The Water Cycle - USGS Water Science School
Parts of the Water Cycle
Explore the Water Cycle
The Water Cycle: The Oceans
The ocean as a storehouse of water
The watercycle sounds like it is describing how water moves above, on, and through the Earth ... and it does. But, in fact, much more water is "in storage" for long periods of time than is actually moving through the cycle. The storehouses for the vast majority of all water on Earth are the oceans. It is estimated that of the 332,500,000 cubic miles (mi3) (1,386,000,000 cubic kilometers (km3)) of the world's water supply, about 321,000,000 mi3 (1,338,000,000 km3) is stored in oceans. That is about 96.5 percent. It is also estimated that the oceans supply about 90 percent of the evaporated water that goes into the water cycle.
The water in the oceans is saltwater (saline), but, what do we mean by "saline water?" Saline water contains significant amounts (referred to as "concentrations") of dissolved salts. In this case, the concentration is the amount (by weight) of salt in water, as expressed in "parts per million" (ppm). Water is saline if it has a concentration of more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts; ocean water contains about 35,000 ppm of salt.
The volume of the oceans does change ... slowly
Of course, nothing involving the water cycle is really permanent, even the amount of water in the oceans. Over the "short term" of hundreds of years the oceans' volumes don't change much. But the amount of water in the oceans does change over the long term. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower, which allowed humans to cross over to North America from Asia at the (now underwater) Bering Strait.
During colder climatic periods more ice caps and glaciers form, and enough of the global water supply accumulates as ice to lessen the amounts in other parts of the water cycle. The reverse is true during warm periods. During the last ice age glaciers covered almost one-third of Earth's land mass, with the result being that the oceans were about 400 feet (122 meters) lower than today. During the last global "warm spell," about 125,000 years ago, the seas were about 18 feet (5.5. meters) higher than they are now. About three million years ago the oceans could have been up to 165 feet (50 meters) higher.
Oceans in movement: Tides
Of course the oceans are always in movement. The moon influences daily tides, which make the beach a more interesting place to go. Tides vary greatly around the world, and in some places can be quite dramatic. The highest tides occur in confined estuaries, such as the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, Ungava Bay, Quebec, and Bristol Channel in Britain. The Bay of Fundy has maximum tides of up to 53 feet (16 meters) during certain times of the year.
Oceans in movement: "Rivers" in the oceans
If you have ever been seasick (we hope not), then you know how the ocean is never still. You might think that the water in the oceans moves around because of waves, which are driven by winds. But, actually, there are currents and "rivers" in the oceans that move massive amounts of water around the world. These movements have a great deal of influence on the water cycle. The Kuroshio Current, off the shores of Japan, is the largest current. It can travel between 25 and 75 miles (40 and 121 kilometers) a day, 1-3 miles (1.4-4.8 kilometers) per hour, and extends some 3,300 feet (1,000 meters) deep. The Gulf Stream is a well known stream of warm water in the Atlantic Ocean, moving water from the Gulf of Mexico across the Atlantic Ocean towards Great Britain. At a speed of 60 miles (97 kilometers) per day, the Gulf stream moves 100 times as much water as all the rivers on Earth. Coming from warm climates, the Gulf Stream moves warmer water to the North Atlantic. Cornwall, at the southwest corner of Great Britain, is sometimes referred to as the "Cornish Riviera" because of the milder climate attributable to the Gulf Stream—notice the palm trees growing at the cottage in the picture! To be honest, we've read that the palm trees there are a hardy variety, but it certainly gives the image of a mild climate.
This diagram shows sea-surface temperatures of the North Atlantic Ocean. Data are from NASA satellite observations. Cold waters are shown in darker colors, whereas orange and yellow indicate the warmest temperatures. The Gulf Stream is visible as a warm water current travelling northward along the coast of North America and eastward into the central Atlantic Ocean. As it continues its journey heat from the ocean is lost to the atmosphere, warming the air above it. Cornwall and its palm trees are located just west of London, and if you draw a line westward, you'll end up near Newfoundland, Canada. Cornwall and Newfoundland might be at similar latitudes, but you would be hard-pressed to find any palm trees growing in Canada! (Source: NASA: Earth Observatory. Map by Robert Simmon)
How much water exists in the oceans?
Sources and more information
To view PDF files, the latest version of Adobe Reader (free of charge) or similar software is needed.