PUBLICATIONS--Typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, pencils, and inks for use in typing and reviewing manuscripts

                           UNITED STATES
                    DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                         GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
                     Water Resources Division
                        Washington 25, D.C.

In reply refer to:                            February 5, 1959
                                              Code 4053 0001


To:       District Chiefs and Staff Officials, Ground Water Branch

From:     Chief, Ground Water Branch

Subject: PUBLICATIONS--Typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, pencils,
         and inks for use in typing and reviewing manuscripts

Several types and brands of relatively inexpensive office-type
copying machines are available to make single or multiple copies
of most typed, written, or drafted material rapidly and cheaply.
Machines that do not require the use of fluid chemicals are being
used by an increasing number of our offices, as they eliminate
daily or periodic cleaning, changing of fluids, and the
accompanying inconveniences.  However, the full advantages of
these machines cannot be realized unless copy is printed or
written with the proper inks, ribbons, or pencils.  The purpose of
this memorandum is to call this to your attention and to set up a
procedure whereby the handling of reports in the Washington and
field offices can be facilitated.

The Branch Reports Section in the past has followed the practice
of having a clerk transfer corrections from the marked-up original
of an approved report to a carbon copy, which was retained as the
file copy.  It is now planned to make a copy of the marked-up
original by using a heat-transfer copying machine.  This procedure
will save much time and eliminate the errors inherent in hand

Impressions made by most black and by some colored typewriter
ribbons reproduce well by the heat-transfer method.  Cloth ribbons
should be renewed sufficiently often, however, to assure good
reproduction quality.  All black carbon-paper typewriter ribbons
have satisfactory reproduction qualities.

Most black lead reproduces well by the heat-transfer process; many
colored leads, however, do not reproduce well.  The use of leads
harder than about 3-H should be avoided by reviewers because
writing done by the harder leads is more difficult to read.  Some
shades of silver and gray reproduce well but are not recommended
for use on manuscripts because writing done in those shades also
is difficult to read.

The use of different colored lead pencils by different manuscript
reviewers has been encouraged for identification purposes.  As the
elimination of hand copying to prepare open-file copies of
manuscripts saves much time and avoids accompanying inherent
errors, the use of colored pencils is now discouraged unless it is
certain that the colored lead will reproduce satisfactorily.  All
reproduced copy is in black or a shade of gray.  Therefore, to
provide the desired identification, whether black or colored lead
or ink is used, now request that each reviewer's markings be
initialed or be identified by an appropriate symbol, such as a
small circle; a division sign; a plus sign; a small x; a small
triangle; or any of an endless variety of identification symbols
that do not duplicate standard editorial markings.  Care must be
exercised also to write firmly and legibly.  Reviewers are
requested also to sign and initial (or show their identification
symbol) the manuscript title page as well as the manuscript
routing sheet; each serves a different purpose.

Pencil and ink manufacturers are becoming increasingly aware of
the demand for leads and inks that can be reproduced
satisfactorily by the heat-transfer method, and many are rapidly
redesigning products to meet that demand.  When ordering future
supplies for normal use, the procurement of pencils, inks, and
similar items that will reproduce well on heat-transfer copying
machines should be considered, as the machines are most convenient
for copy work for many purposes.  Such supplies ordered from the
General Services Administration should specify that their imprint
will reproduce satisfactorily by the heat-transfer method.  To be
sure that the typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, pencils, and inks
you use on manuscripts will make good reproducible copy,
especially if colors are used, we suggest you seek the advice of
your local distributor of a heat-transfer, nonfluid reproduction
machine (such as THERMO-FAX).  Data concerning the reproduction
rating of many brands of pencils, inks, typewriter ribbons, and
similar items are contained in a booklet entitled "A new Concept
in Communication," prepared by the Duplicating Products Division,
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing , 900 Bush Avenue, St.  Paul 6,
Minn.  The items mentioned in the lowing paragraphs have been
abstracted, in part, from that booklet.  To avoid in the copy too
great a contrast between the typed material and written notes, the
reproduction rating of the ink or lead used (see the following
tabulations) should be 5 or greater.  The higher the rating, the
better the reproduction quality.

Unfortunately, many red leads are unsatisfactory for our purposes;
some colored lead pencils that have satisfactory reproduction
ratings are as follows:

                                              Trade name
Color     Rating        Supplier            and description

Blue         5   American Lead Pencil Co.  Venus No.  1532 (and
                                            "Unique" No. 1206*)
Light blue   *            do.              Venus No. 1216
Brown        6            do.              Venus "Unique" No 1212
Dark brown   8            do.              Paradise Chestnut
                                            Brown No. 114
Green        6            do.              Venus No. 1532 (and
                                            "Unique" No. 1208*)
Light green  *            do.              Venus "Unique" No. 1218
Navy blue    5            do.              Paradise No. 114
Tuscan red   5  Joseph Dixon Crucible Co.  Thinex No. 426
Dark brown   7  Eagle Pencil Co.           Verithin No. 756
Sienna brown 6            do.              Verithin No. 746
Tuscan red   *            do.              Verithin No. 746 1/2
Gold         5            do.              Verithin No. 754
Bottle green 7  Eberhard Eaber Co.         Colorama No. 8088
Sepia        7            do.              Colorama No. 8093
Red          5  J. S. Staedtler, Inc.      Mars Resisto No. 70
               (25 Dicarolis Court,
               Hackensack, N. J.)

Blue         5            do.              Mars Resisto No. 71
Purple       5            do.              Mars Resisto No 74

* Not rated but, by trial, proves satisfactory.

          Practically all the black liquid graphite pens or
pencils reproduce satisfactorily.

     Some satisfactory fountain-pen inks are as follows:

                                              Trade name
Color     Rating        Supplier            and description

Black        9     Carter Ink Company      Black India Drawing
                                            Ink No. 356
Black        9     John Henschel Co., Inc. Pelikan Fount India Ink
                   (105 E. 29th St.,       (may be used in
                   N. Y. 16)                fountain pens)
Black        8     Higgins Ink Co.         Higgins Eternal Black
Black        7           do.               Higgins Ink diluted
                                            half and half with
                                            distilled water
Blue green   6 1/2 Phillips Process Co.    Actinic
                   (192 Mill St.,
                   Rochester 14, N. Y.)
Black        *     W. A. Sheaffer Pen Co.  "Skrip." Permanent, Jet
                                            Black (made since
                                            March 1958; marked
                                             "Will reproduce")

* Rating not given, but made especially for the purpose.  Also
available for fountain pends using renewable ink cartridges.
Note:  Drawing inks should not be used in ordinary fountain pens,
but may be used in the Koh-I-Noor "Rapidograph No. 2" (Koh-I-Noor
Pencil Co., Inc., Bloomsburg, N.J.) or in the Universal Stylograph
(Universal Fountain Pen & Pencil Co., Borrklyn, N.Y.)

A recent folder, "Ball Point Pens for Use with THERMO-FAX Copying
Products," available from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co.,
lists many new ball-point pens that have satisfactory reproduction
ratings--in red, blue, and green, as well as black.  A few
satisfactory ball-point pens are as follows:

                                              Trade name
Color     Rating        Supplier            and description

Black, blue  6-5     Louis Melind Co.       Justrite
                     (Chicago 13, IIl.)
Red, purple  5-5 1/2 Phillips Process Co.   Clear Print Actinic
                     (Rochester 14, N. Y.)
Black        6       Sanford Ink Co.        Quick-Dry No, 584
                     (Bellwood, Ill,)
Blue         5               do.            No, 1086 Opaque
Black, blue, 6       Micropoint, Inc.       CF-20, Doluxe Refill,
 red, and green      (Sunnyvale Calif.)      Copy Ink
                                             (fits CF-50 pen)
Black, blue  5       Lewis Pen Co,          Modol No, 700, Foto-
 red, and green      (West Los Angeles 49,  Copy
                     Calif.)                Multilith (Refillable)
Black, blue, 5       Relianco Poncil Corp.  Quillotto No, 60DP
 red, and green      (Mt Vornon, N, Y,)     Photocopy (Disposable)
Black, blue, 5-6     Scripto Inc,           No, T-200C
 red, and green      (Atlanta 2, Ga,)        Reproducing Ink

 Some of the many satisfactory typewriter ribbons are as follows:

                                              Trade name
Color     Rating        Supplier            and description

Black       6       Ault ant Wlborg     Aultalith, Medium Inked
                    (Cincinnati, Ohio)
Black       6 1/2   Carter's Ink Co,    No, 10 Midnight Black
                                         Record, (Medium Inked)
Black       7       Columbia Ribbon     Pinnacle Medium
                     & Carbon, Co.
                     (Glen Cove, N. Y.)
Black       7 1/2   Frankel Carbon      "Kleen-Write" No, 101
                     & Ribbon, Co.       Medium
                     (Denver, Colo,)
Black       8       Standard Manifold   Stamco Spartan Chemoprint
                     Co. (Chicago, Ill.)
Black       8       Underwood Corp.

        A few of the satisfactory carbon papers are:

                                              Trade name
Color     Rating        Supplier            and description

Black      8     Allied Carbon          Rocket Brand, No 275 or
                  & Ribbon Mfg. Corp.    No. 475 (Typewriter)
                  (New York 13, N. Y.)
Black      8     Carter's Ink; Co.      (A11 listed)
Black  6 1/2-8  Columbia Ribbon        (All listed)
                  & Carbon, Co.
                  (Glen Cove N. Y .)
Black      8     Miller-Bryand-Pierce   Durite Std. (or Split) Wt.
                 Co. (Aurora, Ill.)     (Typewriter)
Black  7-7 1/2  Standard Register Co.  (All listed)
                  (Dayton, Ohio)

It is suggested that as a standard procedure all writing materials
stocked be those that will reproduce by the heat-transfer method
This procedure will mean that all correspondence, reports, and
written material can be reprodeuced by essentially all reproducing

                          (s) Philip  E  LaMoreaux