EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES--The "Iron Horse"--A device for deep-well measurements

                           UNITED STATES
                    DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                         GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
                      RESTON, VIRGINIA  22092

                                                      GW Branch

                                                    May 5, 1978
                                                 Code 4351 5016


Subject:     EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES--The "Iron Horse"--A device
                                     for deep-well measurements

For depths to water of greater than about 500 feet, it often is
necessary to use equipment to lower and raise water-level
measuring devices.  Such equipment has been an absolute necessity
at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's
Nevada Test Site where most of the water levels are deeper than
1,000 feet.  Considerable experience has been gained from the
operation of various types of water-level measurement devices at
the Site.

Garber and Koopman, in 1968, in the Techniques of Water-Resources
Investigations Book 8, Chapter A1, entitled "Methods of measuring
water levels in deep wells" described in detail: (1) various types
of water-sensing probes used with an electrical cable well-
measuring device referred to as the Iron Horse, and (2) methods to
correct for possible sources of errors in measurements.  The Iron
Horse has proved useful in measuring water levels as deep as 2,600
feet.  The device also may be used for obtaining water samples,
sounding well depths, and determining vertical fluid velocity.

The operation and maintenance of the Iron Horse is described in
detail in the enclosed report, entitled "Operation and maintenance
of a deep-well water-level measurement device, "The Iron Horse""
by J. E. Weir, Jr., and J. W. Nelson, WRI 76-27.  The report
should be of interest to all districts concerned with making
measurements in deep wells.  The Iron Horse is an inventory item
that can be ordered from the Geological Survey warehouse.

                                 (s) Charles A. Appel
                                 (for) Gerald Meyer
                                 Chief, Ground Water Branch


WRD DISTRIBUTION: A and S (memo only); B, FO-L, PO