwald, M.S., and Kipfer, R., 2003, Improving noble gas based paleoclimate reconstruction and groundwater dating using Ne-20/Ne-22 ratios: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 67, no. 4, p. 587-600.

Peeters, F., Beyerle, U., AeschbachHertig, W., Brennwald, M.S., and Kipfer, R., 2004, Response to the comment by G. Favreau, A. Guero, and J. Seidel on ''Improving noble gas based paleoclimate reconstruction and groundwater dating using Ne-20/Ne-22 ratios'' (2003) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67, 587-600: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, no. 6, p. 1437-1438.

Peeters, F., Kipfer, R., Hohmann, R., Hofer, M., Imboden, D.M., Kodenev, G.G. and Khozder, T., 1997, Modeling transport rates in Lake Baikal: Gas exchange and deep water renewal. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(10), 2973-2982.

Perrin, T.E., Rasmussen, L.E.L., Gunawardena, R. and Rasmussen, R.A., 1996, A method for collection, long-term storage, and bioassay of labile volatile chemosignals. Journal of Chemical Ecology, v. 22(2), 207-221.

Phillips, P.J., L.N. Plummer, E. Busenberg, and S.A. Dunkle,1992, Use of Chlorofluorocarbon Dating to Determine Age of Shallow Ground Water in a Sandy Surficial Aquifer: EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v.73, p.130.

Phillips, P.J., and R.J. Shedlock, Hydrology and Chemistry of Groundwater and Seasonal Ponds in the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Delaware, USA, J. Hydrol., 141, 157-178, 1993.

Phillips, F.M., Mattick Julie L., Duval, Thomas A., Elmore, David, and Kkubik, Peter W., 1988, Chlorine 36 and tritium from nuclear weapons fallout as tracers for long-term liquid and vapor movements in desert soils. Water Resources Research 24, 11, 1877-1891.

Phillips, F.M., Rogers, David B., Dreiss, Shirley J., Jannik, Nancy O., and Elmore David, 1995, Chlorine 36 in Great Basin waters: revisited. Water Resources Research, 31, 12, 3195-4302.

Phillips, F.M., Smith, George I, Bentley, Harold W., Elmore, David, and Grove, Harry E. 1983, Chlorine-36 dating of saline sediments: Preliminary results from Searles Lake, California. Science 222, 925-927.

Phillips, F.M., Zreda, Marek G., Flinsch, Montgomery R., Elmore, Daavid, and Sharma, Panksj, 1996, A reevaluation of cosmogenic 36CI production rates in terrestrial rocks. Geophysical Research Letters, 23(9), 949-952.

Pickart, R.S., Smethie, W.M., Lazier, J.R.N., Jones, E.P. and Jenkins, W.J., 1996, Eddies of newly formed upper Labrador Sea water. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 101(C9), 20711-20726.

Pignatello, J.J. and Xing, B.S., 1996, Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 30(1), 1-11.

Plummer, L. Niel, Bexfield, Laura M., Anderholm, Scott K., Sanford, Ward E., and Busenberg, Eurybiades, 2004, Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4131 395p.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., and Böhlke, J.K. among authors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2006, Use of Chlorofluorocarbons in Hydrology: A Guidebook , STI/PUB/1238, 277 p., 111 figures, ISBN 92-0-100805-8

Plummer, L. N., and Busenberg, E., 1999, Chlorofluorocarbons: Tools for dating and tracing young groundwater: In, Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, Chapter 15, p. 441-478. P. Cook and A. Herczeg (eds.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Plummer, L. N., Busenberg, E., Sanford, W.E., Bexfield, L. M., Anderson, S.K., and Schlosser, P., Tracing and dating young ground water in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Geological Society of America, 1997 Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, 1997, p. A-135.

Plummer, L.N., 2005, Dating of young groundwater, In Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science, Pradeep K. Aggarwal, Joel R. Gat, and Klaus F.O. Froehlich (eds), Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p. 193-220.

Plummer, L.N., and Friedman, L.C., 1999, Tracing and dating young ground water. U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet-134-99, 4p.

Plummer, L. N., Rupert, M. G., Busenberg, E., and Schlosser, P., 2000, Age of irrigation water in groundwater from the Snake River Plain aquifer, South-Central Idaho: Ground Water, v. 38, p. 264-283.

Plummer, L.N. and Busenberg E., 1999, Chlorofluorocarbons. In P. Cook and A. Herczeg (Eds.) "Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology", Chapter 15. Kluwer Academic Press, 441-478.

Plummer, L.N., and Busenberg, E., 1993, CFC's-- Tools for age-dating and tracing shallow ground water. U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook Fiscal Year1992, p. 45-47.

Plummer, L.N., and Busenberg, E., Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as Tracers and Age-Dating Tools for Young Ground Water: Selected Field Examples. (Article for Proceedings, Joint U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Workshop on "Research Related to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal", May 4-6, 1993, Reston, VA.).

Plummer, L.N., Bohkle, J.K., and Busenberg, Eurybiades, 2003, Approaches for ground-water dating, in Lindsey, B.D., Phillips, S.W., Donnelly, C.A., Speiran, G.K., Plummer, L.N., Böhlke, J.K., Focazio, M.J., Burton, W.C., and Busenberg, Eurybiades, Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4035, p. 12-24.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Böhlke, J. K., Nelms, D. L., Michel, R. L., and Schlosser, P., 2001, Ground-water residence times in Shenandoah National Park, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, U.S.: A multi-tracer approach: Chemical Geology, (In press)

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Böhlke, J.K., Carmody, R.W., Casile, G.C., Coplen, T.B., Doughten, M.W., Hannon, J.E., Kirkland, W., Michel, R.L., Nelms, D.L., Norton, B.C., Plummer, K.E., Qi, H., Revesz, K., Schlosser, P., Spitzer, S., Wayland, J.E., and Widman, P.K., 2000b, Chemical and isotopic composition of water from springs, wells, and streams in parts of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, and vicinity, 1995 - 1999. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 00-373, 70p.

Plummer, L.N., McConnell, J.B., Busenberg, E., Drenkard, S., Schlosser, P., and Michel, R.L., 1998, Flow of river water into a karstic limestone aquifer-1. Tracing the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia. Applied Geochemistry v. 13(8), p. 995-1015.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Drenkard, S., Schlosser, P., McConnell, J.B., Michel, R.L., Ekwurzel, B., and Weppernig, R., 1998, Flow of river water into a karstic limestone aquifer-2. Dating the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia. Applied Geochemistry, v. 13(8), p. 1017-1043.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Sanford, W. E., Bexfield, L.M., and Anderholm, S.K., 1997, Tracing and dating young ground water in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Abstract. Geol. Soc. Amer., 1997 Annual Meeting, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 6, p. A-135-136.

Plummer, L.N., S.A. Dunkle, and E. Busenberg, 1993, Chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as Dating Tools and Hydrologic Tracers in Shallow Ground Water of the Delmarva Peninsula--Data Tabulation, U.S. Geol. Surv. Open File Rep., 93-484, 56 p.

Plummer, L.N., Michel, R.L., Thurman, E.M., and Glynn, P.D., 1993, Environmental tracers for age-dating young ground water: In, Alley, W.M., ed., Regional Ground-Water Quality, Chap. 11, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 255-294.

Plummer, L. N., D. L. Nelms, E. Busenberg, J. K. Böhlke, and P. Schlosser, Residence times of ground water and spring water in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Geol. Soc. Am., Annual Meeting, Denver Colorado, Abstracts and Programs, 31, 1999.

Plummer, L. N., Bexfield, Laura M., Anderholm, Scott K., Sanford, Ward E., and Busenberg, Eurybiades, 2001, Using geochemical data to trace and date ground water recharge in parts of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico. Geological Society of America, 2001 Abstracts with Programs, v. 33, no. 5, p. A-1.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Böhlke, J.K., Nelms, D.L., Michel, R.L., and Schlosser, P., 2001, Groundwater residence times in Shenandoah National Park, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, USA: A multi-tracer approach. Chemical Geology, v. 179/1-4, p. 93-111.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Böhlke, J.K., Nelms, D.L., Michel, R.L., and Schlosser, P., 2000, Ground-Water Residence Times and Water-Quality Trends in Spring Discharge from Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000, Eos., v. 80(9), p. S260.

Plummer, L.N., Bexfield, L.M., Anderholm, S.K., Sanford, W.E., and Busenberg, E., 2000, Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in parts of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, in Cole, J.C., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Middle Rio Grande Basin Study -- Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 15-16, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-488, p. 7-10.

Plummer, M.A., Phillips, Fred M., Fabryka-Martin, June, Turin, H.J., Wigand, Peter E., and Sharma, Pandaj, 1997, Chlorine-36 in fossil rat urine: An archive of cosmogenic nuclide deposition during the past 40,000 years. Science 277, 538-541.

Podosek, F. A., Honda, M., and Ozima, M., 1980, Sedimentary noble gases: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 44, p. 1875-1884.

Pope, D.A., D.W. Clark, S.D. Shapiro, and S.M. Lawlor, 1999, Hydrogeologic, Geophysical, Water-Quality, Transient-Tracer, and Flow-Model Analysis of the Ground-Water Flow System Near Dillon, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4250, 75p.

Poreda, R.J., T.E. Cerling and D.K. Solomon. 1988. Tritium and helium isotopes as hydrologic tracers in a shallow unconfined aquifer. Journal of Hydrology 103:1-9.

Portniaguine O. and Solomon D.K. (1998) Parameter estimation using groundwater age and head data, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Water resources Research 34(4), 637-645.

Prather, M.J. (1995) Atmospheric lifetimes of HCFCs and HFCs: Current estimates and uncertainties. Proceedings NASA/NOAA/AFEAS Workshop on the Atmospheric Degradation of HCFCs and HFCs, November 17-19, 1993, Boulder Colo., 1.1-1.19.

Prather, M. J., 1985, Continental sources of halocarbons and nitrous oxide. Nature, 317, 221-225.

Prather, M., McElroy, M., Wofsy, S., Russel, G., and Rind, D., 1987, Chemistry of the global troposphere: Fluorocarbons as tracers of air motion. J. Geophys. Res., 92D, 6579-6613.

Price, R.M., Top, Z., Happell, J.D., and Swart, P.K., 2003, Use of tritium and helium to define groundwater flow conditions in Everglades National Park - art. no. 1267: Water Resources Research, v. 39, no. 9, p. 1267.

Prinn, R.G., 2003, The cleansing capacity of the atmosphere: Annual Review of Environment and Resources, v. 28, p. 29-57.

Prinn, R. G., Simmonds, P. G., Rasmussen, R. A., Rosen, R. D., Alyea, F. N., Cardelino, C. A., Crawford, A. J., Cunnold, D. M., Fraser, P. J., and Lovelock, J. E., 1983, The atmospheric lifetime experiment. 1. Introduction, instrumentation, and overview. J. Geophys. Res., 88C, 8353-8367.

Prinn, R. G., Weiss, R. F., Fraser, P. J., Simmonds, P. G., Cunnold, D. M., Alyea, F. N., O'Doherty, S., Sa;ameh. P., Miller, B. R., Huang. J., Wang, R. H. J., Hartley, D. E., Harth, C., Steele, L. P., Sturrock, G., Midgley, P. M., and McCulloch, 2000, A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE: J. Geophys. Res. D14, 105, 17751-17792.

Prinn, R.G., Weiss, R.F., Miller, B.R., Huang, J., Alyea, F.N., Cunnold, D.M., Fraser, P.J., Hartley, D.E., and Simmonds, P.G., 1995, Atmospheric trends and lifetime of CH3CCl3 and global OH concentrations. Science, 269, p. 187-192.

Pruvost, J.C., O, Marty, Y., and Le Corre, P., 1999, A sampling device for collection and analysis of volatile halocarbons in coastal oceanic waters: Analyst, 124, 1389-1394.

Prych, E.A., Using chloride and chlorine-36 as soil-water tracers to estimate deep percolation at selected locations on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, 2481.

Puckett, L.J., and Cowdery, T.K., 2002, Transport and fate of nitrate in a glacial outwash aquifer in relation to ground water age, land use practices, and redox processes: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 31, no. 3, p. 782-796.

Puckett, L.J., Cowdery, T.K., McMahon, P.B., Tornes, L.H., and Stoner, J.D., 2002, Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system - art. no. 1134: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 8, p. 1134.

Purdy, Caroline Bacom, Helz, George R., Mignerey, Alice C., Kubik, Peter W., elmore, David, Sharma, Pankaj, and Hemmick, Thomas, 1996, Aquia aquifer dissolved Cl- and 36Cl/Cl: Implications for flow velocities. Water Resources Research, 32(5), 1163-1171.

Purdy, Caroline Bascom, Helz, George R., Mignerey, Alice C., Kubik, Peter W., Elmore, David, Sharma, Pankau, and Hemmick, Thomas, 1996, Aquia aquifer dissolved C1- and 36C1/C1: Implications for flow. Water Resources Research, 32(5), 1163-1171.

Return to Top

R

Rademacher, L. K., Clark, J. F., Boles, J. R., 2002, Groundwater residence times and flow paths in fractured rock determined using environmental tracers in the Mission Tunnel; Santa Barbara County, California, USA in Environmental Geology (2003) p. 557-567.

Rademacher, L. K., Clark, J. F., Hudson, G. B., 2002, Temporal changes in stable isotope composition of spring waters: Implications for recent changes in climate and atmospheric circulation in Geology, February 2002, Volume 30, Number 2, p. 139-142.

Rademacher, L. K., Clark, J. F., Hudson, G. B., Erman, D. C., Erman, N. A., 2001, Chemical evolution of shallow groundwater as recorded by springs, Sagehen basin; Nevada County, California in Chemical Geology 179 (2001) p. 37-51.

Ramanathan, V., Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons: climatic implications, Sci., 190, 50-52, 1975.

Randall, J.H., and T.R. Shultz. 1976. Chlorofluorocarbons as hydrologic tracers: A new technology. Hydrology Water Resources Arizona Southwest 6:189-95.

Randall, J.H., Schultz, T.R., and Davis, S.N., 1977, Suitability of fluorocarbons as tracers in ground water resources evaluation. Technical report to Office of Water Research and Technology, NTIS PB 277 488, 37pp.

Rank, D. W. Papesch, V. Rajner, and G. Riehl-Herwirsch, Environmental Isotope Study at the Breitenau Experimental Landfill (Lower Australia), in Tracer Hydrology, H. Hotzl & A. Werner (eds), Proceedings of the 6th International Symopsium on Water Tracing, Karlsruhe, Germany, Sept.21-26, Balkema, Rotterdam, 173-177, 1992.

Rasmussen, R. A. and M. A. K. Khalil, Atmospheric trace gases: Trends and distribution over the last decade, Sci., 232, 1623-1624, 1986.

Rasmussen, R. A. and M. A. K. Khalil, Interlaboratory comparison, preparation, and stability of dichlorofluoromethane samples and standards, Anal. Chem., 55, 1834-1836, 1983.

Rasmussen, R. A., and Khalil, M. A. K., 1983, Atmospheric trace gases at the South Pole, Antarct. J., U.S., 18, 250-252.

Rasmussen, R. A., and Lovelock, J. E., 1983, The atmospheric lifetime experiment. 2. Calibration. J. Geophys. Res., 88C, 8369-8378.

Rathburn, R.E., 1998, Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams, US Geological Survey Prof. paper 1589, pp. 151.

Ravishankara, R. A., Solomon, S., Turnipseed, A. A., and Warren, R. F., 1993, Atmospheric lifetimes of long-lived species, Sci., 259, 194-199.

Redwine, J.C., and Howell, J.R., 2002, Geochemical methods for distinguishing surface water from groundwater in the Knox Aquifer System: Environmental Geology, v. 42, no. 5, p. 485-491.

Reilly, T.E., Plummer L.N., Phillips P.J. and Busenberg E. (1994) Estimation and corroboration of shallow ground-water flow paths and travel times by environmental tracer and hydraulic analyses-- A case study near Locust Grove, Maryland. Water Resources Research 30, 421-433.

Reinecke, S.A., and Sleep, B.E., 2002, Knudsen diffusion, gas permeability, and water content in an unconsolidated porous medium - art. no. 1280: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 12, p. 1280.

Reynolds, G. W., Hoff, J. T., and Gillham, R. W., 1990, Sampling bias caused by materials used to monitor halocarbons in groundwater, Environ. Sci. Technol., 24, 135-142.

Rhein, M., 1991, Ventilation rates of the Greenland and Norwegian Seas derived from distributions of the chlorofluoromethanes F11 and F12. Deep Sea Res., 38, 485-503.

Rhein, M., Fischer, J., Smethie, W.M., SmytheWright, D., Weiss, R.F., Mertens, C., Min, D.H., Fleischmann, U., and Putzka, A., 2002, Labrador Sea Water: Pathways, CFC inventory, and formation rates: Journal of Physical Oceanography, v. 32, no. 2, p. 648-665.

Rhew, R.C., Miller, B.R., Bill, M., Goldstein, A.H., and Weiss, R.F., 2002, Environmental and biological controls on methyl halide emissions from southern California coastal salt marshes: Biogeochemistry, v. 60, no. 2, p. 141-161.

Rice, K.C., and Hornberger, G.M., 1998, Comparison of hydrochemical tracers to estimate source contributions to peak flow in a small, forested, headwater catchment. Water Resources Research, v. 34(7), p. 1755-1766.

Rinsland, C. P., Brown, L. R., and Farmer, C.B., 1990, Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 5577-5585.

Rinsland, C. P., Goldman, A., Murcray, F. J., Blatherwick, R. D.,Kosters, J. J., Murcray, D. G., Sze, N. D., and Massie, S. T., 1990, Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2, and COF2 in the lower stratosphere from analysis of high-resolution infrared solar occulation spectra, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16477-16490.

Rinsland, C. P., Gunson, M. C., Abram, M. C., Lowes, L. L., Zander, R., and Mahieu, E., 1993, ATMOS/ATLAS 1 measurements of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 20491-20494.

Rinsland, C.P., Mahieu, E., Zander, R., Gunson, M.R., Salawitch, R.J., Chang, A.Y., Goldman, A., Abrams, M.C., Abbas, M.M., Newchurch, M.J. and Irion, F.W., 1996, Trends of OCS, HCN, SF6, CHClF2, (HCFC-22) in the lower stratosphere from 1985 and 1994 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy experiment measurements near 30 degrees N latitude. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(17), 2349-2352.

Rittmeyer, C., Kaese, P., Vehlow, J. and Vilohr, W., 1994, Decomposition of Organohalogen Compounds in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants .2. Co-Combustion of CFC Containing Polyurethane Foams. Chemosphere, v. 28(8), 1455-1465.

Robertson, W.D., and J.A. Cherry, 1989, Tritium as an Indicator of Recharge and Dispersion in a Groundwater System in Central Ontario, Water Resources Research, 25(6), 1097-1109.

Roedder, Edwin, 1972, Composition of fluid inclusions: in Data of geochemistry (6th ed.), Fleischer, Michael ed., U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 440-JJ, 164 p.

Roehl, C.M., Boglu, D., Bruhl, C. and Moortgat, G.K., Infrared Band Intensities and Global Warming Potentials of CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, and C6F14. Geophys Res Lett, v. 22(7), 815-818.

Roether, W., 1967, Estimating the tritium input function to groundwater from wine samples: Groundwater and direct runoff contribution to central European surface waters: In: Isotopes in Hydrology, Proceedings of the IAEA, Vienna, p. 73-91.

Roether, W., Klein, B., and Bulsiewicz, K., 2001, Apparent loss of CFC-113 in the upper ocean. J. Geophys. Res.106 (C2), 2679-2688.

Roether, W., Schlitzer, R., Putzka, A., Beining, P., Bulsiewicz, K., Rohardt, G., and Delahoyde, F., 1993, A chlorofluoromethane and hydrographic section across Drake Passage: Deep water ventilation and meridional property transport. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 14,423-14,435.

Roling, W.F.M., vanBreukelen, B.M., Braster, M., Lin, B., and vanVerseveld, H.W., 2001, Relationships between microbial community structure and hydrochemistry in a landfill leachate-polluted aquifer: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 67, no. 10, p. 4619-4629.

Rose, S., 1993, Environmental tritium systematics of baseflow in Piedmont Province watersheds, Georgia (USA). Jour. Hydrol., v. 143, p. 191-216.

Rowe, G.L. Jr., S.D. Shapiro, and P. Schlosser, 1999, Use of Environmental Tracers to Evaluate Ground-Water Age and Water-Quality Trends in a Buried-Valley Aquifer, Dayton Area, Southwestern, Ohio: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4113, 81p.

Rowland, F. S., 1991, Stratospheric ozone in the 21st: The chlorofluorocarbon problem., Environ. Sci. Technol., 25, 622-628.

Rowland, F.S., 1996, Stratospheric ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (Nobel lecture). Angewandte Chemie -International Edition in English, v. 35(16), 1786-1798.

Rozanski, K. 1979. Krypton-85 in the atmosphere 1950-1977, A data review. Environmental International 2:139-143.

Rozanski, K. and T. Florkowski. 1979. Krypton-85 dating of groundwater. pp. B37-B42 In Isotope Hydrology 1978, Vol. II, pp. 949-961, Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-SM-228/51.

Rozanski, K., R. Gonfiantini, and L Araguas-Araguas, 1991, Tritium in the global atmosphere: Distribution patterns and recent trends. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., v. 17, p. S523-S536.

Rubel, A.P., Sonntag, C., Lippmann, J., Pearson, F.J., and Gautschi, A.A., 2002, Solute transport in formations of very low permeability: Profiles of stable isotope and dissolved noble gas contents of pore water in the Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri, Switzerland: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66, no. 8, p. 1311-1321.

Rudolph, J., Rath, H.K., and Sonntag, C., 1984, Noble gases and stable isotopes in 14C-dated paleowaters from Central Europa and the Sahara. In Isotope Hydrology 1983, IAEA, Vienna, p. 467-477.

Rueedi, J., Brennwald, M.S., Purtschert, R., Beyerle, U., Hofer, M., and Kipfer, R., 2005, Estimating amount and spatial distribution of groundwater recharge in the Iullemmeden basin (Niger) based on 3H, 3He and CFC-11 measurements. Hydrol. Process. 19, 3285-3298. DOI:10.1002/hyp.5970.

Rugge, K., Bjerg, P.L. and Christensen, T.H., 1995, Distribution of organic compounds from municipal solid waste in the groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark). Environ Sci Technol, v. 29(5), 1395-1400.

Rupert, Michael G., and Plummer, L. Niel, 2004, Ground-water age and flow at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument, south-central Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3051, 2p. http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/fs20043051

Rupert, Michael G., and Plummer, L. Niel, 2004, Ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, south-central Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5027, 28p. http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5027

Russellm A.D. and Thompson G.M. (1983) Mechanism leading to enrichment of the atmospheric fluorocarbons CCl3F and CCl2F2 in groundwater. Water Resources Research 19, 57-60.

Ryall, D. B., Maryon, R. H., Derwent, R. G., and Simmonds, P. G., 1998, Modelling long-range transport of CFCs to Mace Head, Ireland, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 417-446.

Return to Top

S

Sabine, C.L., Feely, R.A., Gruber, N., Key, R.M., Lee, K., Bullister, J.L., Wanninkhof, R., Wong, C.S., Wallace, D.W.R., Tilbrook, B., Millero, F.J., Peng, T.H., Kozyr, A., Ono, T., and Rios, A.F., 2004, The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2: Science, v. 305, no. 5682, p. 367-371.

Sailer, W., Drexel, H., Pelc, A., Grill, V., Mason, N.J., Illenberger, E., Skalny, J.D., Mikoviny, T., Scheier, P., and Mark, T.D., 2002, Low energy electron attachment to SF5CF3: Chemical Physics Letters, v. 351, no. 1-2, p. 71-78.

Salhani, N., and Stengel, E., 2001, A comparative study of the gas exchange potential between three wetland species using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer: Ecological Engineering, v. 18, no. 1, p. 15-22.

Salvamoser, J. 1983. 85Kr for groundwater dating: Measurement-models-applications. In International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology in Water Resources Development, Extended Absts., p. 128, Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-SM-270.

Sanford, W.E., Shropshire, R.G., and Solomon, D.K., 1996, Dissolved gas tracers in groundwater: Simplified injection, sampling, and analysis. Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 6, p. 1635-1642, 1996.

Santella, Nicholas, Ho, David T., Schlosser, Peter, and Stute, Martin, 2008, Widespread elevated atmospheric SF6 mixing ratios in the Northeastern United States: Implications for groundwater dating. Jour. Hydrol. 349, 139-146. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.10.031.

Santella, N, Ho, D.T., Schlosser, P., and Stute, M., 2003, Distribution of atmospheric SF6 near a large urban area as recorded in the vadose zone. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 1069-1074.

Sauter, E.J., Laier, T., Andersen, C.E., Dahlgaard, H., and Schlüter, M., 2001, Sampling of sub-seafloor aquifers by a temporary well for CFC age dating and natural tracer investigations: Journal of Sea Research, v. 46, no. 2, p. 177-185.

Schall, C., Heumann, K.G. and Kirst, G.O., 1997, Biogenic volatile organoiodine and organobromine hydrocarbons in the Atlantic Ocean from 42 degrees N to 72 degrees S. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, v. 359(3), 298-305.

Schall, C., Laturnus, F. and Heumann, K.G., 1994, Biogenic Volatile Organoiodine and Organobromine Compounds Released from Polar Macroalgae. Chemosphere, v. 28(7), 1315-1324.

Scharlin, P., and Battino, R., 1995, Solubility of CCl2F2, CClF3, CF4, and CH4 in water and seawater at 288.15-303.15 K and 101.325 kPa. Jour. Cehmical & Engineering Data, v. 40, p. 167-169.

Schauffler, S.M., Pollock, W.H., Atlas, E.L., Heidt, L.E. and Daniel, J.S., 1995, Atmospheric Distributions of HCFC 141b. Geophys Res Lett, v. 22(7), 819-822.

Scheffel, C., Blinov., A., Massonet, S., Sachsenhauser, H., Stan-Sion, C., Beer, J., Synal, H.A., Kubik, P.W., Kaba, M., Nolte, E., 1999, 36Cl in modern atmospheric precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1401-1404.

Scheutz, C., and Kjeldsen, P., 2003, Capacity for biodegradation of CFCs and HCFCs in a methane oxidative counter-gradient laboratory system simulating landfill soil covers: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 37, no. 22, p. 5143-5149.

Schlatter, J.W., Wuest A. and Imboden D.M. (1997) Hypolimnetic density currents traced by sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Aquatic Sciences 59, 225-242.

Schlosser, P., M. Stute, C. Sonntag, and K.O. Munnich. 1989. Tritiogenic 3He in shallow groundwater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 94:245-256.

Schlosser, P., M. Stute, H. Dorr, C. Sonntag, and K.O. Munnich, 1988, Tritium/3He dating of shallow groundwater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 89, p. 353-362.

Schlosser, P., Shapiro, S.D., Stute, M., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Plummer, N., and Busenberg, E., 1998, Tritium/3He measurements in young groundwater-Chronologies for environmental records. In "Isotope Techniques in the Study of Environmental Change", Proceedings of an International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in the Study of Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere. IAEA, Vienna, 14-18 April 1997, p.165-189.

Schlosser, P., 1992, Tritium/3He Dating of Waters in Natural Systems. In Isotopes of Noble Gases as Tracers in Environmental Studies. IAEA, Vienna, p. 123-145.

Schlosser, P., Bullister, J.L., Bayer, R., 1991, Studies of deep water formation and circulation in the Weddell Sea using natural and anthropogenic tracers. Marine Chem., 35, 97-122.

Schlosser, P., S.D. Shapiro, M. Stute, and N. Plummer, 2000, Tritium/3He Measurements in Young Groundwater: Progress in Applications to Complex Hydrogeologic Systems: Proceedings of TRAM 2000 Conference, Liege, Belgium, May 2000.

Schroeder, R.A., Martin, P., and Böhlke, J.K., 1993, Chemical, isotopic, and microbiological evidence for denitrification during transport of domestic wastewater through a thick unsaturated zone in the Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-414, 10 p.

Schultz, T. R., 1979, Trichlorofluoromethane as a ground-water tracer for finite-state models. PH.D. Dissertation University of Arizona.

Schultz, T.R., J.H. Randall, L.G. Wilson, and S.N. Davis, 1976, Tracing Sewage Effluent Recharge- Tucson, Arizona, Ground Water, 14, 463-470.

Sebol, L.A., Robertson, W.D., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., Ryan, M.C., and Schiff, S.L., 2007, Evidence for CFC degradation under pyrite oxidizing conditions. Jour. Hydrol. V. 347, p. 1-12.

Sellschop, E.P.F., 1987, Progress in accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B29, 439-445.

Semprini, L., Hopkins G.D., Roberts P.V. and McCarty P.L. (1990) In-situ biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1,-trichloroethane, Freon-11, and Freon-12 under anoxic conditions. (abstract). Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union 71, 1324.

Semprini, L., Hopkins, G. D., McCarty, P. L., and Roberts, P. V., 1992, In-situ transformation of carbontetrachloride and other compounds resulting from biostimulation under anoxic conditions., Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, 2454-2461.

Severinghaus, J.P., Keeling, R.F., Miller, B.R., Weiss, R.F., Deck, B. and Broecker, W.S., 1997, Feasibility of using sand dunes as archives of old air. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D14), 16783-16792.

Shapiro, A. M., Wood, W. W., Busenberg, E., Durenkard, S., Plummer, L. N., Torgersen, T., and Schlosser, P., 1993, A conceptual model for estimating regional fluid velocity in the bedrock of the Mirror Lake area, Grafton County, New Hampshire: in Mallard, G. E., and Aronson, D. A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4014, p. 171-177.

Shapiro, A.M., 1996, Using environmental tracers to estimate matrix diffusion in fractured rock over distances of kilometers: Results from the Mirror Lake Site, New Hampshire. (abstract), Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 77, p. S107.

Shapiro, A.M.., 2001, Effective matrix diffusion in kilometer-scale transport in fractured crystalline rock, Water Resour. Res., 37, 507-522.

Shapiro A.M. (1996) Using environmental tracers to estimate matrix diffusion in fractured rock over distances of kilometers: Results from the Mirror Lake Site, New Hampshire. (abstract), Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 77, p. S107.

Shapiro, A.M., 2002, Cautions and suggestions for geochemical sampling in fractured rock: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 22, no. 3, p. 151-164.

Shapiro, S.D., Busenberg, E., Focazio, M.J., and Plummer, L.N., 2004, Historical trends in occurrence and atmospheric inputs of halogenated volatile organic compounds in untreated ground water used as a source of drinking water. Science of the Total Environment, v. 321, 201-217.

Shapiro, S.D., Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 2004, The stability of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in ground water samples archived in borosilicate ampoules. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 04-1392, 30p, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1392/.

Shapiro, S.D., Busenberg, E., Focazio, M.J., and Plummer, L.N., 2004, Historical trends in occurrence and atmospheric inputs of halogenated volatile organic compounds in untreated ground water used as a source of drinking water. Science of the Total Environment, v. 321, 201-217.

Shapiro, S.D., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., and Focazio, M.J., 2003, Data from archived chromatograms on halogenated volatile organic compounds in untreated ground water used for drinking water in the United States, 1997-2000. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 03-352, 31pp.

Shapiro, S.D., Dunkle, Plummer, L. Niel, Focazio, Michael J., Busenberg, Eurybiades, Kirkland, Wandee, and Fernandez, Mario, Jr., 2003, Occurrence of volatile organic compounds in drinking water from the United States: Results from archived chromatograms and water samples, 1989-2000. U.S, Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, WRIR 02-4173, 20 p.

Shapiro, S.D., 1998, Evaluation of the 3H-3He Dating Technique in Complex Hydrologic Environments: Ph.D. Dissertation, 254 p., Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Columbia University in the City of New York.

Shapiro, S.D., Schlosser P., Smethie W.M., Jr. and Stute M. (1997) The use of 3H and tritiogenic 3He to determine CFC degradation and vertical mixing rates in Framvaren Fjord, Norway. Journal of Marine Chemistry 59, 141-157.

Shapiro, S.D., Rowe G., Schlosser P., Ludin A. and Stute M. (1998) Tritium-helium 3 dating under complex conditions in hydraulically stressed areas of a buried-valley aquifer. Water Resources Research 34(5), 1165-1180.

Shapiro, S.D., D. LeBlanc, P. Schlosser, and A. Ludin, 1999, Characterizing a Sewage Plume Using the 3H-3He Dating Technique: Ground Water, v.37, no.6, pp.861-878.

Shedlock, Robert J., Denver, Judith M., Hayes, Martha A., Hamilton, Pixie A., Koterba, Michael T., Bachman, L. Joseph, Phillips, Patrick J., and Banks, William S.L., 1999, Water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia: Results of Investigations, 1987-91. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2355-A, 41p.

Sheets, R. A., Bair, S. E., Rowe, G. L., 1998, Use of 3H/3He ages to evaluate and improve groundwater flow models in a complex buried-valley aquifer in Water Resources Research, Volume 34, Number 5, p. 1077-1089.

Sheldon, A.L., Solomon, D.K., Poreda, R.J., and Hunt, A., 2003, Radiogenic helium in shallow groundwater within a clay till, southwestern Ontario - art. no. 1331: Water Resources Research, v. 39, no. 12, p. 1331.

Sherlock, V.J., Jones, N.B., Matthews, W.A., Murcray, F.J., Blatherwick, R.D., Murcray, D.G., Goldman, A., Rinsland, C.P., Bernardo, C. and Griffith, D.W.T., 1997, Increase in the vertical column abundance of HCFC-22 (CHClF2) above Lauder, New Zealand, between 1985 and 1994. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D7), 8861-8865.

Shirai, T., and Makide, Y., 1998, Rapidly increasinf concentrations of CFC alternatives (HCFC-134a, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b) in the atmosphere as observed min Hokkaido and Antarctica, Chem. Letters, 357-358.

Shultz, T.R. 1979. Trichlorofluoromethane as a ground-water tracer for finite-state models. Tucson, Arizona: Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. Arizona.

Shultz, T.R., J.H. Randall, L.G. Wilson, and S.N. Davis. 1976. Tracing sewage effluent recharge - Tucson, Arizona. Ground Water 14:463-70.

Sidle, W.C., 2006, Apparent 85Kr ages of groundwater within the Royal watershed, Maine, USA. Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, 91, 113-127. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.08.011.

Sidorov, K., Sogachev, A., Langendorfer, U., Lloyd, J., Nepomniachii, I.L., Vygodskaya, N.N., Schmidt, M., and Levin, I., 2002, Seasonal variability of greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere above the eastern European taiga (Syktyvkar, Russia): Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology, v. 54, no. 5, p. 735-748.

Simmonds, P.G., Derwent, R.G., McCulloch, A., O'Doherty, S. and Gaudry, A., 1996, Long-term trends in concentrations of halocarbons and radiatively active trace gases in Atlantic and European air masses monitored at Mace Head, Ireland from 1987-1994. Atmospheric Environment, v. 30(23), 4041-4063.

Simmons, P. G, Cunnold, D. M., Dollard, G. J., Davies, T. J., McCulloch, A., and Derwent, R. G., 1993, Evidence of the phase-out of CFC use in Europe over the period 1987-1990, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 1397-1407.

Simmonds, P. G., O'Doherty, S., Huang, J., Prinn, R., Derwent, R. G., Ryall, D., Nickless, G., Cunnold, D., 1998, Calculated trends and the atmospheric abundance of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane using automated in-situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy measurents recorded at Mace Head, Ireland, from October 1994 to March 1997: J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D13), 16029-16037.

Simmonds, P. G., O'Doherty, S., Nickless, G., Sturrock, G, A., Swaby, R., Knight, P., Ricketts, J., Woffendin, G. and Smith, R., 1995, Automated gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer for routine atmospheric field measurements of the CFC replacement compounds, the hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochloroflurocarbons: Analytical Chemistry, 67, 717-723.

Singh, H. B., Salas, L. J., Shigeishi, H., and Crawford, A, 1977, Urban-nonurban relationships of halocarbons, SF6, N2O, and other atmospheric trace constituents, Atmos. Environ., 11, 819-828.

Singh, H. B., Salas, L. J., Shigeishi, H., and Scribner, E, 1979, Atmospheric halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride: Global distribution, sources, and sinks, Sci., 203, 889-903.

Singh, H. B., Salas, L. J., Stiles, R. E., 1983, Selected man-made halogenated chemicals in air and oceanic environments, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 3675-3683.

Slater, G.F., Ahad, J.M.E., Lollar, B.S., Allen-King, R., and Sleep, B., 2000, Carbon isotope effects resulting from equilibrium sorption of dissolved VOCs. Anal. Chem. 72, 5669-5672.

Sliwka, I., and Lasa, J., 2002, Mathematical methods for improvement of precision and accuracy in concentration measurements based on external standard: Chemia Analityczna, v. 47, no. 1, p. 113-129.

Smethie, W. M. Jr., D. K. Solomon, S. L. Schiff and G. G. Mathieu, Tracing groundwater flow in the Bordon aquifer using Krypton-85, Jour. Hydrol., 130, 279-297, 1992.

Smethie, W.M., and Fine, R.A., 2001, Rates of North Atlantic deep water formation calculated from chlorofluorocarbon inventories. Deep Sea Res. Part I, 48, 189-215.

Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Chipman, D. W.; Swift, J. H.; and Koltermann, K. P., 1988, Chlorofluoromethanes in the Arctic Mediterranean seas--Evidence for formation of bottom water in the Eurasian Basin and deep-water exchange through Fram Strait: Deep-Sea Research, v. 35, p. 347-369.

Smethie, W.M., 1993, Tracing the thermohaline circulation in the western North Atlantic using chlorofluorocarbons. Prog. Oceanogr., 31, 51-99.

Smethie, W.M., and Mathieu, Guy, 1986, Measurement of krypton-85 in the ocean. Marine Chemistry, 18, 17-33.

Smethie, W.M., and Swift, James H., 1989, The tritium:krypton-85 age of Denmark Strait overflow water and Gibbs fracture zone water just South of Denmark Strait. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94(C6), 8265-8274.

Smiles, D.E., Gardner, W.R. and Schulz, R.K., 1995, Diffusion of tritium in arid disposal sites. Water Resources Research, v. 31(6), 1483-1488.

Smith, G. D., Newhall, F., Robinson, L. H., and Swanson, D., 1964, Soil temperature regimes-their characteristics and predictability: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. Report SCS-TP-144.

Smith, R.L., Böhlke, J.K., Revesz, K., Yoshinari, T., and Garabedian, S.P., 1997, Assessing denitrification in ground water using in situ tracer tests with 15N (abstract). EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 78, p. F202

SmytheWright, D., Gordon, A.L., Chapman, P. and Jones, M.S., 1996, CFC-113 shows Brazil eddy crossing the South Atlantic to the Agulhas Retroflection region. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 101(C1), 885-895.

Snyder, Daniel T., Wilkinson, James M., and Orzol, Leonard L., 1998, Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2488, 63p.

Solomon, D. K., and Cook, P. G., 1999, 3H and 3He: In, Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, Chapter 13, p. 397-424. P. Cook and A. Herczeg (eds.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Solomon, D.K., and E.A. Sudicky. 1991. Tritium and helium 3 isotope ratios for direct estimation of spatial variations in groundwater recharge. Water Resources Research 27(9), 2309-2319.

Solomon, D.K., and E.A. Sudicky. 1992. Correction to "Tritium and helium 3 isotope ratios for direct estimation of spatial variations in groundwater recharge". Water Resources Research 28(4):1197.

Solomon, D.K., Hunt, A., and Poreda, R.J., 1996, Source of radiogenic helium 4 in shallow aquifers: Implications for dating young groundwater. Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 6, p. 1805-1813.

Solomon, D.K., Parry, W.T., and Forster, C.B., 1997, Groundwater dating in mountainous terrain. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 29(6), p. A-77.

Solomon, D.K., Poreda, R.J., Cook, P.G., and Hunt, A., 1995, Site characterization using 3H/3He ground-water ages, Cape Cod, MA. Ground Water, v. 33, no. 6, p. 988-996.

Solomon, D.K., R.J. Poreda, S.L. Schiff, and J.A. Cherry. 1992. Tritium and helium 3 as groundwater age tracers in the Borden aquifer. Water Resources Research 28(3):741-755.

Solomon, D.K., Schiff, S.L., Poreda, R.J., and Clark, W.B., 1993, A validation of the 3H/3He method for determining groundwater recharge. Water Resources Research, 29(9), 2951-2962.

Sonier, D. N., Duran, N. L., and Smith, G. B., 1994, Dechlorination of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) by sulfate-reducing bacteria from an aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 4567-4572.

Sonoyama, N., and Sakata, T., 2002, Conversion of CFC-13 to trifluoroacetic acid by electrochemical reaction with carbon dioxide: Chemistry Letters, no. 4, p. 444-445.

Sonnerup, R.E., 2001, On the relations among CFC derived water mass ages. Gephys. Res. Lett. 28, 1739-1742.

Sousa, S.R. and Bialkowski, S.E., 2001, Comparison of gas chromatography detection limits and relative responses of common alternative fluorocarbons using electron capture, atomic emission, and mass spectroscopy detection. Analytica Chim. Acta, 433, 181-186.

Sousa, S.R. and Bialkowski, S.E., 1997, Temperature-dependent electron capture detector response to common alternative fluorocarbons. Analytical Chemistry, v. 69(19), 3871-3878.

Spurlock, F., Burow, K., and Dubrovsky, N., 2000, Chlorofluorocarbon dating of herbicide-containing well waters in Fresno and Tulare Counties, California, J. Environ. Qual., 29, 474-483.

Spurgeon, D., 1997, Ozone treaty 'must tackle CFC smuggling.' Nature, v. 389(6648), 219-219.

Squillace, P.J., Burkart, M.R. and Simpkins, W.W., 1997, Infiltration of atrazine and metabolites from a stream to an alluvial aquifer. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 33(1), 89-95.

Staehelin, J., Harris, N. R. P., Appenzeller, C., and Eberhard, J., 2001, Oxone trends: A review: Rev. Geophys., 39, 231-290.

Steinfeldt, R., and Rhein, M., 2004, Spreading velocities and dilution of North Atlantic Deep Water in the tropical Atlantic based on CFC time series - art. no. C03046: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 109, no. C3, p. 3046.

Stemmler, K., ODoherty, S., Buchmann, B., and Reimann, S., 2004, Emissions of the refrigerants HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-12 from road traffic: Results from a tunnel study (Gubrist Tunnel, Switzerland): Environmental Science & Technology, v. 38, no. 7, p. 1998-2004.

Stewart, G.L., and Hoffman, C.M., 1966, Tritium rainout over the United States in 1962 and 1963. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 520, 11p.

Stewart, G.L., and Wyerman, T.A., 1970, Tritium rainout in the United States during 1966, 1967, and 1968. Water Resources Research, v. 6 no. 1, p. 77-87.

Stone, J.O., Allan, G.L., Fifield, L.K., and Cresswell, R.G., 1996, Cosmogenic chlorine-36 from calcium spallation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta., 60(4), 679-692.

Stone, J.O.H., Evans, J.M., Fifield, L.K., Allan, G.L., and Cresswell, R.G., 1998, Cosogenic chlorine36 production in calcite by muons, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 62, 433-454.

Strotmann, B., K. Fischer, and J. Gmehling, Measurement of thermodynamic properties for the system sulfur hexafluride + water, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 44, 388-392, 1999.

Strunk, M., Engel, A., Volk, C.M., Wetter, T., Levin, I., and Glatzel-Mattheier, 2000, CO2 and SF6 as stratospheric age tracers and the effect of mesospheric SF6-loss: Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 341-344.

Stute, M., and Deak, J., 1989, Environmental isotope study (14C, 13C, 18O, D, Noble gases) on deep groundwater circulation systems in Hungary with reference to paleoclimate: Radiocarbon, v. 31, no. 3, p. 902-918.

Stute, M., and Schlosser, P., 1993, Principles and applications of the Noble gas paleothermometer: in Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Recors, P.K. Smart, K.C. Lohmann, J. McKenzie and S. Savin, Eds., Geophysical Monograph No. 78, Amer. Geophys. Union, Wash,. D.C., p. 89-100.

Stute, M., and Schlosser, P., 1999, Atmospheric noble gases: In, Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, Chapter 11, p. 349-377. P. Cook and A. Herczeg (eds.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Stute, M., and Sonntag, C., 1992, Paleotemperatures derived from noble gas dissolved in groundwater and relation to soil temperature: Isotopes and Noble Gases as Tracers in Environmental Studies, p. 111-122, IAEA, Vienna.

Stute, M., Deak, J., Revesz, K., Böhlke, J.K., Deseo, E., Weepernig, R. and Schlosser, P., 1997, Tritium/He-3 dating of river infiltration: An example from the Danube in the Szigetkoz area, Hungary. Ground Water, v. 35(5), 905-911.

Stute, M., Forster, M., Frischkorn, H., Serejo, A., Clark, J.F., Schlosser, P., Broecker, W.S., and Bonani, G., 1995, Cooling of tropical Brazil (5oC) during the last glacial maximum. Science, v. 269, 379-383.

Stute, M., Schlosser, P., Clark, J.F., and Broecker, W.S., 1992, Paleotemperatures in the southwestern United States derived from noble gases in ground water. Science, v. 256, 1000-1003.

Stute, M., Sonntag, C., Deak, J., and Schlosser, P., 1992, Helium in deep circulating groundwater in the Great Hungarian Plain: Flow dynamics and crustal and mantle helium fluxes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 56, 2051-2067.

Suckow, A., and Sonntag, C., 1993, The influence of salt on the noble gas thermometer. IAEA-SM-329/94, p. 307-318.

Sudo, S., Tominaga, T. and Makide, Y., 1997, Precise measurement of atmospheric concentration of CH3Br by GC/ECD. Chemistry Letters, (3), 239-240.

Sueker, J.K., Turk, J.T., and Michel, R.L., 1999, Use of cosmogenic 35S for comparing ages of water from three alpine-subalpine basins in the Colorado Front Range. Geomorphology, v. 27, p. 61-74.

Sugisaki, R., 1961, Measurement of effective flow velocity of ground water by means of dissolved gases: American Journal of Science, v. 259, p. 144-153.

Svanstrom, M., 1996, Accumulated CFC-11 in polyurethane foam insulation: An estimate of the total amount in district heating installations in Sweden. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, v. 6(2-3), 234-239

Swancar, A., and C.B. Hutchinson. 1992. Chemical and Isotopic Composition and Potential for Contamination of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, 1985-1989. Tampa FL: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-47.

Swarzenski, P.W., Reich, C.D., Spechler, R.M., Kindinger, J.L., and Moore, W.S., 2001, Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida: Chemical Geology, v. 179, no. 1-4, p. 187-202.

Sylvestre, M., Bertrand, J.L. and Viel, G., 1997, Feasibility study for the potential use of biocatalytic systems to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, v. 27(2), 87-111.

Szabo, Z., Rice, D.E., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Drenkard, S., and Schlosser, P., 1996, Age-dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey coastal plain: Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 4, p. 1023-1038.

Return to Top

T

Tait, V.K. and Moore, R.M., 1995, Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) production in phytoplankton cultures. Limnol Oceanogr, v. 40(1), 189-195.

Takahashi, K., Nakayama, T., Matsumi, Y., Solomon, S., Gejo, T., Shigemasa, E., and Wallington, T.J., 2002, Atmospheric lifetime of SF5CF3 - art. no. 1712: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 15, p. 1712.

Talma, A. S., Weaver, J. M. C., Plummer, L. N., and Busenberg, E., 2000, CFC tracing of groundwater in fractured rock aided with 14C and 3H to identify water mixing, In: Ground water : Past achievements and future Challenges, Sililo, O., and Rotterdam, O, eds., p. 635-640.

Tanaka, N., and Turekian, K.K., 1995, Determination of the dry deposition flux of SO2 using cosmogenic 35S and 7Be measurements. J. Geophys. Res., v. 100, no. D2, p. 2841-2848.

Tanhua, T., Fogelqvist, E. and Basturk, O., 1996, Reduction of volatile halocarbons in anoxic seawater, results from a study in the Black Sea. Marine Chemistry, v. 54(1-2), 159-170.

Taylor, W.L., 1996, Thermal diffusion factors of polyatomic gas mixtures: He-, Ne-, Ar-N-2, Ne-20-CH4, and isotopic sulfur hexafluoride. Journal of Chemical Physics, v. 105(18), 8333-8339.

Thatcher, L.L., 1962, The distribution of tritium fallout in precipitation over North America. International Association of Scientific Hydrology, VII(2), p. 48-58.

Thiele, G. and J. L. Sarmiento, Tracer dating and ocean ventilation, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 9377-9391, 1990.

Thierrin, J., Davis, G.B. and Barber, C., 1995, A ground water tracer test with deuterated compounds for monitoring in situ biodegradation and retardation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Ground Water, v. 33(3), 469-475.

Thomas, H., and England, M.H., 2002, Different oceanic features of anthropogenic CO2 and CFCs: Naturwissenschaften, v. 89, no. 9, p. 399-403.

Thompson, A.E., Anderson, R.S., Rudolph, J., and Huang, L., 2002, Stable carbon isotope signatures of background tropospheric chloromethane and CFC113: Biogeochemistry, v. 60, no. 2, p. 191-211.

Thompson, G.M. and Hayes J.M. (1979) Trichlorofluoromethane in groundwater: A possible tracer and indicator of groundwater age. Water Resources Research 15, 546-554.

Thompson, G.M., Hayes J.M. and Davis S.N. (1974) Fluorocarbon tracers in hydrology. Geophysical Research Letters 1, 177-180.

Thompson, G.M., Trichloromethane: A New Hydrologic Tool for Tracing and Dating Groundwater, Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Geol., 93 pp., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Indiana, 1976.

Thompson, T. M., Komhyr, W. D., and Dutton, E. G., 1985, Chlorofluorocarbon-11, -12 and nitrous oxide measurements at the NOAA/GMCC baseline stations (16 September 1973 to 31 December 1979): NOAA Technical Report ERL428-ARL 8, 124 p.

Thonnard N., Willis, R.D., Wright, M.C., Davis, W.A., and Lehmann, B.E., 1987, Resonance ionization spectroscopy and the detection of 81Kr. Nuclear Instruments and Method in Physics Research, B29, 398-406.

Thorstenson, D. C., and Pollock, D., 1989, Gas transport in unsaturated porous media: The adequacy of Fick's law: Reviews Geophysics, v. 27, p. 61-78.

Thorstenson, D.C., and Pollock, D., 1989, Gas transport in unsaturated porous media: Multicomponent systems and the adequacy of Fick'' law. Water Resources Res., 25(3), 477-507.

Thorstenson, D.C., Weeks, E.P., Haas, H., Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., and Peters, C.A., 1998, Chemistry of unsaturated zone gases sampled in open boreholes at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Data and basic concepts of chemical and physical processes in the mountain. Water Resources Res., 34(6), 1507-1529.

Tolstikhin, I.N., and I.L. Kamensky. 1969. Determination of groundwater ages by the T-3H method. Geochemistry International 6:810-11.

Tominaga, T., 1992, Chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere: Trends and vertical profiles. Pure Appl. Chem., 64, 529-536.

Tominaga, T., and Makide, Y., 1991, Halocarbons in the atmosphere: Trends and vertical profiles. (In Japanese), Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, 5, 351-357.

Torgersen, T., W.B. Clarke, and W.J. Jenkins. 1979. The tritium/helium-3 method in hydrology. In Isotope Hydrology 1978, pp. 917-930. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-SM-228/49.

Torgersen, T., 1989, Terrestrial helium degassing fluxes and the atmospheric helium budget: Implications with respect to the degassing processes of continental crust: Chem. Geol., v. 79, p. 1-14.

Torgersen, T., and Clarke, W.B., 1985, Helium accumulation in groundwater. I. An evaluation of sources and the continental flux of crustal 4He in the Great Basin, Australia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 49, 1211-1215.

Torgersen, T., and Clarke, W.B., 1987, Helium accumulation in groundwater. III. Limits on helium transfer across the mantle-crust boundary beneath Australia and the magnitude of mantle degassing. Earth and Planetary Sci. Letters, 84, 345-355.

Torgersen, T., and Ivey, G.N., 1985, Helium ccumlation in groundwater. II. A model for the accumulation of the crustal 4He degassing flux. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 49, 2445-2452.

Torgersen, T., and Phillips, F.M., 1993, Reply: Water Resources Res., v. 29, no. 6, p. 1875-1877.

Torgersen, T., Drenkard, S., Farley, K., Schlosser, P., and Shapiro, A., 1994, Mantle helium in groundwater of the Mirror Lake Basin, New Hampshire, USA: In, Noble Gas Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, J. Matsuda, (ed.), Tokyo, Terra, p. 279-292.

Torgersen, T., Habermehl, M.A., Phillips, F.M., Elmore, D., Kubik, P., Jones, B.G., and Gove, H.E., 1991, Chlorine 36 dating of very old groundwater, 3, Further studies in the Great Artesian Basin, Australia: Water Resources Res., v. 27, p. 3201-3213.

Torgersen, T., Kennedy, B.M., Hiyagon, H., Chiou, K.Y., Reynolds, J.H., and Clarke, W.B., 1989, Argon accumulation and the crustal degassing flux of 40Ar in the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Earth and Planetary Sci. Letters, 92, 43-56.

Toth, David J., and Katz, Brian G., 2006, Mixing of shallow and deep groundwater as indicated by the chemistry and age of karstic springs. Hydrogeol. Jour., 14, 1060-1080. doi:10.1007/s10040-006-0099-z

Toy, T. J., Kuhaida, A. J. Jr., and Munson, B. E., 1978, The prediction of mean monthly soil temperatures from mean monthly air temperature: Soil Science, v. 128, p. 181-189.

Toyoda, S., Tominaga, T. and Makide, Y., 1997, Monitoring of atmospheric concentration of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) by automated GC/O-2-doped-ECD. Chemistry Letters, (1), 95-96.

Trumbore, S.E., Jacobs, S.S., and Smethie, W.M., 1991, Chlorofluorocarbon evidence for rapid ventilation of the Ross Sea. Deep Sea Res., 38, 845-870.

Turner, S.M., Nightingale, P.D., Spokes, L.J., Liddicoat, M.I. and Liss, P.S., 1996, Increased dimethyl sulphide concentrations in sea water from in situ iron enrichment. Nature, v. 383(6600), 513-517.

Return to Top

U

Uddin, M.A., Kennedy, E.M., and Dlugogorski, B.Z., 2003, Gas-phase reaction of CCl2F2 (CFC-12) with methane: Chemosphere, v. 53, no. 9, p. 1189-1191.

United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, www.unfccc.de/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.html, 1997.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988, Comparison of historic SO2 and NOx emission estimates: EPA/600/7-88/009A, PB89-10364/HSU.

Upstill-Goddard, R. C., and C. S. Wilkins, The potential of SF6 as a geothermal tracer, Water Res., 29, 1065-1068, 1995.

Unterweger, M. P., Coursey, B. M., Schima, F. J., and Mann, W. B., 1980, Preparation and calibration of the 1978 National Bureau of Standards tritiated-water standards: International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 31, p. 546-550.

USEPA, 1998, Inert ingredients no longer used in pesticide products. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Register, v. 63, no. 121, p. 34384-34390. http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/1998/June/Day-24/p16571.htm

Return to Top

V

Van der Leeden, F., Troise, F.L., and Todd, D.K., 1990, The Water Encyclopedia. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan, 808p.

van Genuchten M.Th. and Alves W.J. (1982) Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional convective-dispersion solute transport equation. U.S. Department Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1661, 151p.

Vandenbrink, C. and Zaadnoordijk, W.J., 1995, Evaluation of ground-water contamination from nonpoint sources: A case study. Ground Water, v. 33(3), 356-365.

Van de Sandt, E.J.A.X., Wiersma, A., Makkee, M., vanBekkum, H. and Moulijn, J.A., 1997, Catalyst development for the selective hydrogenolysis of CCl2F2 (CFC-12) into CH2F2 (HFC-32). Catalysis Today, v. 35(1-2), 163-170.

Varushchenko, R.M., Druzhinina, A.I. and Korshunova, M.V., 1997, Low-temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic properties of 1,1-difluoro-1,2,2-trichloroethane and 1,2-difluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane. Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, v. 29(10), 1059-1070.

Verstraeten, I.M., Böhlke, J.K., and Kraemer, T.F., 2000, Groundwater/surface-water interactions and sources of nitrogen, radon, and uranium in a irrigated alluvial aquifer, Nebraska, USA. Tracers and Modeling in Hydrogeology, International Association of Hydrogeologists Publication 262, p. 525-531.

Victor, D.G., and MacDonald, G.J., 1999, A model for estimating future emissions of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbons: Climate Change, 42, 633-662.

Virk, H.S., Sharma, A.K., and Sharma, N., 2002, Radon and helium monitoring in some thermal springs of North India and Bhutan: Current Science, v. 82, no. 12, p. 1423-1424.

Visca, M., Silvani, R. and Marchionni, G., 1997, Hydrofluoropolyethers: Another alternative to CFCs. Chemtech, v. 27(2), 33-37.

Vitvar, T., and Balderer, W., 1997, Estimation of mean water residence time and runoff generation by 18O measurements in a Pre-Alpine catchment (Rietholzbach, Eastern Switzerland). Applied Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 787-796.

Vitvar, T., 2000. Comparison of groundwater residence times obtained by O-18 and basin topography in the Neversink watershed, Catskill Mts, NY. EOS, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 81(19), S249.

Vogel, J.C., 1967, Investigation of groundwater flow with radiocarbon. In Isotopes in Hydrology, Proceedings, IAEA, Vienna, 1967, p. 355-369.

Vogel, J.C., 1970, Carbon-14 dating of groundwater. In Isotope Hydrology 1970, Proceedings, IAEA, Vienna, 1970, p. 225-239.

Vogel, J.C., Talma, A.S., and Heaton, T.H.E., 1981, Gaseous nitrogen as evidence for denitrification in groundwater. Jour. Hydrol., v. 50, 191-200.

Vogel, T. M.,Cridddle, C. S., McCarty, P.L., 1987, Transformation of halogenated alifatic compounds, Environ. Sci. Technol., 21, 722-736.

Volk, C.M., Elkins, J.W., Fahey, D.W., Dutton, G.S., Gilligan, J.M., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J.R., Chan, K.R. and Gunson, M.R., 1997, Evaluation of source gas lifetimes from stratospheric observations. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(D21), 25543-25564.

Volk, C.M., Elkins, J.W., Fahey, D.W., Salawitch, R.J., Dutton, G.S., Gilligan, J.M., Proffitt, M.H., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J.R., Minschwaner, K., Margitan, J.J. and Chan, K.R., 1996, Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Science, v. 272(5269), 1763-1768.

Vollmer, M. K. Weiss, R. F., Schlosser, P., Williams, R. T., 2002, Deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul in Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 29, Number 8, p.124:1-4

Vollmer, M.K., Weiss, R.F., Williams, R.T., Falkner, K.K., Qiu, X., Ralph, E.A., and Romanovsky, V.V., 2002, Physical and chemical properties of the waters of saline lakes and their importance for deep-water renewal: Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66, no. 24, p. 4235-4246.

Vollmer, M.K., and Weiss, R.F., 2002, Simulations determination of sulfur hexafluoride and three chlorofluorocarbons in water and air: Marine Chemistry, v. 78, no. 2-3, p. 137-148.

Vollmer, M.K., Weiss, R.F., Schlosser, P., and Williams, R.T., 2002, Deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul - art. no. 1283: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 8, p. 1283.

Vondrak, J., Sedlarikova, M., and Liedermann, K., 2001, Sulfur hexafluoride, its properties and use: Chemicke Listy, v. 95, no. 12, p. 791-795.

vonRohden, C., and Ilmberger, J., 2001, Tracer experiment with sulfur hexafluoride to quantify the vertical transport in a meromictic pit lake: Aquatic Sciences, v. 63, no. 4, p. 417-431.

Vulava, V.M., Perry, E.B., Romanek, C.S., and Seaman, J.C., 2002, Dissolved gases as partitioning tracers for determination of hydrogeological parameters: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 36, no. 2, p. 254-262.

Return to Top

W

Wackett, L. P., Sadowsky, M. J., Newman, L. H., and Li., S.,1994, Metabolism of polyhalogenated compounds by a genetically engineered bacterium. Nature (London), 368, 627.

Walker, S. J., Weiss, R. F., and Salameh, P. K., 2000, Reconstructed histories of the annual mean atmospheric mole fractions for the halocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and carbon tetrachloride: J. Geophys. Res., C6, 105, 14285-14296.

Wallace, D.W.R., Beining P. and Putzka A. (1994) Carbon tetrachloride and chlorofluorocarbons in the South Atlantic Ocean, 19oS. Journal of Geophysical Research 99(C), 7803-7819.

Wallace, D.W.R. and Lazier, J.R.N. (1988) Anthropogenic chlorofluoromethanes in newly formed Labrador Sea Water. Nature, 332:61-63.

Wallace, D.W.R., R.M. Moore, and E.P. Jones, 1987, Ventilation of the Arctic Ocean Cold Halocline: Rates of Diapycnal and Isopycnal Transport, Oxygen Utilization and Primary Production Inferred Using Chlorofluoromethane Distributions: Deep-Sea Research, v.34, 1957-1979.

Wallace, D.W.R., and Wanninkhof, R., 2003, Ocean-atmosphere exchange and earth-system biogeochemistry: Marine Science Frontiers for Europe.

Waller, C. L., McKinney, J. D., 1993, Theoretical investigation into the potential of halogenated methanes to undergo reductive metabolism, J. Comput. Chem.,14,(12),1575-1579.

Wallington, T. J., Scheneider, W. F., Worsnop, D. R., Nielsen, O. J., Sehested, J., Debruyn, W. J., and Shorter, J. A., 1994, The environmental impact of CFC replacements HFCs and HCFCs, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 320A-326A.

Wallington, T.J., Kaiser, E.W., 1997, Rate and mechanism of the atmospheric degradation of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a). Berichte der Bunsen - Gesellschaft - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, v. 101(1), 143-144.

Walsh, K P., and McLaughlan, R. G., 1999, Bubble extraction of dissolved gases from groundwater samples: Water, Air, and Soil Polution: 115, 525-534.

Wang, J.-L., Chang, C.-J., Chang, W.D., Chew, C., and Chen, S.-W., 1998, Construction and evaluation of automated gas chromatography for the measurement of antropogenic halocarbons in the atmosphere, 1999, J. Chrom. A, 844, 259-269.

Wang, J.-L., Chang, C.-J. and Lin, Y.-H. (1998) Concentration distributions of anthropogenic halocarbons over a metropolitan area. Chemosphere 36(10), 2391-2400.

Wang, J.L., and Chen, W.L., 2001, Construction and validation of automated purge-and-trap-gas chromatography for the determination of volatile organic compounds: Journal of Chromatography A, v. 927, no. 1-2, p. 143-154.

Wang, C. J.-L., 1993, Global concentrations of selected halocarbons, 1988-1992. PH.D. Dissertation, University of California at Irvine, 179p.

Wang, J.-L., 1997, Calibration of CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113) and its effects on the atmospheric long-term measurements. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, v. 44(1), 17-22.

Wanninkhof, R., 1992, Relationship Between Wind Speed and Gas Exchange Over the Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(C5), 7373-7382.

Wanninkhof, R., Gas exchange across the air-water interface determined with man made and natural tracers, 1986, Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, N.Y., 295 p.

Wanninkhof, R., Asher, W., Weppernig, R., Chen, H., Schlosser, P., Langdon, C, and Sambrotto, R., 1993, Gas transfer experiment on Georges Bank using two volatile deliberate tracers, J. Geophys. Res., 98C, 20237-20248.

Wanninkhof, R., Doney, S.C., Takahashi, T., and McGillis, W.R., 2002, The effect of using time-averaged winds on regional air-sea CO2 fluxes: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces.

Wanninkhof, R., Hitchcock, G., Wiseman, W.J., Vargo, G., Ortner, P.B., Asher, W., Ho, D.T., Schlosser, P., Dickson, M.L., Masserini, R., Fanning, K. and Zhang, J.Z., 1997, Gas exchange, dispersion, and biological productivity on the west Florida shelf: Results from a Lagrangian tracer study. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 24(14), 1767-1770.

Wanninkhof, R., Ledwell, J. R., and Watson, A.J., 1991, Analysis of sulfur hexafluoride in seawater: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, no. C5, p. 8733-8740.

Warner, M. J., and Weiss, R. F., 1985, Solubilities of chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 in water and seawater: Deep-Sea Research, v. 32, p. 1485-1497.

Warner, M.J., Bullister, J.L., Wisegarver, D.P., Gammon, R.H., and Weiss, R.F., 1996, Basin-wide distributions of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the North Pacific: 1985-1989. Jour. Geophs. Res., v. 101, no. C9, p. 20,525-20,542.

Washida, N., Imamura, T. and Bandow, H., 1996, Experimental studies of ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), bromofluorocarbons (BFC's), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's), and CH3Br using a 6-m(3) photochemical chamber. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, v. 69(3), 535-541.

Watanabe, Y.W., Ishida, A., Tamaki, M., Okuda, K. and Fukasawa, M., 1997, Water column inventories of chlorofluorocarbons and production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific. Deep - Sea Research Part I - Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 44(7), 1091-1104.

Watanabe, Y.W., Ono, T., and Shimamoto, A, 2000, Increase in the uptake rate of oceanic anthropogenic carbon in the North Pacific determined by CFC ages, Marine Chem. 72, 297-315.

Watanabe, Y.W., Shimamoto, A., and Ono, T., 2003, Comparison of time-dependent tracer ages in the Western North Pacific: Oceanic background levels of SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113: Journal of Oceanography, v. 59, no. 5, p. 719-729.

Watson, A. J., R. C. Upstill-Goddard, and P. S. Liss, Air-sea exchange in rough and stormy seas, measured by a dual tracer technique, Nature, 349, 145-147, 1991.

Watson, A. J., and Ledwell, J. R., 2000, Oceanographic release experiments using sulfur hexafluoride: Journal Geophysical Research, v. 105, no. C6, p. 14325-14337.

Watson, A. J., Ledwell, J. R., and Sutherland, S. C., 1987, The Santa Monica Basin tracer experiment--Comparison of release methods and performance of perfluorodecalin and sulfur hexafluoride: Journal Geophysical Research, v. 96, no. C5, p. 8719-8725.

Watson, A. J., and Liddicoat, M. I., 1985, Recent history of atmospheric trace gas concentrations deduced from measurements in the deep sea: Application to sulfur hexafluoride and carbon tetrachloride. Atmos. Environ., 9, 1477-1484.

Watson, A. J., Upstill-Goddard, R. C., and Liss, P. S., 1991, Air-sea exchange in rough and stormy seas, measured by a dual tracer technique, Nature, 349, 145-147.

Waugh, D.W., Plumb, R.A., Elkins, J.W., Fahey, D.W., Boering, K.A., Dutton, G.S., Volk, C.M., Keim, E., Gao, R.S., Daube, B.C., Wofsy, S.C., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J.R., Chan, K.R., Proffitt, M.H., Kelly, K., Newman, P.A. and Lait, L.R., 1997, Mixing of polar vortex air into middle latitudes as revealed by tracer-tracer scatterplots. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, v. 102(11D), 13119-13134.

Waugh, D.W., Hall, T.M., and Haine, T.W.N., 2003, Relationships among tracer ages - art. no. 3138: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 108, no. C5, p. 3138.

Waugh, D.W., Vollmer, M.K., Weiss, R.F., Haine, T.W.N., and Hall, T.M., 2002, Transit time distributions in Lake Issyk-Kul - art. no. 2231: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 24, p. 2231.

Weber, L.A., 2001, Measurement of the solubility of water in 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), Fluid Phase Equilibria. 178, 203-208.

Weeks, E.P. (1994) Thermal and wind-pumping as mechanisms for passive vapor extraction in hilly terrain. (abstract), Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 75(44), Fall Meeting Suppl., 263.

Weeks, E.P., Earp D.E. and Thompson G.M. (1982) Use of atmospheric fluorocarbons F-11 and F-12 to determine the diffusion parameters of the unsaturated zone in the southern high plains of Texas. Water Resources Research 18, 1365-1378.

Weeks, E. P., 1978, Field determination of vertical permeability to air in the unsaturated zone: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1051, 41 p.

Weise, S., Eichinger, L., Forster, M., and Salvamoser, J., 1992, Helium-3 and Krypton-85 dating of shallow groundwaters--Diffusive loss and correlated problems. In Isotopes of Noble Gases as Tracers in Environmental Studies. IAEA, Vienna, p. 147-162.

Weise, S.M., and H. Moser. 1987. Groundwater dating with helium isotopes. In Isotope Techniques in Water Resource Development, pp. 105-26. Vienna, Austria:International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-SM-299/44.

Weiss, A., 1996, Sources of airborne CCl4 - Critical remarks. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 3(2), 112-114.

Weiss, R. F., 1974, Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: The solubility of a non-ideal gas, Marine Chem., 2, 203-215.

Weiss, R. F., 1970, The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in water and seawater: Deep-Sea Research, v. 17, p. 721-735.

Weiss, R.F., 1971, Solubility of Helium and Neon in Water and Seawater, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 16(2), 235-241.

Weiss, R.F., 1971, The effect of salinity on the solubility of argon in seawater, Deep-Sea Res., 18, 225-230.

Weiss, R.F., and Kyser, T.K., 1978, Solubility of krypton in water and seawater. Jour. Chem. Eng. Data, v. 23, p. 69-72.

Weiss, R.F. and Price, B.A. (1980) Nitrous oxide solubility in water and seawater. Marine Chem., 8:347-359.

Weiss, R.F. and Price, B.A. (1989) Dead Sea gas solubilities, Earth Planetary Sci. Lett., 92, 7-10.

Weiss, R.F., Bullister, J.L., Gammon, R.H., and Warner, M.J., 1985, Atmospheric chlorofluoromethanes in the deep equatorial Atlantic, Nature, 314, 608-610.

Weiss, W., Sartorius, H., and Stockburger, H., 1992, Global Distribution of Atmospheric 85Kr. A database for the verification of transport and mixing models. In Isotopes of Noble Gases as Tracers in Environmental Studies. IAEA, Vienna, p. 29-62.

Weissflog, L., Pfennigsdorff, A., MartinezPastur, G., Puliafito, E., Figueroa, D., Elansky, N., Nikonov, V., Putz, E., Kruger, G., and Kellner, K., 2001, Trichloroacetic acid in the vegetation of polluted and remote areas of both hemispheres - Part I. Its formation, uptake and geographical distribution: Atmospheric Environment, v. 35, no. 26, p. 4511-4521.

Wen, L.J., Zhang, L.Y., Zhou, F., Lu, Y., and Yang, P.Y., 2002, Quantitative determination of Freon gas using an electronic nose: Analyst, v. 127, no. 6, p. 786-791.

Werth, C.J. and Reinhard, M., 1997, Effects of temperature on trichloroethylene desorption from silica gel and natural sediments .2. Kinetics. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 31(3), 697-703.

Weston, R.E., 1996, Possible greenhouse effects of tetrafluoromethane and carbon dioxide emitted from aluminum production. Atmospheric Environment, v. 30(16), 2901-2910.

White, A.F., Peterson, M.L., and Solbau, R.D., 1990, Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water. Ground Water, 28, 584-590.

Wiersma, A., vandeSandt, E.J.A.X., Makkee, M., Luteijn, C.P., vanBekkum, H. and Moulijn, J.A., 1996, Process for the selective hydrogenolysis of CCl2F2 (CFC-12) into CH2F2 (HFC-32). Catalysis Today, v. 27(1-2), 257-264.

Wild, O., Rattigan, O.V., Jones, R.L., Pyle, J.A. and Cox, R.A., 1996, Two-dimensional modelling of some CFC replacement compounds. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, v. 25(2), 167-199.

Wilhelm, E., Battino, R., and Wilcox, R. J., 1977, Low-pressure solubility of gases in liquid water: Chemical Reviews, v. 77, p. 219-262.

Wilhelmova, L., Tomasek, M. and Stukheil, K., 1995, Monitoring of Krypton-85 activity in the atmosphere around Prague. Environ Monit Assess, v. 34(2), 145-149.

Wilkowske, C.D. and Solomon D.K. (1997) Evaluation of a simple copper tube sampler for dating ground water with chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (abstract) Geological Society of America, 1997 Annual Meeting, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 29(6), A-77.

Willey, D.A., Fine, R.A., Sonnerup, R.E., Bullister, J.L., Smethie, W.M., and Warner, M.J., 2004, Global oceanic chlorofluorocarbon inventory - art. no. L01303: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, no. 1, p. 1303.

Wilson, G. B., and McNeill, G. W., 1997, Noble gas recharge temperatures and excess air component: Applied Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 747-762.

Wilson, G.B., Andrews, J.N., and Bath, A.H., 1990, Dissolved gas evidence for denitrification in the Lincolnshire Limestone groundwaters, eastern England. Jour. Hydrol., v. 113, 51-60.

Wilson, R.D. and Mackay, D.M., 1996, SF6 as a conservative tracer in saturated media with high intragranular porosity or high organic carbon content. Ground Water, v. 34(2), 241-249.

Wilson, R.D. and Mackay D.M. (1995) Direct detection of residual nonaqueous phase liquid in the saturated zone using SF6 as a partitioning tracer. Environmental Science & Technology 29(5), 1255-1258.

Winckler, G., AeschbachHertig, W., Holocher, J., Kipfer, R., Levin, I., Poss, C., Rehder, G., Suess, E., and Schlosser, P., 2002, Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates (Vol 29, 2001GL014013, 2002) - art. no. 1735: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 15, p. 1735.

Winckler, G., AeschbachHertig, W., Holocher, J., Kipfer, R., Levin, I., Poss, C., Rehder, G., Suess, E., and Schlosser, P., 2002, Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates - art. no. 1423: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 10, p. 1423.

Winter, T.C., LaBaugh, J.W., and Rosenberry, D.O., 1988, The design and use of a hydraulic potentiomanometer for direct measurement of differences in hydraulic head between groundwater and surface water. Limnol. Oceanogr, v. 33(5), 1209-1214.

Winter, T. C., 1984, Geohydrologic setting of Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Investigations Report 84-4266, 61 p.

Wisegarver, D. P., and Gammon, R. H., 1988, A new transient tracer: Measured vertical distribution of CCl2FCClF2 (F-113) in the North Atlantic subatic gyre. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 188-191.

Wolfli, W., 1987, Advances in accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B29, 1-13.

Wright, D. A., Sanders, S. I., and DeVoll, D., 1992, Infinite dilution activity coefficients and solubilities of halogenated hydrocarbons in water at ambient temperatures. Environ. Sci. Technol.,26, 1828-1831.

Wujcik, C.E., Cahill, T.M., Seiber, J.N., 1999, Determination of trifluoroacetic acid in 1996-1997 precipitation and surface waters in California and Nevada, Environ. Sci. Technol.,33, 1747-1751.

Wunsch, C., 2002, Oceanic age and transient tracers: Analytical and numerical solutions - art. no. 3048: Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, v. 107, no. C6, p. 3048.

Wyerman, T.A., Farnsworth, R.K., and Stewart, G.L., 1970, Tritium in streams in the United States, 1961-1968. Radiological Health Data and Reports, v. 11(9), p. 421-439.

Return to Top

Y

Yokouchi, Y., Barrie, L.A., Toom, D. and Akimoto, H., 1996, The seasonal variation of selected natural and anthropogenic halocarbons in the Arctic troposphere. Atmospheric Environment, v. 30(10-11), 1723-1727.

Yue, Y., Limin, C., Guozhong, S., Libo, W., and Weichun, M., 2002, Trends of atmospheric CCl3F, CCl2F2 and CCl2FCClF2 in Shanghai (China): International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 82, no. 2, p. 61-68.

YvonLewis, S.A. and Butler, J.H., 1997, The potential effect of oceanic biological degradation on the lifetime of atmospheric CH3Br. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 24(10), 1227-1230.

Return to Top

Z

Zahn, A., R. Neubert, M. Maiss, and U. Platt, Fate of long-lived trace species near the Northern Hemisphere tropopause: Carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and sulfur hexafluoride, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D11), 13923-13942, 1999.

Zaikowski, A., Kosanke, B.J., and Hubbard, N., 1987, Noble gas composition of deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 51, 73-84.

Zander, R., Mahieu, E., Demoulin, P., Rinsland, C.P., Weisenstein, D.K., Ko, M.K.W., Sze, N.D. and Gunson, M.R., 1994, Secular Evolution of the Vertical Column Abundances of CHClF2 (HCFC-22) in the Earth's Atmosphere Inferred from Ground-Based IR Solar Observations at the Jungfraujoch and at Kitt-Peak, and Comparison with Model Calculations. J Atmos Chem, v. 18(2), 129-148.

Zander, R., Rindland, C. P. and Demoulin, P., 1991, Infrared spectroscopic measurements of the vertical column abundance of sulfur hexafluoride SF6 from ground, J. Geophys. Res.,, 96, 15447-15454.

Zander, R., Solomon, S., Mahieu, E., Goldman, A., Rinsland, C.P., Gunson, M.R., Abrams, M.C., Chang, A.Y., Salawitch, R.J., Michelsen, H.A., Newchurch, M.J. and Stiller, G.P., 1996, Increase of stratospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) based on ATMOS observations from space. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 23(17), 2353-2356.

Zartman, R.E., Wasserburg, G.J., and Reynolds, J.H., 1961, Helium, argon, and carbon in some natural gases, Jour. Geophys. Res., 66, 277-306.

Zhang, J.Z., Berberian, G., and Wanninkhof, R., 2002, Long-term storage of natural water samples for dissolved oxygen determination: Water Research, v. 36, no. 16, p. 4165-4168.

Zheng, M., De Bruyn, W., and Saltzman, E. S., 1998, Measurement of the diffusion coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in pure water and seawater: Journal of Geophysical Research C1, 103, 1375-1379.

Zhang, Min, Frape, Shaun K., Love, Andrew J., Herczeg, Andrew L., Lehmann, B.E., Beyerle, U., and Purtschert, R., 2007, Chlorine stable isotope studies of old groundwater, southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Appl. Geochem., v. 22, 557-574.

Zilberbrand, M., Rosenthal, E., and Shachnai, E., 2001, Impact of urbanization on hydrochemical evolution of groundwater and on unsaturated-zone gas composition in the coastal city of Tel Aviv, Israel: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 50, no. 3-4, p. 175-208.

Zimmerman, P.H., Feichter, J., Rath, H.K., Crutzen, P.J., and Weiss, W., 1989, A global three-dimensional source-receptor model investigation using 85Kr. Atmospheric Environment, 23(1), 25-35.

Zoccolillo, L., Amendola, L. and Tarallo, G.A., 1996, Halocarbons in Antarctic surface waters and snow. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 63(2), 91-98.

Zoellmann, K., Kinzelbach, W., and Fulda, C., 2001, Environmental tracer transport (3H and SF6) in the saturated and unsaturated zones and its use in nitrate pollution management. J. Hydrol. 240, 187-205.

Zreda, M.G., Phillips, F.M., Elmore, D., Kubic, P.W., Sharma, P., and Dorn, R.I., 1991, Cosmogenic chlorine-36 production in terrestrial rocks. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 105, 94-109.

Zuber, A., Michalczyk, Z., and Maloszewski, P., 2001, Great tritium ages explain the occurrence of good-quality groundwater in a phreatic aquifer of an urban area, Lublin, Poland: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 9, no. 5, p. 451-460.