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Sources of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in metropolitan St. Louis, Missouri streams –A USGS study, done in cooperation with the Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District, identified key sources of E. coli, one of several fecal indicator bacteria. Sources include nonpoint source runoff, occasional discharge from combined and sanitary sewers, and treated wastewater effluent. Three Missouri River sites, five Mississippi River sites, and six small basin tributary stream sites were sampled during base flow and storm events for the presence of E. coli and their sources.